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Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542

The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 were parliamentary measures by which Wales was annexed to the Kingdom of England, the legal system of England was extended to Wales and the norms of English administration were introduced. The intention was to create a single state and legal jurisdiction; the Acts were passed during the reign of King Henry VIII of England, who came from the Welsh Tudor dynasty. Before these Acts, Wales was excluded from Parliamentary representation and divided between the Principality of Wales, many feudal statelets; the Act declared King Henry's intentions, that because of differences in law and language: some rude and ignorant People have made Distinction and Diversity between the King's Subjects of this Realm, his Subjects of the said Dominion and Principality of Wales, whereby great Discord, Debate, Division and Sedition hath grown between his said Subjects. They are often seen cited by the years they received Royal Assent, 1536 and 1543 although the official citation uses the preceding years, as each of these Acts this date was passed between 1 January and 25 March, at a time when New Year's Day fell on 25 March.

From the conquest of Gwynedd in 1282–83 until the passing of the Laws in Wales Acts, the administrative system of Wales had remained unchanged. By the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 the territory of the native Welsh rulers had been broken up into the five counties of Anglesey, Cardigan and Merioneth. Though the five counties were subject to English criminal law, the "Principality" was the king of England's own personal fief and Welsh law continued to be used for civil cases; the rest of Wales, except for the county of Flint, part of the Principality, the Royal lordships of Glamorgan and Pembroke, was made up of numerous small lordships, each with its own courts and other customs. When Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond seized the English throne in 1485, becoming Henry VII, no change was made to the system of governing Wales, though he remained concerned about the power of the Marcher Lords and the lawlessness and disorder in the Welsh Marches. To deal with this there was a revival of the Council of Wales and the Marches, established in the reign of Edward IV.

After the deaths of many of the Marcher lords during the Wars of the Roses, many of the lordships had passed into the hands of the crown. Henry VIII did not see the need to reform the government of Wales at the beginning of his reign, but he perceived a threat from some of the remaining Marcher lords and therefore instructed his chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, to seek a solution, his solution was the annexation or incorporation of Wales which, along with other significant changes at the same time, led to the creation of England as a modern sovereign state. The Acts have been known as the "Acts of Union", but they were not popularly referred to as such until 1901, when historian Owen M. Edwards assigned them that name—a name some historians such as S. B. Chrimes regard as misleading; this harmonisation was done by passing a series of measures between 1536 and 1543. These included: An Acte for Laws & Justice to be ministred in Wales in like fourme as it is in this Realme, was passed in 1536 in the 8th session of Henry VIII's 5th Parliament, which began on 4 February 1535/6, repealed with effect from 21 December 1993.

The first of these Acts was passed by a Parliament. Its effect was to extend English law into the Marches and provide that Wales had representation in future Parliaments; the Acts were given their short titles by the Statute Law Revision Act 1948, s.5, sch.2. These Acts had the following effects on the administration of Wales: the marcher lordships were abolished as political units, five new counties were established on Welsh lands, thus creating a Wales of 13 counties. For ecclesiastical purposes, several areas of England were parts of Welsh dioceses until disestablishment

San Nicolás de los Arroyos

San Nicolás de los Arroyos is a city in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, on the western shore of the Paraná River, 61 km from Rosario. It has about 133,000 inhabitants, it is the administrative seat of the partido of the same name. It is sometimes called Ciudad de María due to a series of Marian apparitions that led to the erection of the Sanctuary in honor of Our Lady of the Rosary of San Nicolás that began during the 1980s and were approved by Bishop Cardelli of the diocese as "worthy of belief" in 2016. San Nicolás de los Arroyos was founded on 14 April 1748 by Rafael de Aguiar, who gave it its name to honour Saint Nicholas of Bari, now patron of the city; the closeness to the border between Buenos Aires and two other large provinces made the city a natural stage for the struggle between federalist and Unitarians forces in mid-19th century. The agreement between thirteen provinces on 31 May 1852, which ratified the Federal Pact and called for a Constitutional Assembly sponsored by Justo José de Urquiza, was signed in this town, became known as Acuerdo de San Nicolás de los Arroyos.

The city is located in the north-east of the province of Buenos Aires, 240 km from Buenos Aires City, within the so-called Industrial Corridor that goes from Greater Rosario to La Plata. Its limits are: to Pergamino, its main accesses are in the north-south axis: the Rosario-Buenos Aires Highway, the Nuevo Central Argentino railroad. San Nicolás has an important port on the Paraná, able to service large cargo ships; the railway system has the latter reaching up to the port. The city has 43 kindergarten institutions, 58 schools of Elementary Education, 28 of High-school level, 26 schools for adults and a large number of tertiary studies institutes, it is home of the San Nicolás Regional Faculty, a branch of the National Technological University There are a variety cultural institutions in the city, though the most important one is the Rafael de Aguiar Municipal Theatre, founded on August 10, 1908, designed as a smaller model of the Teatro Colón in Buenos Aires. Among the many libraries in the city, the oldest and largest is the Rafael de Aguiar Popular Library, founded in 1947 by Juana Couretot de Guella.

Footballer Gustavo Pedro Echaniz Health Minister Ginés González García Journalist and short story writer Manuel Peyrou Revolutionary and guerrilla leader Enrique Gorriarán Merlo Members of the folk music band Los Arroyeños Designer and App Developer Andres Buzzio Football legend Omar Sivori Former football players Héctor Baley, Leo Franco, Patricio Hernández, Rubén Pagnanini, Andrés Guglielminpietro, Nelson Vivas and Bruno Marioni This article draws material from the corresponding article in the Spanish Wikipedia. Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Ministry of Education - Acuerdo de San Nicolás. Municipality of San Nicolás de los Arroyos - Official website; the Portal of the city Tourism Official Site Diario El Norte - Local newspaper Biblioteca Popular "Rafael de Aguiar" - Public Library

Glauberite

Glauberite is a monoclinic sodium calcium sulfate mineral with the formula Na2Ca2. It was first described in 1808 for material from the El Castellar Mine, Villarrubia de Santiago, Castile-La Mancha, Spain, it was named for the extracted Glauber's salts after the German alchemist Johann Rudolf Glauber. Glauberite forms in continental and marine evaporite deposits, but may form from hydrothermal deposits, as mineral sublimates deposited near fumaroles, in amygdules in basalt, in nitrate deposits in arid climates, it occurs associated with halite, anhydrite, thenardite, mirabilite and blodite. Because of its solubility, glauberite is dissolved away from the crystal matrix leaving a distinctly shaped hollow cast, its mineral composition is altered into other minerals as pseudomorphs. Gypsum pseudomorphs are common due to increased humidity. Glauberite, its cast impressions, its pseudomorphed crystals are easily recognizable due to its common crystal twinning, crystal habit displayed by uniquely shaped flattened seeming rhombohedral, large individual'floater crystals'