An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events. Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geophysical and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed. Observatories were as simple as containing an astronomical sextant or Stonehenge. Astronomical observatories are divided into four categories: space-based, ground-based, underground-based. Ground-based observatories, located on the surface of Earth, are used to make observations in the radio and visible light portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Most optical telescopes are housed within a dome or similar structure, to protect the delicate instruments from the elements. Telescope domes have a slit or other opening in the roof that can be opened during observing, closed when the telescope is not in use. In most cases, the entire upper portion of the telescope dome can be rotated to allow the instrument to observe different sections of the night sky. Radio telescopes do not have domes.
For optical telescopes, most ground-based observatories are located far from major centers of population, to avoid the effects of light pollution. The ideal locations for modern observatories are sites that have dark skies, a large percentage of clear nights per year, dry air, are at high elevations. At high elevations, the Earth's atmosphere is thinner, thereby minimizing the effects of atmospheric turbulence and resulting in better astronomical "seeing". Sites that meet the above criteria for modern observatories include the southwestern United States, Canary Islands, the Andes, high mountains in Mexico such as Sierra Negra. A newly emerging site which should be added to this list is Mount Gargash. With an elevation of 3600 m above sea level, it is the home to the Iranian National Observatory and its 3.4m INO340 telescope. Major optical observatories include Mauna Kea Observatory and Kitt Peak National Observatory in the US, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory and Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, Paranal Observatory in Chile.
Specific research study performed in 2009 shows that the best possible location for ground-based observatory on Earth is Ridge A — a place in the central part of Eastern Antarctica. This location provides the least atmospheric disturbances and best visibility. Beginning in 1930s, radio telescopes have been built for use in the field of radio astronomy to observe the Universe in the radio portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; such an instrument, or collection of instruments, with supporting facilities such as control centres, visitor housing, data reduction centers, and/or maintenance facilities are called radio observatories. Radio observatories are located far from major population centers to avoid electromagnetic interference from radio, TV, other EMI emitting devices, but unlike optical observatories, radio observatories can be placed in valleys for further EMI shielding; some of the world's major radio observatories include the Socorro, in New Mexico, United States, Jodrell Bank in the UK, Arecibo in Puerto Rico, Parkes in New South Wales and Chajnantor in Chile.
Since the mid-20th century, a number of astronomical observatories have been constructed at high altitudes, above 4,000–5,000 m. The largest and most notable of these is the Mauna Kea Observatory, located near the summit of a 4,205 m volcano in Hawaiʻi; the Chacaltaya Astrophysical Observatory in Bolivia, at 5,230 m, was the world's highest permanent astronomical observatory from the time of its construction during the 1940s until 2009. It has now been surpassed by the new University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory, an optical-infrared telescope on a remote 5,640 m mountaintop in the Atacama Desert of Chile; the oldest proto-observatories, in the sense of a private observation post, Wurdi Youang, Australia Zorats Karer, Armenia Loughcrew, Ireland Newgrange, Ireland Stonehenge, Great Britain Quito Astronomical Observatory, located 12 minutes south of the Equator in Quito, Ecuador. Chankillo, Peru El Caracol, Mexico Abu Simbel, Egypt Kokino, Republic of Macedonia Observatory at Rhodes, Greece Goseck circle, Germany Ujjain, India Arkaim, Russia Cheomseongdae, South Korea Angkor Wat, CambodiaThe oldest true observatories, in the sense of a specialized research institute, include: 825 AD: Al-Shammisiyyah observatory, Iraq 869: Mahodayapuram Observatory, India 1259: Maragheh observatory, Iran 1276: Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory, China 1420: Ulugh Beg Observatory, Uzbekistan 1442: Beijing Ancient Observatory, China 1577: Constantinople Observatory of Taqi ad-Din, Turkey 1580: Uraniborg, Denmark 1581: Stjerneborg, Denmark 1642: Panzano Observatory, Italy 1642: Round Tower, Denmark 1633: Leiden Observatory, Netherlands 1667: Paris Observatory, France 1675: Royal Greenwich Observatory, England 1695: Sukharev Tower, Russia 1711: Berlin Observatory, Germany 1724: Jantar Mantar, India 1753: Stockholm Observatory, Sweden 1753: Vilnius University Observatory, Lithuania 1753: Navy Royal Institute and Observatory, Spain 1759: Trieste Observatory, Italy 1757: Macfarlane Observatory, Scotland 1759: Turin Observatory, Italy 1764: Brera Astronomical Observatory, Italy 1765: Mohr Observatory, Indonesia 1774: Vatican Observatory, Vatican 1785: Dunsink Observatory, Ireland 1786: Madras Observatory, India 1789: Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland 1790: Real Observatorio de Madrid, Spain, 1803: National Astronomical Observatory, Bogotá, Colombia.
1811: Tartu Old Observatory, Estonia 1812: Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Italy 1830/1842: Depot of Charts & Instruments
Faurot Field, at Memorial Stadium is a stadium in Columbia, United States, on the campus of the University of Missouri. It is used for football and serves as the home field for the Missouri Tigers football program, it is the third-largest sports facility by seating capacity in the state of Missouri, behind The Dome at America's Center in St. Louis and Arrowhead Stadium in Kansas City. In 1972, Memorial Stadium's playing surface was named Faurot Field in honor of longtime coach Don Faurot. During the offseason, soccer goals are set up in the end zones and it is used for intramural matches; until 2012 it was the site of the annual "Providence Bowl" game between Hickman and Rock Bridge high schools, so named because both schools are located on Providence Road in Columbia, Faurot is equidistant between the two. This tradition stopped when Missouri joined the Southeastern Conference and conference scheduling made hosting the game more difficult. Faurot Field was home to the Missouri State High School Activities Association football championships for many years, now held in St. Louis in the climate-controlled Dome at America's Center.
The stadium is an early 20th century horseshoe-shaped stadium, with seating added on in the "open" end zone. The original horseshoe is completed by a grass berm in the curved end, used for general admission on game days; the berm is famous for the giant block "M" made of painted white stones located behind the end zone. A paved path encircled the west and east sides of the field taking the place of the track, but was removed in 1994. Fundraising began in 1921 for a "Memorial Union" and a "Memorial Stadium" to be constructed at the University; the names of the two projects were a tribute to Mizzou alumni who lost their lives during World War I. Ground was broken on the site of the future stadium in December 1925; the site was a sizeable natural valley. Original plans called for the stadium to seat 25,000, with proposed stages of expansion in capacity to 35,000, 55,000, 75,000 and 95,000. According to legend, a rock crusher and truck were buried during initial blasting, which still remain buried under the field.
Memorial Stadium was dedicated on October 2, 1926, to the memory of 112 alumni and students who lost their lives in World War I. The 25,000-seat stadium—the lower half of the current facility—was built with a 440-yard track that circled the playing field; that first October game against Tulane was marred by rainstorms that washed out a bridge into Columbia coming from the western side of Missouri. While the game sold out, the field could not be sodded due to the wet conditions. Therefore, a surface of sawdust and tree bark was used, "the Tigers and Green Wave played to a scoreless, mudpie tie", in the words of sportswriter Bob Broeg. Grass would be installed thenafter until the 1980s; the recognizable rock'M' of the northern end zone debuted on October 1, 1927, to a 13-6 victory over Kansas State. The monument was built by members of the freshman class using leftover rocks from the original stadium construction; the 90 ft wide by 95 ft high'M' has continued to watch over the field and provide seating for fans since that day.
Mizzou earned its largest margin of victory at Memorial Stadium on September 24, 2016. Under Coach Barry Odom, the Tigers defeated Delaware State University by a score of 79–0; the stadium's most historic and identifiable landmark is the rock "M" above the stadium's north end zone. The "M" measures 90 feet wide by 95 feet high; the landmark was built in 1927 by a group of freshman students, using leftover rocks from the original construction of Memorial Stadium. This distinctive feature has not been immune to pranks, such as enterprising Nebraska or Kansas fans attempting to change the "M" to an "N" or a "K", but groundskeepers and students have in the past protected the landmark. One of the traditions of the football team is that seniors, after playing their final home game, take a rock from the "M" as a souvenir; the rock "M" is whitewashed every year by incoming freshmen during welcoming activities prior to the first home game. The "M-I-Z," "Z-O-U," chant came about in 1976 during a game against Ohio State, famous for its own "O-H," "I-O" chant.
It was adapted for Missouri by a suggestion from Mark Beindorff, a clarinet player in Marching Mizzou which attended the game in Columbus, Ohio. To begin the halftime show, Marching Mizzou split to opposite sidelines. Imitating the "O-H" "I-O" chant, the Mizzou band had one side chant "M-I-Z" while the other followed with "Z-O-U." Today the chant is led by the "Big MO" drum. The student section yells out "M-I-Z" and the alumni section responds "Z-O-U"; this tradition has expanded to Tiger first downs. Throughout its history, numerous expansion and renovation projects have taken place at Faurot Field. Beginning in 1949, MU expanded Memorial Stadium by constructing a second tier of seating above the original 1926 construction; the 1949 construction included seats between the 30 yard lines on the west side and between the south 30 and north 40 yard lines and a new press box on the west side of the stadium. A second project in 1961 filled in the northeast and northwest sections of the second tier and two final projects in 1963 and 1965 completed the second tier construction with new southwest and southeast stands.
In 1967 the MU Board of Curators awarded contracts totaling $460,000 for construction of a new three story press box. The new press box was completed for the start of the 1969 season. In 1974, Athletic Director Mel Sheehan studied the possibility of lowering th
University of Missouri College of Education
The University of Missouri College of Education is the education college at University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri. The school is composed of five academic departments offering doctoral and undergraduate programs both on campus and online. Founded in 1867 as the state normal school, MU was one of the first state universities in the country to undertake the professional training of teachers as a regular part of its collegiate work. In 2018, the college was ranked 43rd out of 256 education schools by U. S. News & World Report. Department of Educational Leadership & Policy Analysis Department of Educational, School & Counseling Psychology Department of Learning, Teaching & Curriculum School of Information Science & Learning Technologies Department of Special Education MU College of Education A history of the MU College of Education
Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna; the city is a global centre of art, technology, publishing, innovation, education and tourism and enjoys a high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015.
Munich is a major international center of engineering, science and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.. Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology and electronics among many others; the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place, to become the Old Town of Munich. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture and science.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP; the first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, population growth.
The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE. Munich is home to many universities and theatres, its numerous architectural attractions, sports events and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany, it is a top-ranked destination for expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background; the first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is not considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document; the document was signed in Augsburg. By the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route, but as part of the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from 2012 shards of vessels from the eleventh century were found, which prove again that the settlement Munich must be older than their first documentary mention from 1158.
In 1175 Munich received city fortification. In 1180 with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, he strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468; when Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became influenced by the court. During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reform
Jesse Hall is the main administration building for the University of Missouri. Its dome has towered 180 feet above the south end of David R. Francis Quadrangle since its completion in 1895. In the lawn in front of Jesse Hall are The Columns, all that remains of its predecessor Academic Hall, which burned in 1892; the building contains the office of the chancellor, university registrar, graduate school and financial aid. One of the most photographic landmarks in Missouri, the building was designed by Missouri architect Morris Frederick Bell, is his largest surviving work. Jesse Auditorium had countless university functions over the years; the University Concert Series presents national and international concerts, Broadway shows, bands and theater to the largest auditorium in Columbia. As the former home of the School of Music, student performances happen; the building is the most prominent contributing structure to the David R. Francis Quadrangle National Register of Historic Places District. In 1922 "New Academic Hall" became "Jesse Hall" in honor of retiring University President Richard Henry Jesse.
Academic Hall burned on 9 January 1892, leaving only the famous six columns that now stand in the center of Francis Quadrangle. The fire was ignited by an electric chandelier in the meeting room, the forerunner of Jesse Auditorium, during a debate; the "New Academic Hall", just south of the columns, was completed in 1895 at a cost of $250,000. In 1922, the hall was renamed in honor of Richard Henry Jesse. In 1932, a tornado caused significant damage to the building. In 1982, a severe storm damaged Jesse Hall, resulting in renovations that included a new ball and new slate on the dome, tempered windows, reinforced beams, a new paint job; the renovations cost $390,000 and were paid for by state funds. On April 23, 1991, an arson fire caused $350,000-$500,000 in damage to the building; the building is one of the most distinctive on the campus. It was designed by Morris Frederick Bell and fashioned after Richard M. Upjohn's Connecticut State House of 1872-1878; the dome was first lit in October 1987 to commemorate MU's sesquicentennial celebration.
It is illuminated at night by bright white lights, but its color is changed to gold for Homecoming and green for Engineers' Week each March. A winged sphere surmounted the dome; the wings broke from the sphere when an exceptionally patriotic individual fastened the staff of a large American flag to the topmost part of the dome. The winged sphere lives on as the symbol of the secret society QEBH. William Lincoln Garver was assistant superintendent of construction; the original entrance to the auditorium was from the quad on the north side. It seated 1,200 people, but after being proclaimed a fire hazard the wooden balcony was removed, reducing capacity to only 400. A complete renovation of the auditorium was carried out in 1953 with a design by Jamieson and Spearl, today it seats 1,732. Many great talents have graced the stage at Jesse. William Jennings Bryan gave his famous "Pending Problems" lecture there in 1900. Today, the University Concert Series books events such as touring Broadway shows, symphony orchestras and comedians from around the world.
The novel, Stoner by John Williams, takes place in Columbia, Missouri where one of its main settings is a fictionalized version of Jesse Hall on the University of Missouri campus. Jesse Auditorium Jesse Hall on the MU map The University Concert Series
University of Missouri School of Medicine
The University of Missouri School of Medicine is located in the southern part of the University of Missouri campus in Columbia, Missouri. It was the first publicly supported medical school west of the Mississippi River; the University of Missouri School of Medicine is medical school of the University of Missouri. Established in 1872, it was the first publicly supported medical school west of the Mississippi River; the school was organized as a two-year school in 1872. Joseph Norwood, M. D. professor of natural science and philosophy, was the first dean. The current dean is interim dean Steven Zweig, the chair of Family and Community Medicine; the School of Medicine, along with the University of Missouri Sinclair School of Nursing and the University of Missouri School of Health Professions form the MU Health System. Progress was slow until 1890; the school was housed in an old frame building on the northwest corner of campus. Equipment was inadequate and out of date, the program was in danger of being discontinued.
Jesse led the school to new heights due to nationwide advances in modernizing medical education. In addition, he raised financial support for new facilities. W. L. Parker established an endowment. In 1957, the school was transformed into a four-year program; as a result, the medical center was constructed in 1960. The name was changed to University Hospitals and Clinics; the campus is located in the South portion of campus, along with the University Hospital, Mizzou Biojoint Center, Ellis Fischel Cancer Center, among other members of the MU Health System. A new $42.5 million Patient-Centered Care Learning Center opened in Columbia in 2017. A second campus, known as the Springfield Clinical Campus, was opened June 13, 2016, in partnership with CoxHealth and Mercy Health systems. Eight to twelve MU medical students complete their last two years of training at the Springfield campus. For the entering class in 2016, MU School of Medicine received 2,167 applications for 104 spots. 370 applicants were interviewed, 164 were accepted.
The average accepted applicant's GPA and MCAT percentile were 77.8, respectively. The school employs 739 faculty members as part of 1,359 staff members; the schools has 401 medical students, 369 residents, 81 clinical fellows, 85 postdoctoral fellows, 139 PhD students, 22 master's degree students. As of 2017, there are 7,700 physician alumni and 500 doctoral and master's degree alumni from the University of Missouri School of Medicine. Years one and two at the medical school are centered around patient based learning, in which students work through real clinical cases to strengthen their problem-solving capacity, clinical skills, ability to collaborate with peers. In the third year, students participate in seven core clerkships. In their fourth and final year, students are required to take advanced clinical electives, general electives, an advanced biomedical science course; the MU Department of Family Medicine has been ranked top 10 for 23 consecutive years, the school itself is ranked No. 54 in its primary care training, out of 170 schools.
Beginning in August 2017, MU School of Medicine will expand its class size from 96 to 128 to help address the nationwide physician shortage. The class-size increase has been enabled by the opening of a second clinical campus in Springfield, MO, the construction of a brand new Patient-Centered Care learning center on the main campus, it is estimated that the expansion will provide an additional 300 Missouri physicians, create 3,500 new jobs, add $390 million to the state economy annually. Several basic science departments are nationally recognized for excellent research. U. S. News and World Report has ranked MU's Department of Family and Community Medicine as one of the top three family medicine programs nationwide for 15 consecutive years; the 2008 rankings ranked MU third in family medicine and 23rd among schools emphasizing primary care. In 2016, it was reported in The Columbia Missourian that "the number of MU School of Medicine students who have reported experiencing gender discrimination is twice as high as the national average."
University of Missouri Hospital Ellis Fischel Cancer Center Women's and Children's Hospital Missouri Orthopaedic Institute Missouri Psychiatric Center
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti