Atlanta metropolitan area
Metro Atlanta, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the most populous metro area in the US state of Georgia and the ninth-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Its economic and demographic center is Atlanta, has an estimated 2017 population of 5,884,736 according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the metro area forms the core of a broader trading area, the Atlanta–Athens-Clarke–Sandy Springs Combined Statistical Area. The Combined Statistical Area spans up to 39 counties in north Georgia and has an estimated 2017 population of 6,555,956. Atlanta is considered a "beta world city." It is the third largest metropolitan region in the Census Bureau's Southeast region behind Greater Washington and Greater Miami. By U. S. Census Bureau standards, the population of the Atlanta region spreads across a metropolitan area of 8,376 square miles – a land area comparable to that of Massachusetts.
Because Georgia contains more counties than any other state except Texas, area residents live under a decentralized collection of governments. As of the 2000 census, fewer than one in ten residents of the metropolitan area lived inside Atlanta city limits. A 2006 survey by the Metro Atlanta Chamber of Commerce counted 140 cities and towns in the 28‑county Metropolitan Statistical Area in mid-2005. Nine cities – Johns Creek, Chattahoochee Hills, Peachtree Corners, Tucker and South Fulton – have incorporated since following the lead of Sandy Springs in 2005; the Atlanta metropolitan area was first defined in 1950 as Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett and Clayton counties. Walton, Douglas, Forsyth, Cherokee and Butts counties were added after the 1970 census, with Barrow and Coweta counties joining in 1980 and Bartow, Paulding and Spalding counties in 1990. Atlanta's larger combined statistical area adds the Gainesville, Georgia MSA, Athens-Clarke County, Georgia MSA and the LaGrange, Jefferson and Cedartown micropolitan areas, for a total 2012 population of 6,162,195.
The CSA abuts the Macon and Columbus MSAs. The region is one of the metropolises of the Southeastern United States, is part of the emerging megalopolis known as Piedmont Atlantic MegaRegion along the I-85 Corridor; the counties listed below are included in the Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Gainesville CSA. However, most other entities define a much smaller metropolitan area by including only the counties which have the densest suburban development. Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett and Clayton were the five original counties when the Atlanta metropolitan area was first defined in 1950, continue to be the core of the metro area; these five counties along with five more are members of the Atlanta Regional Commission, a weak metropolitan government agency, a regional planning agency. The ten ARC counties and five more form part of the Metropolitan North Georgia Water Planning District, created in 2001; the 12 counties listed above with under 75,000 residents are not included in any other metropolitan definition except the OMB/Census Bureau's MSA and CSA.
Hall County forms the Gainesville, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, but with astronomical growth to over 190,000 residents, is now part of the Atlanta CSA. The official tourism website of the State of Georgia features a "Metro Atlanta" tourism region that includes only nine counties: Fulton, DeKalb, Cobb, Coweta, Douglas and Henry. Cumberland Perimeter Center Hartsfield-Jackson areaMore than one half of metro Atlanta's population is in unincorporated areas or areas considered a census-designated-place by the census bureau. Metro Atlanta includes the following incorporated and unincorporated suburbs and surrounding cities, sorted by population as of 2010: Principal city Atlanta pop. 472,522 Places with 75,000 to 99,999 inhabitants. 95,158 Sandy Springs pop. 93,853 Roswell pop. 88,346 Johns Creek pop. 76,728Places with 50,000 to 74,999 inhabitants Alpharetta pop. 57,551 Marietta pop. 56,579 Stonecrest pop. 53,490 Smyrna pop. 51,271Places with 25,000 to 49,999 inhabitants Places with 24,999 or fewer inhabitants The area sprawls across the low foothills of the Appalachian Mountains to the north and the Piedmont to the south.
The northern and some western suburbs tend to be higher and more hilly than the southern and eastern suburbs. The average elevation is around 1,000 feet; the highest point in the immediate area is Kennesaw Mountain at 1,808 ft, followed by Stone Mountain at 1,686 ft, Sweat Mountain at 1,640 ft, Little Kennesaw Mountain at 1,600 ft. Others include Blackjack Mountain, Lost Mountain, Brushy Mountain, Pine Mountain, Mount Wilkinson. Many of these play prominently in the various battles of the Atlanta Campaign during the American Civil War. If the further-north counties are included, Bear Mountain is highest, followed by Pine Log Mountain, Sawnee Mountain, Hanging Mountain, followed by the others listed above. Stone, Sweat and Sawnee are all home to some of the area's broadcast stations; the area's subsoil is colored rusty by the iron oxide present in it. It becomes muddy and sticky when wet, hard when dry, stains light-colored carpets and c
James Lawrence was an American naval officer. During the War of 1812, he commanded USS Chesapeake in a single-ship action against HMS Shannon commanded by Philip Broke, he is best known today for his last words or "dying command" "Don't give up the ship!", still a popular naval battle cry, and, invoked by Oliver Hazard Perry's personal battle flag, adopted to commemorate his dead friend. Lawrence was born on October 1, 1781, in Burlington, New Jersey but raised in Woodbury, New Jersey, the son of John and Martha Lawrence, his mother died when he was an infant and his Loyalist father fled to Canada during the American Revolution, leaving his half-sister to care for the infant. Though Lawrence studied law, he entered the United States Navy as a midshipman in 1798. During the Quasi-War with France, he served on USS Ganges and the frigate USS Adams in the Caribbean, he was commissioned a lieutenant on April 6, 1802, served aboard USS Enterprise in the Mediterranean, taking part in a successful attack on enemy craft on 2 June 1803.
In February 1804, he was second in command during the expedition to destroy the captured frigate USS Philadelphia. In the conflict he commanded Enterprise and a gunboat in battles with the Tripolitans, he was First Lieutenant of the frigate Adams and, in 1805, commanded the small Gunboat No. 6 during a voyage across the Atlantic to North Africa. Although Gunboats No. 2 through 10 arrived in the Mediterranean too late to see action, they remained there with Commodore Rodgers's squadron until summer 1806, at which time they sailed back to the United States. On 12 June 1805, Gunboat No. 6 encountered a Royal Navy vessel. Subsequently, Lieutenant Lawrence commanded USS Wasp and USS Argus. In 1810, he took part in trials of an experimental spar torpedo. Promoted to the rank of Master Commandant in November 1810, he took command of the sloop of war USS Hornet a year and sailed her to Europe on a diplomatic mission. From the beginning of the War of 1812, Lawrence and Hornet cruised capturing the privateer Dolphin in July 1812.
In the year Hornet blockaded the British sloop HMS Bonne Citoyenne at Bahia, on 24 February 1813 captured HMS Peacock. Upon his return to the United States in March, Lawrence learned of his promotion to Captain. Two months he took command of the frigate Chesapeake preparing for sea at Boston, he left port on 1 June 1813 and engaged the blockading Royal Navy frigate Shannon in a fierce battle. Although smaller, the British ship disabled Chesapeake with gunfire within the first few minutes. Captain Lawrence, mortally wounded by small arms fire, ordered his officers, "Don't give up the ship. Fight her till she sinks." Or "Tell them to fire faster. Men carried him below, his crew was overwhelmed by a British boarding party shortly afterward. James Lawrence died of his wounds on 4 June 1813, while his captors directed Chesapeake to Halifax, Nova Scotia. After Lawrence's death was reported to his friend and fellow officer Oliver Hazard Perry, he ordered a large blue battle ensign, stitched with the phrase "DONT GIVE UP THE SHIP" in bold white letters.
The Perry Flag was displayed on his flagship during a victorious engagement against the British on Lake Erie in September 1813. The original flag is displayed in the Naval Academy Museum and a replica is displayed in Memorial Hall at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. A replica is on view at Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial, on South Bass Island, Ohio. Lawrence was buried with military honors at present-day CFB Halifax, Nova Scotia, but reinterred at Trinity Church Cemetery in New York City, he was survived by his wife, Julia Lawrence, who lived until 1865, their two-year-old daughter, Mary Neill Lawrence. In 1838 Mary married Lt. William Preston Griffin. On July 4, 1813, Lawrence was posthumously elected to membership in the New York Society of the Cincinnati, he was honored with the Thanks of Congress. Many places are named for Captain Lawrence, including: Lawrence, Indiana Lawrence County, Alabama Lawrence County, Arkansas Lawrence County, Illinois Lawrence County, Indiana Lawrence County, Kentucky Lawrence County, Missouri Lawrence County, Mississippi Lawrence County, Ohio Lawrence County, Pennsylvania Lawrence County, Tennessee Lawrence Park Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania Lawrenceburg, Tennessee Lawrenceville, Georgia Lawrenceville, Illinois Lawrenceville, a neighborhood of Pittsburgh Lawrenceville, Pennsylvania, a borough in Tioga County.
Lawrence Township, Marion County and the municipality of Lawrence, Indiana contained therein. Lawrence Township, Mercer County, New Jersey and its Lawrenceville neighborhood. Captain Lawrence Drive in South Salem, NY, from which the Captain Lawrence Brewing Company of nearby Pleasantville takes its name, his birthplace of Burlington, New Jersey, has a Captain James Lawrence Elementary School. Lawrence Street in Montgomery, Alabama is named in honor of Lawrence, it runs parallel to streets named after other Barbary War/War of 1812 naval heroes: McDonough Street, named for Thomas Macdonough. Lawrence Avenue in Norman, Oklahoma is named in honor of Lawrence. In addition, the U. S. Navy has named five ships USS Lawrence; the first USS Lawrence was a brig which acted as then-Master Commandant Oliver Hazard Perry's flagship during the Battle of Lake Erie until she was destroyed in that action. The second USS La
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain see it as a minor theater of the Napoleonic Wars. From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France, Britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to France, which the US contested as illegal under international law. To man the blockade, Britain impressed American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. Incidents such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair, which happened five years before the war, inflamed anti-British sentiment in the US. In 1811, the British were in turn outraged by the Little Belt affair, in which 11 British sailors died. Britain supplied Native Americans who raided American settlers on the frontier, hindering American expansion and provoking resentment. Historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of British North America contributed to the American decision to go to war. On June 18, 1812, US President James Madison, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress, signed the American declaration of war into law.
With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations limited to the border, the western frontier. American prosecution of the war effort suffered from its unpopularity in New England, where it was derogatorily referred to as "Mr. Madison's War". American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale. American attempts to invade Lower Canada and capture Montreal failed. In 1813, the Americans won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake, at the Battle of the Thames defeated Tecumseh's Confederacy, securing a primary war goal. A final American attempt to invade Canada was fought to a draw at the Battle of Lundy's Lane during the summer of 1814. At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded American ports, cutting off trade and allowing the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, one of these raids burned the capital, but the Americans repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions of the northern and mid-Atlantic United States from Canada.
Fighting took place overseas in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In neighbouring Spanish Florida, a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. In Britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation. With the abdication of Napoleon, the war with France ended and Britain ceased impressment, rendering the issue of the impressment of American sailors moot; the British were able to increase the strength of the blockade on the United States coast, annihilating American maritime trade, but attempts to invade the U. S. ended unsuccessfully. Peace negotiations began in August 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24. News of the peace did not reach America for some time. Unaware of the treaty, British forces invaded Louisiana and were defeated at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815; these late victories were viewed by Americans as having restored national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity.
News of the treaty arrived shortly thereafter. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes. Historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812; this section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States. As Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair. H. W. Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; the approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was about vindication of American identity." Americans at the time and historians since have called it the United States' "Second War of Independence". The British were offended by what they considered insults such as the Little Belt affair.
This gave the British a particular interest in capturing the United States flagship President, which they succeeded in doing in 1815. In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via the Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, which Britain was fighting in the Napoleonic Wars; the United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law. Historian Reginald Horsman states, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy."The American merchant marine had nearly doubled between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton and 50% of other U. S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of commercial competition; the United States' view was. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.
While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, it competed in wartime with merchant shi
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Duluth is a city in Gwinnett County, United States. It is a suburb of Atlanta; as of the 2010 census, Duluth had a population of 26,600, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated the population to be 29,331 as of 2016. Duluth is located north of Interstate 85, it is home to Gwinnett Place Mall, the Gwinnett Civic and Cultural Center, Infinite Energy Arena, Hudgens Center for the Arts, the Red Clay Theater. It is home to Gwinnett Medical Center–Duluth, an 81-bed hospital constructed in 2006, as well as GMC's Glancy Campus, a 30-bed facility located near downtown; the agricultural manufacturer AGCO is based in Duluth. Forbes ranked Duluth 26th in "America's Best Places to Move" in 2009, while BusinessWeek named it the "Best Affordable Suburb in Georgia" in 2010. Duluth was Cherokee territory; when Duluth was established in the early 19th century, it was forest land occupied by tribespeople. An Indian trail, called Old Peachtree Road by the settlers, was extended through the area during the War of 1812 to connect Fort Peachtree in present-day Atlanta with Fort Daniel near present-day Dacula.
When Gwinnett County was established in 1818, white settlement of the area accelerated. Cotton merchant Evan Howell constructed a road connecting his cotton gin at the Chattahoochee River with Old Peachtree Road, creating Howell's Cross Roads; the settlement became known as "Howell's Crossing". Howell was the grandfather of Atlanta Mayor Evan P. Howell and great-grandfather of Atlanta Constitution publisher Clark Howell, his descendants continue to live in the area. Howell's Crossing was renamed "Duluth" in 1871 after Congress funded a north-south railroad line into the community, it was named after the city of Minnesota. The Midwestern city had gotten its own railroad connection not long before, which had prompted Rep. J. Proctor Knott, a Kentucky Democrat, to make a speech in Congress mocking the project as wasteful; that speech drew national attention. According to contemporary reports, Evan P. Howell himself jokingly suggested the name change in a speech about the arrival of railroad service in the Georgia town.
The railroad encouraged the growth of Duluth's economy. A schoolhouse was built in 1871 on the site of; the first Methodist church was organized in 1871, the first Baptist congregation formed in 1886. Both churches continue today at new locations along State Route 120; the Bank of Duluth was charted in 1904, followed by the Farmers and Merchants Bank in 1911. Neither survived the Great Depression. In 1922, Duluth elected Alice Harrell Strickland, she donated 1-acre of land for a "community forest" and began efforts to conserve land for public recreation. Duluth grew in the 1970s and 1980s, along with the rest of Gwinnett County. Georgia Governor George Busbee became a resident of Duluth in 1983 after leaving office, moving to the Sweet Bottom Plantation subdivision developed by Scott Hudgens. A major revitalization of the Duluth downtown area was undertaken in the early 21st century. Development along Sugarloaf Parkway has continued with construction of the Gwinnett Arena near the Gwinnett Convention Center.
In much of the 20th century, when Gwinnett County was still rural, Duluth was known in the area as being one of the few small towns with its own hospital, Joan Glancy Memorial Hospital. Many older residents of the area who call other towns home were born in Duluth. Joan Glancy was replaced with Gwinnett Medical Center - Duluth in 2006; the site of the old Joan Glancy hospital is now GMC's Glancy Campus, home to the Glancy Rehabilitation Center, the Duluth location of GMC's Diabetes & Nutrition Education Center and the Duluth location of GMC's Center for Sleep Disorders. The city made national headlines twice in 2005. In March, Fulton County Courthouse shooting suspect Brian Nichols was captured in a Duluth apartment after holding a woman hostage. In April, local resident Jennifer Wilbanks was reported missing a few days before her planned wedding to John Mason, she was found a few days in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where she admitted to having lied about being kidnapped. Duluth is located in the northeastern section of the Atlanta metropolitan area.
20 mi from Downtown Atlanta, the city lies in the west-central section of Gwinnett County, bounded to the north by the Chattahoochee River, northeast by Suwanee, south by unincorporated land, west by Berkeley Lake. Unincorporated portions of Forsyth County use a Duluth ZIP code despite being outside Duluth city limits in a different county. A significant part of the nearby city of Johns Creek in Fulton County shares at least one ZIP code with Duluth; as of the census of 2010, there were 26,600 people, 10,555 households, 6,872 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,620 people per square mile. There were 11,313 housing units at an average density of 1,114 per square mile; the racial makeup of the city was 48.7% White, 20.2% African American, 0.4% Native American, 22.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.2% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.0% of the population. There were 10,555 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.9% were non-families.
28.4% of all households were made up of
Hustler is a monthly pornographic magazine published by Larry Flynt in the United States. Introduced in 1974, it was a step forward from the Hustler Newsletter conceived as cheap advertising for his strip club businesses at the time; the magazine grew from a shaky start to a peak circulation of around 3 million. It shows explicit views of the female genitalia, becoming one of the first major US-based magazines to do so, in contrast with modest publications like Playboy. Today, Hustler is still considered more explicit than such well-known competitors as Playboy and Penthouse, it depicts hardcore themes, such as the use of sex toys and group sex. Larry Flynt Publications licenses the Hustler brand to the Hustler Casino in Gardena, California, owned directly by Flynt as an individual through his holding company El Dorado Enterprises. Other enterprises include the Hustler Club chain of bars and clubs, the Hustler store chain that sells adult-oriented videos, clothing and sex toys; the chain's flagship store is on Sunset Boulevard in West Hollywood.
The business first began in Cincinnati. Here, Larry Flynt and his brother, Jimmy Flynt, opened up a store in 1969. Jimmy wrote the check for $5,000 to pay for the club in Cincinnati, he was listed on the masthead for volume 1, number 1 of the magazine in July, 1974. However, Larry fired his brother in 2009, since he has been developing his own business, Jimmy Flynt's Sexy Gifts Stand. An old member of Hustler magazine has described the relationship, saying, "Larry is the show, Jimmy makes it go". Hustler is published by LFP, which produces pornographic films; the abbreviation "L. F. P." Originally stood for "Larry Flynt Publications." A Canadian version of Hustler is published by a Quebec-based firm. This magazine is not owned by Larry Flynt, but is licensed to publish material from the American version. In general, Canadian Hustler imitates the appearance and tone of its American counterpart, with Canadian content added. In 1999, the magazine created a minor controversy in Canada by inviting readers to submit sexually explicit stories about Sheila Copps, a left-leaning member of the Liberal cabinet.
There have been Australian and South African versions of the magazine. During a bookstore signing in July 2011, Flynt stated that less than five percent of his income comes from the print magazine. One feature of Hustler is a column called "Asshole of the Month". In every monthly issue of the magazine, a public figure is selected for severe criticism as that month's "asshole". An illustration depicting the criticized person's head emerging from the anus of a cartoon donkey is shown alongside the article. After Flynt's imprisonment in 1977 and his alleged conversion to evangelical Christianity, he promised to reform "Asshole of the Month". However, as of 2016, reform in the feature has yet to be seen. In the 1970s, Hustler ran a comic strip feature entitled "Honey Hooker". In each installment, Honey would have graphic sexual encounters with any male, she might be in a Super Bowl locker room the next. This feature was designed to compete against Playboy's Little Annie Fanny and Penthouse's Wicked Wanda.
In keeping with Hustler's focus on the seamier and less romantic aspects of sexuality, Honey Hooker, unlike Fanny and Wanda, was explicitly portrayed as being a prostitute. The Beaver Hunt section of the magazine contains explicit nudes of amateur models submitted by readers. Another Hustler feature, criticized was the "Chester the Molester" cartoon; each month's issue depicted a cartoon middle-aged pedophile, joyfully raping girls. Following Flynt's alleged religious conversion, he introduced "Chester the Protector", a reincarnation of the molester character who served as a hero to protect young girls from rape and seduction. A regular feature entitled "Ads We'd Like to See" recreates advertisements of everyday products in a sexualized or violent way. For example, an advertisement in the 1980 issue called'Doer's Lite Label', a parody of Dewar's Lite Label Whiskey, featured Kenneth Bianchi, the Hillside Strangler. Listed as his greatest accomplishment was Cindy Lee Hudspeth, whom he strangled in 1978.
He is quoted as saying "You gotta treat'em rough…". This section was criticized for admiring men who had committed sexualized crimes against women. In addition to its regular features, Hustler published special features and issues. Examples include the "All Meat" issue from 1978, where the cover spread depicted a naked woman being fed into a meat grinder upside down. In 1977, the magazine's front page read "First-Time Ever Scratch'N' Sniff Centerfold". In 1984, conservative academic Judith Reisman received a grant from the Department of Justice to complete a study at American University concerning the cartoons of Playboy and Hustler the sexual depictions of minors in these cartoons, she finished the study in 1986, found that on average, the number of times per issue that Hustler referred to children and violence was 46. Reisman published a nearly 1,600-page report of her findings, condemning the sexual depictions of children in pornographic magazines, but her work was met with criticism from her peers.
An American University professor, Dr. Myra Sadker, said that she was "very dismayed about the quality of office management and the nature of the research, going on." Many fellow academics have disputed the neutrality of the research. Avedon Carol, a sex crime researcher and author, said that Reisman's study was a "s