Coat of arms of the Washington family
The coat of arms of the Washington family was first used to identify the family in the 12th century, when the Washington family took possession of Washington Old Hall in County Durham, England. This coat of arms is the one, used by George Washington, President of the United States of America from 1789 to 1797; the design is said to have inspired the Stars and Stripes flag, has been used since 1938 as the coat of arms and flag of the District of Columbia. It is found on the Purple Heart; the notion that it inspired the design of the American flag dates to the celebratory and patriotic climate of the year 1877, which saw the publication of Washington: A Drama in Five Acts, a drama in verse by the popular English poet Martin Farquhar Tupper. In it, Benjamin Franklin proclaims that the design of the Stars and Stripes was based on the coat of arms of George Washington. "We, not he—it was unknown to him," Franklin says, "took up his coat of arms, multiplied and magnified it every way to this, our glorious national banner."
The play was performed, its message resonated with the American public. The story was repeated many times, including in the popular children's magazine St. Nicholas. Undeniably the coat of arms does consist of two elements, the stars and the stripes, a red and white coloration, but it lacks any blue coloration; the simple blazon is: Argent two bars Gules, in chief three mullets of the second. Some authorities in the twelfth century displayed. An identical coat of arms was used by the Le Moyne family, who were described as landowners at Grafham in Huntingdonshire in the reign of Henry II, their arms was: "Argent, two bars Sable, in chief three mullets of the second", with only the colour of the mullets and bars being different. The oldest surviving occurrence may be a stained glass window in the Old Library of Trinity College, Oxford; the window is believed to have been moved from what was the chapel of Oxford. Durham College was created for the training of Benedictine monks from Durham Abbey. Durham College was disestablished by Henry VIII.
Sir Thomas Pope used it for the creation of Trinity College. An image of the window appears here; the Washington Window in Selby Abbey, in the British market town of Selby, contains a variant of the Washington coat of arms in the original 14th-century stained glass. It is thought to be a benefaction to the abbey to commemorate John Wessington, Prior of Durham; the arms are distinguished from the usual Washington arms by having pierced mullets. The Washington coat of arms can be seen at the parish church in Garsdon, near Malmesbury, where a branch of the family moved in Tudor times. A Washington memorial accompanies it. George Washington's coat of arms is engraved in stone in the porch of an ancient church in the tiny Dorset hamlet of Steeple, a church that incidentally lacks a steeple; the Washington coat of arms is painted in scarlet on the roof interior, quartered with those of the squires of Steeple village, the Lawrence family, who are allied with the Washingtons by the marriage of one of its sons, Edmund Lawrence to Agnes de Wessington in 1390.
The Washington coat of arms is engraved in stone inside a side room in the church in the small Lancashire village of Warton, near a pub named the George Washington. The flag of the US capital hangs proudly inside the church, presented on 25 July 1977 by Walter E. Washington, mayor of Washington, D. C. from 2 January 1975 - 2 January 1979 The Washington coat of arms can be seen on a memorial to John Wessington in the cloisters of Durham Cathedral, where he was Prior. The Washington coat of arms is engraved in stone in the parish church of Thrapston in Northamptonshire. George Washington's ancestor, Sir John Washington, was mayor of the town in the seventeenth century; the Washington coat of arms can be seen with many coat of arms in a stained glass window in St Laurence Church in Chorley, the same place where it is said to be the birthplace of Myles Standish. The Washington coat of arms can be seen in stone in the parish church of St John in Wickhamford, Worcestershire, on the grave of Penelope Washington, whose father, Colonel Henry Washington, was the first cousin of George Washington's grandfather Lawrence.
The arms is lozenge-shaped. The Washington coat of arms can be seen in stone on the outside of Hylton Castle, Sunderland, an 11th-century fortified manor house; the Washington coat of arms appears in a memorial to Lawrence Washington, great-uncle of Lawrence Washington, great-great grandfather of George Washington, in All Saints Church, Maidstone. The Washington coat of arms can be seen in a memorial window in All Saint's Church in Maldon, where Lawrence Washington is buried; the Washington coat of arms is engraved in stone on the tomb of the first Lawrence Washington in the chancel of Great Brington's parish church of St Mary. The Washington coat of arms is placed prominently above the entrance door at Sulgrave Manor in Northamptonshire, the home built in 1560 by Lawrence Washington George Washington's direct ancestor; the family coat of arms can seen in stained glass panels in the Great Hall which show marriage arms of several families that married into the Washington family. These are copies of the original stained glass windows, which were moved into the Church of St Mary the Virgin, Fawsley.
The Washington coat of arms, quartered with that of Kitson, whose family married into that of Washington, can be seen in a stained glass window in Heng
Gloucester County, Virginia
Gloucester County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 36,858, its county seat is Gloucester Courthouse. The county was founded in 1651 in the Virginia Colony and is named for Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester. Gloucester County is included in the Virginia Beach–Norfolk–Newport News, VA–NC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Located at the east end of the lower part of the Middle Peninsula, it is bordered on the south by the York River and the lower Chesapeake Bay on the east; the waterways shaped its development. Gloucester County is about 75 miles east of Richmond. Werowocomoco, capital of the large and powerful Powhatan Confederacy, was located on this part of the peninsula. In 2003 archeologists established that dense village had been located at this site from AD 1200 to the early 17th century; the county was developed by colonists for tobacco plantations, based on the labor of enslaved Africans imported in the slave trade. Tobacco was one of the first commodity crops but fishing developed as an important industry.
The county was home to numerous planters who were among the First Families of Virginia and leaders before the American Revolutionary War. Thomas Jefferson wrote early works for Virginia and colonial independence while staying at Rosewell Plantation, home of John Page. Gloucester County is rich in farmland, its fishing industry is important to the state as well. It has a retail center located around the main street area of the county seat. Gloucester County and adjacent York County are linked by the George P. Coleman Memorial Bridge, a toll facility across the York River carrying U. S. Route 17 to the Virginia Peninsula area. Gloucester County is self-nicknamed the "Daffodil Capital of the World"; this area was inhabited for thousands of years by successive cultures of hunter-gatherer Indian peoples. An important village site known as Werowocomoco was occupied by c. AD 1200 by the Algonquian-speaking peoples of the numerous emerging tribes in the area. Before the late 16th century, the Powhatan Confederacy had been formed.
It was made up of an estimated 30 tribes in the coastal region, who spoke distinct but related languages, was led by a paramount chief, known as the Powhatan. The Powhatan Confederacy was estimated to total 12,000 to 15,000 people across the coastal region of present-day Virginia. Werowocomoco was the stronghold and capital of this confederacy, located on the north side of the York River in what is now Gloucester; this complex, stratified society had developed in part due to the cultivation and processing by women of varieties of maize and squash. With these crops, the women produced a surplus that, together with the game and fish collected by the men, supported a dense population in a number of settlements; the people gathered nuts and other foods of the region. Around 1570, Spanish Jesuits attempted to establish what was known as the Ajacan Mission on the south shore of the York River across from Gloucester, they were killed by natives led by a Christian convert named Don Luis, affiliated with a village known as Chiskiack When English settlers founded Jamestown in 1607 on the James River to the north, they soon came into conflict with local Indians.
The newcomers competed for land and other resources in the Powhatan territory, the two cultures did not understand each other's concepts of property in land use. In late 1607, John Smith was captured and taken to Chief Powhatan at Werowocomoco, his eastern capital. According to legend, Powhatan's daughter Pocahontas saved John Smith from being executed by the natives. Smith was accompanied by other Englishmen when he returned in a visit to the Powhatan at Werowocomoco. After the Powhatan moved his capital to a safer, inland location and abandoned the village around 1609, knowledge of this site was lost. Researchers tried to identify it by Smith's historic writings; the current site of West Point seemed to offer a clue to its location. Based upon his description, at one time scholars thought the former capital was located near Wicomico, about 25 miles southeast of present-day West Point. Smith noted that Jamestown was 12 miles from Werowocomoco "as the crow flies." Using that measure, the site near Wicomico is about 12 miles from Jamestown.
In 1977, archeologist Daniel Mouer of Virginia Commonwealth University identified a site on Purtan Bay as the possible location of Werowocomoco. He was able to collect artifacts from the surface of plowed fields and along the beach, but the landowner did not want any excavation. Mouer found fragments of Indian ceramics dating to the Late Woodland Period, determined that the area was the possible site of Werowocomoco. More than 20 years a different landowner authorized archaeological excavation on the property. Between March 2002 and April 2003, the Werowocomoco Research Group conducted excavations and analysis at the Werowocomoco site; the research group is a collaborative effort of the College of William and Mary, the Virginia Department of Historic Resources, Virginia tribes descended from the Powhatan Confed
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Essex is a county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, London to the south-west; the county town is the only city in the county. For government statistical purposes Essex is placed in the East of England region. Essex occupies the eastern part of the ancient Kingdom of Essex, which united with the other Anglian and Saxon kingdoms to make England a single nation state; as well as rural areas, the county includes London Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury and the borough of Southend-on-Sea. The name Essex originates in the Anglo-Saxon period of the Early Middle Ages and has its root in the Anglo-Saxon name Ēastseaxe, the eastern kingdom of the Saxons who had come from the continent and settled in Britain during the Heptarchy. Recorded in AD 527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what became Middlesex and most of what became Hertfordshire.
Its territory was restricted to lands east of the River Lea. Colchester in the north-east of the county is Britain's oldest recorded town, dating from before the Roman conquest, when it was known as Camulodunum and was sufficiently well-developed to have its own mint. In AD 824, following the Battle of Ellandun, the kingdoms of the East Saxons, the South Saxons and the Jutes of Kent were absorbed into the kingdom of the West Saxons, uniting Saxland under King Alfred's grandfather Ecgberht. Before the Norman conquest the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England. After the Norman conquest, Essex became a county. During the medieval period, much of the area was designated a Royal forest, including the entire county in a period to 1204, when the area "north of the Stanestreet" was disafforested; the areas subject to forest law diminished, but at various times they included the forests of Becontree, Epping, Hatfield and Waltham. Essex County Council was formed in 1889. However, County Boroughs of West Ham, Southend-on-Sea and East Ham formed part of the county but were unitary authorities.
12 boroughs and districts provide more localised services such as rubbish and recycling collections and planning, as shown in the map on the right. A few Essex parishes have been transferred to other counties. Before 1889, small areas were transferred to Hertfordshire near Bishops Stortford and Sawbridgeworth. At the time of the main changes around 1900, parts of Helions Bumpstead, Sturmer and Ballingdon-with-Brundon were transferred to Suffolk. Part of Hadstock, part of Ashton and part of Chrishall were transferred to Cambridgeshire and part of Great Horkesley went to Suffolk; the boundary with Greater London was established in 1965, when East Ham and West Ham county boroughs and the Barking, Dagenham, Ilford, Romford and Wanstead and Woodford districts were transferred to form the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Newham and Waltham Forest. Essex became part of the East of England Government Office Region in 1994 and was statistically counted as part of that region from 1999, having been part of the South East England region.
In 1998, the boroughs of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock were granted autonomy from the administrative county of Essex after successful requests to become unitary authorities. Essex Police covers the two unitary authorities; the county council chamber and main headquarters is at the County Hall in Chelmsford. Before 1938, the council met in London near Moorgate, which with significant parts of the county close to that point and the dominance of railway travel had been more convenient than any place in the county, it has 75 elected councillors. Before 1965, the number of councillors reached over 100; the County Hall, made a listed building in 2007, dates from the mid-1930s and is decorated with fine artworks of that period the gift of the family who owned the textile firm Courtaulds. The highest point of the county of Essex is Chrishall Common near the village of Langley, close to the Hertfordshire border, which reaches 482 feet; the ceremonial county of Essex is bounded to the south by its estuary.
The pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. The Metropolitan Green Belt has prevented the further sprawl of London into the county, although it contains the new towns of Basildon and Harlow developed to resettle Londoners after the destruction of London housing in the Second World War, since which they have been developed and expanded. Epping Forest prevents the further spread of the Greater London Urban Area; as it is not far from London with its economic magnetism, many of Essex's settlements those near or within short driving distance of railway stations, function as dormitory towns or villages where London workers raise their families. Part of the s
Washington Bottom Farm
Ridgedale is a 19th-century Greek Revival plantation house and farm on a plateau overlooking the South Branch Potomac River north of Romney, West Virginia, United States. The populated area adjacent to Washington Bottom Farm is known as Ridgedale; the farm is connected to West Virginia Route 28 via Washington Bottom Road. Ridgedale, constructed in 1835, was the residence of gentleman farmer George William Washington, a descendant of George Washington's great-great-grandfather Reverend Lawrence Washington; the farm is the private residence of Carol and Mike Shaw. The main residence at Ridgedale farm is a high-style Greek Revival structure; the three-story brick house stands on a brick foundation an has an L-shaped plan. The house has a hip roof with a widow's walk; the cupola has a window on each side with a 4 over 4 double-hung sash, brackets under the roof edge. On the roof are five chimneys, one at each corner and one in the back ell with a flared edge of corbels at the top, a recessed panel in the center face.
The front, or south elevation, has a center hipped wooden porch with steps. The porch has a spindled handrail, wooden posts and deck, small brackets under the eave; the main entrance is centered with a single transom and has a Greek Revival feature of a wide trim piece over the doorway. The house has five bays on each floor; the windows on the house are all double-hung sash except for the third floor which has small lozenge windows of three vertical lights in the frieze section. With pine sills and brick lintelsthe first floor windows are 6/9 sash and reach to the floor in the front two rooms; the second floor windows are 6/6 sash. The residence's west elevation is divided into two sections with the front portion of the house and the rear ell; each section has three bays on each floor with 6/6 sash windows on the first and second floor and lozenge windows on third floor of the front section. The rear ell is set back from the facade and has a kitchen porch on the first floor with wooden posts. A lower level door leads into a basement room, the first floor door leads into the kitchen.
The basement windows are 3/3 sash windows The north side of the ell is a blank brick wall with a single lower level entrance that has a brick stairwell and original beaded door. The north side of the main house has two 6/6 sash windows; the east façade of the house has the front portion to the left with a small center porch which matches the details on the front porch with wooden posts and a spindled handrail. There are small brackets under the eave and lattice covers the area under the porch; the porch is accessed from the two 6/9 sash windows from the front and back room, which reach to the floor. Above these openings are two 6/9 sash windows on the second floor and lozenge windows at the third floor; the right side of the house is recessed back for the rear ell. The porches were enclosed in the 1940s with glass windows, were updated in 2010 with 4/4 casement windows and transoms and brick stairs; the wooden floor remains in its original condition. The interior of the residence has good integrity with original wooden floors, wooden trim, a wide center hall with curved stairs, 12'ceilings, six panel doors, some of which have graining.
The trim on the second floor with 11' ceilings is simpler with narrow closets in the bedrooms having been added after 1939. The doorways on this floor have transoms opening into the hallway. 2 bathrooms were added at the front end of the hall with pocket transoms. The 3rd floor has 9' ceilings which the low lozenge windows and face nailed pine floor. A narrow dog-leg stairway leads to the cupola and a door opens out to the widow's walk. A dog-leg stairway connects to the second floor of the rear porch; the land on which Ridgedale Farm is located can be traced back to Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, as can many of the large tracts in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia. It was surveyed around 1749 by George Washington; the farm was first settled in 1725 by Peter Peters. On the parcel was located Fort Williams, established as a settler's fort in 1756 by Richard Williams. Williams and his family were living on the plantation of his father-in-law Peter Peters on the South Branch Potomac River in 1755 at the time of a Native American attack.
Williams built his fort, Fort Williams, after he arrived home from Native American captivity, in the spring of 1756. From documentation, it appears to have been a settlers fort, although militia were stationed there at times during the course of the French and Indian War. In the spring of 1758, troops were temporarily stationed at the fort under the order of Captain Thomas Wagoner, of the Virginia Regiment, authorized by General George Washington to man any settler forts which were in need of support. No archaeological evidence has been discovered for the fort, documented by deeds. George W. Washington was the son of Edward Washington, a descendant of George Washington's great-great-grandfather Reverend Lawrence Washington, was born near Pohick Church in Fairfax County, Virginia, he was well-educated and respected. He married Sarah A. Wright on February 19, 1830, she was the daughter of John Wright and his wife Rebecca Lockhart of Loudoun County and the granddaughter of Major Robert Lockhart, a native of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania where he served on the Committee of Public Safety in the American Revolution and was a major in the county militia.
Sarah Wright was born at "Wheatland" near Leesburg on April 22, 1811. She was educated at the Moravian Academy in Bethlehem, Penns
Happy Retreat is a historic property in Charles Town, West Virginia, owned and developed by Charles Washington, the youngest brother of George Washington and the founder of Charles Town. Happy Retreat is a 2-1/2 story white-painted brick structure, with two-story flanking wings; the main facade has a prominent Doric pediment with no colonnade. An elliptical fanlight is centered in the pediment. Below, the main facade is three bays wide, with a one-story flat-roofed porch supported by Doric columns; the wings are attached by short hyphens, have stepped masonry gables. The wings predate the central block; the main block features a transverse entry hall across the width of the block. Apart from the massing, the exterior has been extensively altered using revival-syle details and elements. Charles inherited land in the Shenandoah Valley upon the death of his older brother Lawrence in 1752. Charles was 14 years of age at the time, living at Ferry Farm, near Fredericksburg, Virginia. In 1780, Charles and his wife Mildred moved to his land from Fredericksburg.
By that time, he had constructed two one-story structures on the property, separated by a breezeway or portico, had named the property "Happy Retreat." In October 1786, by act of the Virginia General Assembly, Charles Town was established on 80 acres of Charles's land adjacent to Happy Retreat, Charles played an important role in planning the streets and construction activities of the new town. Although Happy Retreat is considered to have been established in 1780, there is reason to believe that Charles's land may have been farmed as early as 1768; this date appears on the cornerstone of the old kitchen at Happy Retreat, but has never been authenticated. The structure of, materials used in, the kitchen and old brick smoke-house would indicate them to be pre-Revolutionary, a clay-chinked limestone quarters which stood until recent years behind the kitchen and smoke-house predated the kitchen. An octagonal wooden powder-house similar to the one at Mount Vernon exists today and is supposed to have held powder stores during the Revolution.
It was used as a school house for Charles and Mildred's children. On his visits from his home in Fredericksburg to his property prior to 1780, Charles Washington is said to have lived in a small house, since disintegrated, on Evitts Run, a small stream that flows along the base of the hill at Happy Retreat. From this temporary dwelling he could well have directed the work of brick-making for the residence he had planned, as there are claybeds along the Run. Stone and timber cutting could have been supervised nearby, as the surrounding meadows are laced with limestone outcroppings, the property included ample woodland. General George Washington visited his brother at Happy Retreat several times. On June 1, 1788, while he was interested in the building of a canal up the Potomac River, he inspected the work at Great Falls and Seneca Falls, dined at Leesburg, proceeded the following day to what is now Harper's Ferry, on the 3rd arrived at Happy Retreat, where he dined and spent the night. Other visits to Charles are recorded in the General's diaries for this period.
During the few months before his death in April, 1799, Charles transferred all his property to his son Samuel Washington and his heirs, which explains why there remained no property to be transferred in Charles' will. On February 23, 1800, Samuel Washington sold Happy Retreat, including the mansion and 100 acres of land, to Thomas Hammond; the property stayed in the Hammond family until 1837 when George Washington Hammond sold it to the Hon. Isaac R. Douglass, a circuit court judge and real estate investor. After his purchase of Happy Retreat, Judge Douglass completed the plans for the central section of the house and built a three-story brick structure, connecting the two old Washington wings, he renamed the completed mansion "Mordington," after his ancestral estate in Scotland. The house passed through the hands of a number of different owners, reverting to its original name of Happy Retreat, before its purchase by Mr. and Mrs. William Gavin in the 1960s. A recent historical engineering analysis of Happy Retreat indicates that the home's development proceeded in three phases.
Phase 1 construction consisted of a portion of the west wing. Phase 2 consisted of the brick portion of the one-story east wing. Phase 3, undertaken in 1837 after the purchase of Happy Retreat by Judge Douglass, resulted in the addition of the 2nd stories to the two wings and completion of a large 2½ story central portion connecting the two wings. In September 2014, the city of Charles Town began working toward purchasing the house to include it in its parks system. Harewood Claymont Court Blakeley Cedar Lawn Friends of Happy Retreat Historic American Buildings Survey No. WV-8, "Happy Retreat, Charles Town, Jefferson County, WV", 8 photos Historic Structure Report for Happy Retreat
William Augustine Washington was a cavalry officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, who held a final rank of Brigadier General in the newly created United States after the war. Known as a commander of light dragoons, he led mounted troops in a number of notable battles in the Carolinas during the campaigns of 1780 and 1781. Born in Stafford County, William was the second son of Bailey Washington and Catherine Washington. Primary source evidence, including correspondence between William and George Washington, first President of the United States, establishes the fact that William and George were second cousins. William was raised with a Southern planter upbringing and believed in the values of being a gentleman. Tutored by a Reverend Mr. Stuart, a clergyman from Virginia, William learned the Greek language and studied several areas of theology for a potential career in the church. Instead of a career in the ministry, he took up arms against the British government during the Revolutionary War.
William and his elder brother, are said to have drawn straws to see who would get to join the Continental Army and who would stay home and manage the family plantations. William won. Washington was elected a captain of Stafford County Minutemen on September 12, 1775, became part of the 3rd Virginia Regiment, Continental Line on February 25, 1776, commanding its 7th Company, his lieutenant and second-in-command was fellow Virginian James Monroe, future fifth US. President, their first combat was the Battle of Harlem Heights in New York on September 16, 1776, during which he may have been wounded by enemy musket fire. At the Battle of Trenton, under command of Nathanael Greene and after a night of scouting the countryside with Monroe to prevent detection, Washington led a successful assault into the town, his company drove in Hessian pickets, seized two cannon on King Street, capturing their crews. Washington received wounds to both hands during the action, along with Lt. Monroe, wounded in the shoulder.
Both received thanks from Continental Army commander-in-chief George Washington. On January 27, 1777, William was promoted to the rank of major and assigned to the newly created 4th Continental Light Dragoons. In the fall of 1778, he was assigned to the 3rd Continental Light Dragoons, mauled in a surprise attack on the night of September 27 at Old Tappan, New Jersey, by a force of British light infantry. Only 55 of the armed dragoons escaped the attack and their commander, Lt. Col. George Baylor, was wounded and captured. Washington was promoted to lieutenant colonel and placed in command of the 3rd Light Dragoons on November 20, 1778. Washington's unit spent the summer of 1779 remounting. On November 19, 1779, his unit was transferred to the Southern theatre of war, marched to join the army of Major General Benjamin Lincoln in Charleston, South Carolina. On March 10, 1780, Washington's regiment joined forces with the remnants of the 1st Continental Light Dragoons at Bacon's Bridge, South Carolina, to reconnoiter and screen against the advancing British.
On March 26, his first encounter with the British Legion, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton, resulted in a minor victory near Rantowle's Bridge on the Stono River in South Carolina. Afterward, on the Ashley River during the fight at Rutledge's Plantation on March 26, 1780, Lt. Col. Washington again bested a detachment of Tarleton's dragoons and infantry. Tarleton, attacked the encampment of General Isaac Huger at Monck's Corner on the night of April 14, 1780, routed the Continentals, including the 3rd Light Dragoons, which lost 15 dead, 17 wounded, 100 dragoons captured, along with 83 horses. Washington and his remaining troops fled across the Santee River to escape capture; the severe attrition of Washington's command forced its amalgamation with the 1st Continental Light Dragoons under Lt. Col. Anthony Walton White; this force was defeated at Lenud's Ferry, waiting to cross the flooded Santee, on May 6, 1780. White was captured and Washington assumed command of the 1st-and-3rd Dragoons.
The force withdrew to North Carolina when Lincoln surrendered the southern army and Charleston on May 12. The reconstituted Southern army, now under General Horatio Gates, was defeated at the Battle of Camden, South Carolina, on August 16, 1780, which opened up the South to British control. Gates was replaced by General Nathanael Greene, who divided his army into two groups, one of, led by General Daniel Morgan and the other by himself. Washington was placed under the command of General Morgan, for whom he participated in a series of raids in the western part of South Carolina. Two notable successes were the capture of Rugeley's Mill near Camden on December 4, 1780, the defeat of a Tory partisan unit at Hammond's Old Store in the Little River District on December 27, 1780. At Rugeley's Mill, Washington with 60 troops bluffed 112 Loyalists into surrendering a fortified homestead without firing a shot by use of a "Quaker Gun", mounting a felled tree trunk on wagon axles to resemble a cannon. At Hammond's Store, Washington routed 250 Georgia Loyalists, killing or wounding 150 and capturing the rest.
These successes led to Tarleton being ordered by Lord Cornwallis to chase down Morgan's "flying corps", leading to the Battle of Cowpens on January 17, 1781. Morgan's battle plans called for Washington's group, 80 Continental dragoons and 45 mounted Georgia infantry, to serve as a defensive and offensive unit as the situation required. Washington's first encounter with the enemy involved the rescue of a South Carolina militia unit as it was reloading behind the front lines of Morgan's left flank and under attack by a unit of Tarleton's dr