Douglas Scott Botting was an English explorer, biographer and TV presenter and producer. He wrote biographies of naturalists Gavin Gerald Durrell, he was the inspiration behind and writer of the 1972 BBC comedy show The Black Safari, a role-reversal comedy show with Africans touring England. He featured in much other BBC programming, including Under London Expedition exploring the London sewerage system, as part of the BBC2 nature series The World About Us, he wrote numerous Second World War and early aviation books for Time Life Books. Botting took part, in the first balloon flight over Africa. Botting was born in Kingston upon Surrey. Having witnessed the London Blitz first-hand, he went on to make documentaries and write historical records of the Second World War and aviation. Botting got an early flavour of travel when he served as an infantry subaltern for the King's African Rifles in Kenya, as part of his National Service, he went on to study English at St Edmund Hall, during which time he undertook a pioneering exploration of the little-known island of Socotra in the Indian Ocean.
His first book, Island of the Dragon's Blood, is an account of this trip. During Oxford and post-Oxford years, he volunteered and worked in a variety of positions, including as a paramilitary ambulance unit member during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, as a private tutor to the Crown Prince of Nepal, as a worker in a leper colony in Biafra, as a trainer for ex-head-hunter tribes undergoing re-training in the Venezuelan rain forest. However, he chose documentary filmmaking, investigative journalism as his career; as a BBC Special Correspondent to the former USSR, he reported news events such as the first cosmonauts' homecoming and Fidel Castro's state visit, was the first person from west of the Iron Curtain since the Russian Revolution of 1917 to travel voluntarily among the nomadic reindeer tribes of Arctic Siberia and the Gulag. Botting went on to make documentary films for organisations including National Geographic, the BBC, Time Life and Royal Geographical Society. Among his other occupations was that of writing: Botting wrote a series of Time Life Books on the Second World War, early aviation and maritime vessels.
His foray into investigative journalism included several other Second World War books, including the best-selling Nazi Gold: The Story of the World's Greatest Robbery - And Its Aftermath. His back-to-back biographies of Gavin Maxwell and Gerald Durrell earned him praise, he was the father of newsreader Anna Botting. His former wife is company director Louise Botting. Botting was an accomplished explorer in his own right, he undertook a systematic explorations of Socotra while at university, was part of the world's first balloon journey over Africa, the first British balloon journey across the High Alps, the first vessel to voyage by inland waterways from the Amazon to the Caribbean via the unexplored rain forests of the Casiquiare and Orinoco. Island of the Dragon's Blood. Eckener's Dream Machine: The Extraordinary Story of the Zeppelin; the Forgotten Island Festival in Kano The Surf Boats of Anomabu Beauty for Ashes Kenya Mountain Balloon Safari Maytime in Muscovy Siberia Greville Wynne Spy Trial Shadow in the Clouds The Italia Tragedy Balloon Over the Alps Three Men in a Balloon The Great Balloon Race The Under London Expedition The Black Safari (BB
The picathartes, rockfowl or bald crows are a small genus of two passerine bird species forming the family Picathartidae found in the rain-forests of tropical west and central Africa. They have unfeathered heads, feed on insects and invertebrates picked from damp rocky areas. Both species are non-migratory, being dependent on a specialised rocky jungle habitat. Both species are listed as vulnerable to extinction on the IUCN Red List; the taxonomic position of the clade and its two species has been confusing. At various times, it has been grouped with the babblers, starlings and others before being placed in a family of its own. Serle in 1952 thought it resembled the Asian genus Eupetes while Sibley used egg-albumin protein similarity, determined by electrophoresis, to suggest that it belonged to the Timaliidae. Olson revived the idea that it was related to Eupetes in 1979. A molecular sequence based study suggests that it may indeed be related to the crows and placed somewhere at the boundary between the Passerida and Corvida.
More they appear to be a sister of the rockjumpers and are basal to the clade containing the Sylvioidea and Muscicapoidea but outside the core Corvoidea. This generic name comes from a combination of the Latin genera pica for "magpie" and cathartes for "vulture". White-necked rockfowl Grey-necked rockfowl A possible third species may exist in Uganda, in the vicinity of the Kazinga Channel, linking Lake Edward with Lake George; the picathartes are large passerines with crow-like black bills, long neck and legs. They weigh between 200–250 grams; the strong feet and grey legs are adapted to terrestrial movement, the family progresses through the forest with long bounds on the ground. The wings are long but are used for long flights; the plumage is similar between the two species, with white breasts and bellies and darker wings and tails. The neck color varies between the two species, they have bald heads with brightly coloured and patterned skin. Rockfowl are generalised feeders. Prey items include a range of insects beetles and ants, as well as millipedes, centipedes and gastropods.
Frogs and lizards are taken, but these are fed to their chicks. Prey is taken both in the trees, they will forage in shallow flowing water for crabs. When foraging on the ground, they move forward with hops and bounds pausing to search for prey; the longish bill is used to turn over leaves and seize prey. Both species will follow swarms of ants. Both species of rockfowl breed seasonally in the wet season. Where an area experiences two wet seasons in a year, they will breed twice in that year. Despite reports of cooperative breeding, it is now thought that they are monogamous, breeding in pairs, they are commonly reported to be colonial, will breed in colonies of up to seven pairs, but solitary breeders and smaller colonies of just two pairs are more common. The nest is made of mud overhanging rock on a cliff; the nest is a cup-like structure of dried leaves and plant fibres set into dried mud. Two eggs are laid, 24 to 48 hours apart. Both parents participate in incubating the eggs, each taking 12-hour shifts before being relieved by their partner.
It takes around 20 days for the eggs to hatch. Picathartes hatchlings are altricial at hatching naked and helpless; the chicks take around 25 days to fledge. The rockfowl are distributed in west and western Central Africa, in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, the Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic; the rockfowl live in lowland rainforest at up to 800 m, in rocky and hilly terrain on the slopes of hills and mountains. These birds require forest litter for foraging, a large enough area to contain army-ant swarms, rocks, cliffs or caves for nesting sites. Images and movies of the bare-headed rockfowl - ARKive Images and movies of the grey-necked rockfowl - ARKive
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are professionals who invent, analyze and test machines, systems and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin words ingenium; the foundational qualifications of an engineer include a four-year bachelor's degree in an engineering discipline, or in some jurisdictions, a master's degree in an engineering discipline plus four to six years of peer-reviewed professional practice and passage of engineering board examinations. The work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human and business needs and quality of life. In 1961, the Conference of Engineering Societies of Western Europe and the United States of America defined "professional engineer" as follows: A professional engineer is competent by virtue of his/her fundamental education and training to apply the scientific method and outlook to the analysis and solution of engineering problems.
He/she is able to assume personal responsibility for the development and application of engineering science and knowledge, notably in research, construction, superintending, managing and in the education of the engineer. His/her work is predominantly intellectual and varied and not of a routine mental or physical character, it requires the exercise of original thought and judgement and the ability to supervise the technical and administrative work of others. His/her education will have been such as to make him/her capable of and continuously following progress in his/her branch of engineering science by consulting newly published works on a worldwide basis, assimilating such information and applying it independently. He/she is thus placed in a position to make contributions to the development of engineering science or its applications. His/her education and training will have been such that he/she will have acquired a broad and general appreciation of the engineering sciences as well as thorough insight into the special features of his/her own branch.
In due time he/she will be able to give authoritative technical advice and to assume responsibility for the direction of important tasks in his/her branch. Engineers develop new technological solutions. During the engineering design process, the responsibilities of the engineer may include defining problems and narrowing research, analyzing criteria and analyzing solutions, making decisions. Much of an engineer's time is spent on researching, locating and transferring information. Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various information behaviours, including 14% searching for information. Engineers must weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements and needs, their crucial and unique task is to identify and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. Engineers apply techniques of engineering analysis in production, or maintenance. Analytical engineers may supervise production in factories and elsewhere, determine the causes of a process failure, test output to maintain quality.
They estimate the time and cost required to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for entire projects. Engineering analysis involves the application of scientific analytic principles and processes to reveal the properties and state of the system, device or mechanism under study. Engineering analysis proceeds by separating the engineering design into the mechanisms of operation or failure, analyzing or estimating each component of the operation or failure mechanism in isolation, recombining the components, they may analyze risk. Many engineers use computers to produce and analyze designs, to simulate and test how a machine, structure, or system operates, to generate specifications for parts, to monitor the quality of products, to control the efficiency of processes. Most engineers specialize in one or more engineering disciplines. Numerous specialties are recognized by professional societies, each of the major branches of engineering has numerous subdivisions. Civil engineering, for example, includes structural and transportation engineering and materials engineering include ceramic and polymer engineering.
Mechanical engineering cuts across just about every discipline since its core essence is applied physics. Engineers may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one type of technology, such as turbines or semiconductor materials. Several recent studies have investigated. Research suggests that there are several key themes present in engineers' work: technical work, social work, computer-based work and information behaviours. Among other more detailed findings, a recent work sampling study found that engineers spend 62.92% of their time engaged in technical work, 40.37% in social work, 49.66% in computer-based work. Furthermore, there was considerable overlap between these different types of work, with engineers spending 24.96% of their time engaged in technical and social work, 37.97% in technical and non-social, 15.42% in non-technical and social, 21.66% in non-technical and non-social. Engineering is an information-intensive field, with research finding that engineers spend 55
Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
Dulwich is an area of south London, England. The settlement is in the London Borough of Southwark, with parts in the London Borough of Lambeth and consists of Dulwich Village, East Dulwich, West Dulwich and the Southwark half of Herne Hill. Dulwich lies in a valley between the neighbouring districts of Camberwell, Crystal Palace, Denmark Hill, Forest Hill, Sydenham Hill and Tulse Hill and was in Surrey until 1889, when the County of London was created. Dulwich was part of the ancient parish of Camberwell, which became the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell, included Camberwell, Peckham and other London districts; the first documented evidence of Dulwich is as a hamlet outside London in 967 AD, granted by King Edgar to one of his thanes Earl Aelfheah. The name of Dulwich has been spelt in various ways, Dylways and may come from two old English words, Dill, a white flower, wihs, meaning a damp meadow, giving a meaning of "the meadow where dill grows". Harold Godwinson owned the land at one point, after 1066, King William I of England.
In 1333, the population of Dulwich was recorded as 100. In 1538, Henry VIII seized control of Dulwich and sold it to goldsmith Thomas Calton for £609. Calton's grandson Sir Francis Calton sold the Manor of Dulwich for £4,900 in 1605 to Elizabethan actor and entrepreneur Edward Alleyn, he vested his wealth in a charitable foundation, Alleyn's College of God's Gift, established in 1619. The charity's modern successor, The Dulwich Estate, still owns 1,500 acres in the area, including a number of private roads and a tollgate. Alleyn constructed a school, a chapel and alms houses in Dulwich. Dulwich Almshouse Charity and Christ's Chapel of God's Gift at Dulwich still fulfill their original functions. Alleyn's original school building is no longer used for that purpose, instead now housing the Estate's Governors; the school moved around 1840 to accommodate larger numbers of pupils into new buildings designed by Charles Barry, son of Sir Charles Barry who designed Westminster Palace. It was subsequently divided into Dulwich College and Alleyn's School in 1882, the latter moving to the present day site in Townley Road.
In the 17th century, King Charles I of England visited Dulwich Woods on a regular basis to hunt. In 1738, a man named. On 5 August 1677 John Evelyn writes; the Dulwich waters were cried about the streets of London as far back as 1678. In 1739, Mr. Cox, master of the Green Man, a tavern situated about a mile south of the village of Dulwich, sunk a well for his family; the water was found to be possessed of purgative qualities, was for some time used medicinally. While the water was popular much custom was drawn to the adjoining tavern, its proprietor flourished; the oak-lined formal avenue, known as Cox's Walk, leading from the junction of Dulwich Common and Lordship Lane was cut soon after 1732 by Francis Cox to connect his establishment of the Green Man Tavern and Dulwich Wells with the more popular Sydenham Wells. By 1815 the Green Man had become a school known as Dr. Glennie's academy in Dulwich Grove, although it was demolished about ten years later. Among the pupils here there were a few who became well known, Lord Byron, General Le Marchant and Captain Barclay.
Dr Glennie held Saturday evening concerts which attracted visitors from outside the family circle, such as the poet Thomas Campbell living in nearby Sydenham, Robert Barker, inventor of the panorama. Following the closure of the school, the building reverted to its original use and was known as the Grove Tavern; the building has now been neglected for many years by owners the Dulwich Estate. In 1803, Samuel Matthews – known as the "Dulwich Hermit" – was murdered in Dulwich Woods. By 1901, the population was recorded as 10,247. In the Second World War, Dulwich was hit by many V-1 flying bombs and V-2 rockets. A possible explanation for this is that the British military when announcing V-1 and V-2 explosions deliberately gave map co-ordinates four miles north of the truth in an attempt to protect densely populated central London and focus the drops on the open spaces in the suburbs instead. There are a number of recognised districts in Dulwich: Dulwich Village which includes the traditional village centre West Dulwich, a residential area bordering West Norwood and Tulse Hill.
Herne Hill which forms the North Dulwich Triangle, borders Brixton, Denmark Hill, Loughborough Junction and Tulse Hill. East Dulwich a residential area, bordering Peckham Dulwich Village contains the original shopping street and still contains nearly all of its original 18th and 19th century buildings, it remains uncommercialised and is a conservation zone. The village borders on Dulwich Park, where the Dulwich Motor Show is held every year. Dulwich is home to Dulwich Hamlet, founded in 1893 and competing in the Ryman Isthmian League today, they ground share with another Non-League football club Fisher F. C. at Champion Hill in East Dulwich. In recent years Sainsbury's acquired the site, built DHFC a new ground, developed one of the largest Sainsbury's in the country; the Old Alleynian Football Club is a local rugby union team for former pupils of Dulwich College, but is now open to all who wish to play. Dulwich Paragon cycling club are based in the area. Alleyn Old Boys Club - former pupils of Alleyn's School - is located on Burbage Road.
Dulwich has two running clubs, namely Dulwich Park Dulwich Runners. Dulwich Park was opened in 18
The pygmy hog is a critically endangered suid spread across Bhutan and Nepal, but now only found in India. The current world population is fewer. Recent conservation measures have improved the prospects of survival in the wild of this critically endangered species, they stand at 20 -- 30 cm, with a tail of 2.5 cm. They weigh 6.6–11.8 kg. Their skin is dark brownish-black and the hair is dark. Piglets are born becoming brown with yellow stripes along the body length, their heads are tapered and they have a slight crest of hair on their foreheads and on the back of their necks. Adult males have the upper canines visible on the sides of their mouths, they live for about eight years. They breed seasonally before the monsoons giving birth to a litter of three to six after a gestation of 100 days. In the wild, they make small nests by lining it with vegetation. During the heat of the day, they stay within these nests, they feed on roots, insects and small reptiles. The species was first described as the only member of the genus Porcula, by Brian Houghton Hodgson but was moved with other pig species in the genus Sus and named Sus salvanius.
A 2007 genetic analysis of the variation in a large section of mitochondrial DNA suggested that the original classification of the pygmy hog as a distinct genus was justified. The resurrection of the original genus status and the species name Porcula salvania has been adopted by GenBank; the species name salvania is after the sal forests. The pygmy hog is the sole representative of Porcula, making the conservation of this critically endangered species more important, as its extinction would result in the loss of a unique evolutionary branch of pigs, they used to be widespread in the tall, wet grasslands in the southern Himalayan foothills from Uttar Pradesh to Assam, through Nepal and north Bengal. However, human encroachment has destroyed the natural habitat of the pygmy hog by development, domestic grazing, deliberate fires. Only one viable population remains in the Manas National Park, but there, threats due to livestock grazing, poaching and tigers persist; the total wild population has been estimated as less than 150 animals and the species is listed as "critically endangered".
Their rarity contrasts with the massive population of wild boars in India. Conservation of the species has been hampered by the lack of public support, unlike that for charismatic South Asian mammals such as the Bengal tiger or Indian rhinoceros. Local political unrest in the area has severely hampered effective conservation efforts, but these conflicts have now ceased.. The pygmy hog is designated as a Schedule I species in India under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and offences against them invite heavy penalties. Pygmy hogs were exhibited in the zoos of Berlin in the 19th century. However, this captivity was not aimed at conservation, none of the captive populations survived. Zürich Zoo exhibited pygmy hogs from 1976 to 1978; the success of captive breeding increased after the Pygmy Hog Conservation Programme was established in 1995. The PHCP was established under the umbrella of a formal'International Conservation Management and Research Agreement' by the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, the IUCN's Pigs and Hippo Specialist Group, the Forest Department, Government of Assam, the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust has launched a comprehensive conservation strategy including field status surveys of pygmy hogs and their habitats, behavioural studies, personnel training, local community awareness and assistance programmes, the establishment of a successful captive-breeding programme at the Pygmy Hog Research and Breeding Centre in Assam. Active habitat management has been established and a reintroduction programme has now been launched.. Bibhuti Lahkar Conservation Biologist Pygmy hog-sucking louse Palawan bearded pig Bornean bearded pig Pygmy Hog Conservation Programme Entry on "Pygmy Hog - Sus salvanius".
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River 75 kilometres west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port; the city is regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, is nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi. In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, the East India Company retook it the following year.
In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat, assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. Following Indian independence in 1947, once the centre of modern Indian education, science and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation; as a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, film and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods and freestyle intellectual exchanges.
West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports; the word Kolkata derives from the Bengali term Kôlikata, the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city was to be established. There are several explanations about the etymology of this name: The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning "Field of Kali".
It can be a variation of'Kalikshetra'. Another theory is. Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila, or "flat area"; the name may have its origin in the words khal meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa, which may mean "dug". According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun and coir or kata. Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata or Kôlikata in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation; the discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was credited as the founder of the city.
The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village, they were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. In 1712, the British completed the cons