Queen of Heaven
Queen of Heaven is a title given to Mary, mother of Jesus, by Christians of the Roman Catholic Church, to some extent, in Anglicanism, some Lutheran churches such as the Church of Sweden and Eastern Orthodoxy. The title is a consequence of the First Council of Ephesus in the fifth century, in which Mary was proclaimed "Theotokos", a title rendered in Latin as Mater Dei, in English "Mother of God"; the Catholic teaching on this subject is expressed in the papal encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam, issued by Pope Pius XII. It states that Mary is called Queen of Heaven because her son, Jesus Christ, is the king of Israel and heavenly king of the universe; the title “Queen of Heaven” has long been a Catholic tradition, included in prayers and devotional literature, seen in Western art in the subject of the Coronation of the Virgin, from the High Middle Ages, long before it was given a formal definition status by the Church. Queen of Heaven is one of many Queen titles used of mother of Jesus; the title derived in part from the ancient Catholic teaching that Mary, at the end of her earthly life, was bodily and spiritually assumed into heaven, that she is there honored as Queen.
Pius XII explained on the theological reasons for her title of Queen in a radio message to Fatima of May 13, 1946, Bendito seja: He, the Son of God, reflects on His heavenly Mother the glory, the majesty and the dominion of His kingship, having been associated to the King of Martyrs in the... work of human Redemption as Mother and cooperator, she remains forever associated to Him, with a unlimited power, in the distribution of the graces which flow from the Redemption. Jesus is King throughout all eternity by nature and by right of conquest: through Him, with Him, subordinate to Him, Mary is Queen by grace, by divine relationship, by right of conquest, by singular choice. In his 1954 encyclical Ad caeli reginam, Pius XII asserts that Mary deserves the title because she is Mother of God, because she is associated as the New Eve with Jesus' redemptive work, because of her preeminent perfection and because of her intercessory power. Ad caeli reginam states that the main principle on which the royal dignity of Mary rests is her Divine Motherhood....
So with complete justice St. John Damascene could write: "When she became Mother of the Creator, she became Queen of every creature.". In the Hebrew Bible, under some Davidic kings, the gebirah, the "Great Lady" the Mother of the King, held great power as advocate with the king. In 1 Kings 2:20, Solomon said to his Mother Bathsheba, seated on a throne at his right, "Make your request, for I will not refuse you." William G. Most sees here a sort of type of Mary. In the New Testament, the title has several biblical sources. At the Annunciation, the archangel Gabriel announces that "... will be great, will be called the Son of the Most High. He will rule over the house of Jacob forever and his reign will be without end." The biblical precedent in ancient Israel is. Mary's queenship is a share in Jesus’ kingship; the Roman Catholic Church views Mary as the woman clothed with the sun in the Book of Revelation 12:1–3: "A great and wondrous sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and a crown of twelve stars on her head.
She was pregnant and cried out in pain. Another sign appeared in heaven: an enormous red dragon with seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on his heads." The Church accepts Revelation 12 as a reference to Mary and the Church as a three-fold symbolism through the Book of Isaiah and affirms Mary as the mother of Jesus as the prophetic fulfilment described in Revelation 12. In the Hebrew Bible, the term "queen of heaven" appears in a context unrelated to Mary; the prophet Jeremiah writing circa 628 BC refers to a "queen of heaven" in chapters 7 and 44 of the Book of Jeremiah when he scolds the people for having "sinned against the Lord" due to their idolatrous practices of burning incense, making cakes, pouring out drink offerings to her. This title was given to Asherah, a Caananite idol and goddess worshipped in ancient Israel and Judah. For a discussion of "queen of heaven" in the Hebrew Bible, see Queen of heaven. In the fourth century St. Ephrem called Mary "Lady" and "Queen". Church fathers and doctors continued to use the title.
A text coming from Origen gives her the title domina, the feminine form of Latin dominus, Lord. That same title appears in many other early writers, e.g. Jerome, Peter Chrysologus; the first Mariological definition and basis for the title of Mary Queen of Heaven developed at the Council of Ephesus, where Mary was defined to be the Mother of God. The Council fathers approved this version against the opinion, that Mary is "only" the mother of Jesus. Nobody had participated in the life of her son more, than Mary; the word "Queen" is common after the sixth century. Hymns of the 11th to 13th centuries address Mary as queen: “Hail, Holy Queen,” “Hail, Queen of Heaven,” “Queen of Heaven.” The Dominican rosary and the Franciscan crown as well as numerous invocations in Mary’s litany celebrate her queenship. For centuries she has been invoked as the Queen of heaven, she is invoked in the Litany of Loreto as: Queen of the Angels, Queen of Patriarchs, Queen of Prophets, Queen of Apostles, Queen of Martyrs, Queen of Confe
Christian views on Hell
In Christian theology, Hell is the place or state into which by God's definitive judgment unrepentant sinners pass in the general judgment, some Christians hold it happens after death or at a. Its character is inferred from teaching in the biblical texts, some of which, interpreted have given rise to the popular idea of Hell. Theologians today see Hell as the logical consequence of using free will to reject union with God and, because God will not force conformity, not incompatible with God's justice and mercy. Different Hebrew and Greek words are translated as "Hell" in most English-language Bibles, they include: "Sheol" in the Hebrew Bible, "Hades" in the New Testament. Many modern versions, such as the New International Version, translate Sheol as "grave" and transliterate "Hades", it is agreed that both sheol and hades do not refer to the place of eternal punishment, but to the grave, the temporary abode of the dead, the underworld. "Gehenna" in the New Testament, where it is described as a place where both soul and body could be destroyed in "unquenchable fire".
The word is translated as either "Hell" or "Hell fire" in many English versions. The Greek verb "ταρταρῶ", which occurs once in the New Testament, is always translated by a phrase such as "thrown down to hell". A few translations render it as "Tartarus". In ancient Jewish belief, the dead were consigned to Sheol, a place to which all were sent indiscriminately. Sheol was thought of as a place situated below the ground, a place of darkness and forgetfulness. By the third to second century BC, the idea had grown to encompass separate divisions in sheol for the righteous and wicked, by the time of Jesus, some Jews had come to believe that those in Sheol awaited the resurrection of the dead either in comfort or in torment. By at least the late rabbinical period, Gehinnom was viewed as the place of ultimate punishment, exemplified by the rabbinical statement "the best of physicians are destined to Gehinnom.". The term is derived from Gei Ben-Hinnom, a valley near Jerusalem used as a location for human sacrifices to the idol Moloch: And he defiled the Tophet, in the valley of Ben-hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter pass through the fire to Molech.
And they built the high places of the Ba‘al, which are in the valley of Ben-hinnom, to cause their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire to Molech. In the Greek Septuagint the Hebrew word Sheol was translated as Hades, the name for the underworld and abode of the dead in Greek mythology; the realm of eternal punishment in Hellenistic mythology was Tartarus, Hades was a form of limbo for the unjudged dead. Three different New Testament words appear in most English translations as "Hell": The most common New Testament term translated as "Hell" is γέεννα, a direct loan of Hebrew גהנום/גהנם. Apart from one use in James 3:6, this term is found in the synoptic gospels. Gehenna is most described as a place of fiery torment. Apart from the use of the term gehenna the Johannine writings refer to the destiny of the wicked in terms of "perishing", "death" and "condemnation" or "judgment". Paul speaks of "wrath" and "everlasting destruction", while the general epistles use a range of terms and images including "raging fire", "destruction", "eternal fire" and "blackest darkness".
The Book of Revelation contains the image of a "lake of fire" and "burning sulphur" where "the devil, the beast, false prophet" will be "tormented day and night for and ever" along with those who worship the beast or receive its mark. The New Testament uses the Greek word hades to refer to the abode of the dead. Only one passage describes hades as a place of the parable of Lazarus and Dives. Jesus here depicts a wicked man suffering fiery torment in hades, contrasted with the bosom of Abraham, explains that it is impossible to cross over from one to the other; some scholars believe that this parable reflects the intertestamental Jewish view of hades as containing separate divisions for the wicked and righteous. In Revelation 20:13-14 hades is itself thrown into the "lake of fire" after being emptied of the dead. In the eschatological discourse of Matthew 25:31-46, Jesus says that, when the Son of Man comes in his glory, he will separate people from one another as a shepherd separates sheep from goats, will consign to everlasting fire those who failed to aid "the least of his brothers".
This separation is stark, with no explicit provision made for fine gradations of merit or guilt: Depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels. For I was hungry and you gave me nothing to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink, I was
In Catholic theology, Limbo is a doctrine concerning the afterlife condition of those who die in original sin without being assigned to the Hell of the Damned. Medieval theologians of western Europe described the underworld as divided into four distinct parts: Hell of the Damned, Limbo of the Fathers or Patriarchs, Limbo of the Infants. However, Limbo of the Infants is not an official doctrine of the Catholic Church; the "Limbo of the Patriarchs" or "Limbo of the Fathers" is seen as the temporary state of those who, despite the sins they may have committed, died in the friendship of God but could not enter Heaven until redemption by Jesus Christ made it possible. The term "Limbo of the Fathers" was a medieval name for the part of the underworld where the patriarchs of the Old Testament were believed to be kept until Christ's soul descended into it by his death through crucifixion and freed them; the Catechism of the Catholic Church describes Christ's descent into Hell as meaning that "the crucified one sojourned in the realm of the dead prior to his resurrection.
This was the first meaning given in the apostolic preaching to Christ's descent into Hell: that Jesus, like all men, experienced death and in his soul joined the others in the realm of the dead." It adds: "But he descended there as Saviour, proclaiming the Good News to the spirits imprisoned there." It does not use the word "Limbo". This concept of Limbo affirms that admittance to Heaven is possible only through the intervention of Jesus Christ, but does not portray Moses, etc. as being punished eternally in Hell. The concept of Limbo of the Patriarchs is not spelled out in Scripture, but is seen by some as implicit in various references. Luke 16:22 speaks of the "bosom of Abraham", which both the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, following early Christian writers, understand as a temporary state of souls awaiting entrance into Heaven; the end of that state is set either at the Resurrection of the Dead, the most common interpretation in the East, or at the Harrowing of Hell, the most common interpretation in the West, but adopted by some in the East.
Jesus told the Good Thief that the two of them would be together "this day" in "Paradise". Some say that the descent of Jesus to the abode of the dead, his presence among them, turned it into a paradise. Others understand the text to mean not "I say to you, This day you will be with me in paradise", but "I say to you this day, You will be with me in paradise". Timothy Radcliffe explained the "today" as a reference to the "Today of eternity". Jesus is described as preaching to "the spirits in prison". Medieval drama sometimes portrayed Christ leading a dramatic assault—The Harrowing of Hell—during the three days between the Crucifixion and the resurrection. In this assault, Jesus escorted them triumphantly into heaven; this imagery is still used in the Eastern Orthodox Church's Holy Saturday liturgy and in Eastern Orthodox icons of the Resurrection of Jesus. The doctrine expressed by the term "Limbo of the Fathers" was taught, for instance, by Clement of Alexandria, who maintained: "It is not right that these should be condemned without trial, that those alone who lived after the coming should have the advantage of the divine righteousness."
The Limbo of Infants is the hypothetical permanent status of the unbaptized who die in infancy, too young to have committed actual sins, but not having been freed from original sin. Recent Catholic theological speculation tends to stress the hope, although not the certainty, that these infants may attain heaven instead of the state of Limbo. While the Catholic Church has a defined doctrine on original sin, it has none on the eternal fate of unbaptized infants, leaving theologians free to propose different theories, which magisterium is free to accept or reject. Limbo is one such theory. In countering Pelagius, who denied original sin, Saint Augustine of Hippo was led to state that because of original sin, "such infants as quit the body without being baptized will be involved in the mildest condemnation of all; that person, therefore deceives both himself and others, who teaches that they will not be involved in condemnation. So great was Augustine's influence in the West, that the Latin Fathers of the 5th and 6th centuries did adopt his position.
In the medieval period, some theologians continued to hold Augustine's view. In the 12th century, Peter Abelard said that these infants suffered no material torment or positive punishment, just the pain of loss at being denied the beatific vision. Others held that unbaptized infants suffered no pain at all: unaware of being deprived of the beatific vision, they enjoyed a state of natural, not su
Filioque is a Latin term added to the original Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, and, the subject of great controversy between Eastern and Western Christianity. The Latin term Filioque describes the Holy Spirit as proceeding from the Son. In the Nicene Creed it is translated by the English phrase "and the Son": I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceedeth from the Father ⟨and the Son⟩. Who with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified.or in Latin: Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem: qui ex Patre ⟨Filioque⟩ procedit Qui cum Patre, et Filio simul adoratur, et cum glorificatur. Whether that term Filioque is included, as well as how it is translated and understood, can have important implications for how one understands the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, central to the majority of Christian churches. For some, the term implies a serious underestimation of the Father's role in the Trinity. Over time, the term became a symbol of conflict between Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity, although there have been attempts at resolving the conflict.
Among the early attempts at harmonization are the works of Maximus the Confessor, who notably was canonised independently by both Eastern and Western churches. The Filioque is included in the form of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed used in most Western Christian churches, first appearing in the 6th century, it was accepted by the popes only in 1014 and is rejected by the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Churches and Church of the East. It is not in the original text of this Creed, attributed to the second ecumenical council, Constantinople I, which says that the Holy Spirit proceeds "from the Father", without additions of any kind, such as "and the Son" or "alone". Differences over this doctrine and the question of papal primacy have been and remain primary causes of schism between the Eastern Orthodox and Western churches; the term has been an ongoing source of conflict between Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity, contributing, in major part, to the East–West Schism of 1054 and proving to be an obstacle to attempts to reunify the two sides.
The controversy referring to the term Filioque involves four separate disagreements: about the term itself about the orthodoxy of the doctrine of the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son, to which the term refers about the legitimacy of inserting the term into the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, about the authority of the pope to define the orthodoxy of the doctrine or to insert the term into the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed. Although the disagreement about the doctrine preceded the disagreement about the insertion into the creed, the two disagreements became linked to the third when the pope approved insertion of the term into the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, in the 11th century. Siecienski writes that "Ultimately what was at stake was not only God's trinitarian nature, but the nature of the Church, its teaching authority and the distribution of power among its leaders."Hubert Cunliffe-Jones identifies two opposing Eastern Orthodox opinions about the Filioque: a "liberal" view and a "rigorist" view.
The "liberal" view sees the controversy as being a matter of mutual miscommunication and misunderstanding. In this view, both East and West are at fault for failing to allow for a "plurality of theologies"; each side went astray in considering their theological framework as the only one, doctrinally valid and applicable. Thus, neither side would accept that the dispute was not so much about conflicting dogmas as it was about different theologoumena or theological perspectives. While all Christians must be in agreement on questions of dogma, there is room for diversity in theological approaches. However, this "liberal" view is vehemently opposed by those in Eastern Orthodox Church whom Cunliffe-Jones identifies as holding a "rigorist" view. According to standard Eastern Orthodox position, as pronounced by Photius, Mark of Ephesus and 20th century Eastern Orthodox theologians such as Vladimir Lossky, the Filioque question hinges on fundamental issues of dogma and cannot be dismissed as one of different theologoumena.
Many in the "rigorist" camp consider the Filioque to have resulted in the role of the Holy Spirit being underestimated by the Western Church and thus leading to serious doctrinal error. In a similar vein, Siecienski comments that, although it was common in the 20th century to view the Filioque as just another weapon in the power struggle between Rome and Constantinople and although this was the case, for many involved in the dispute, the theological issues outweighed by far the ecclesiological concerns. According to Siecienski, the deeper question was whether Eastern and Western Christianity had wound up developing "differing and incompatible teachings about the nature of God". Moreover, Siecienski asserts that the question of whether the teachings of East and West were incompatible became secondary to the fact that, starting around the 8th or 9th century, Christians on both sides of the dispute began to believe that the differences were irreconcilable. From the view of the West, the Eastern rejection of the Filioque denied the consubstantiality of the Father and the Son and was thus a form of crypto-Arianism.
In the East, the interpolation of the Filioque seemed to many to be an indication that the West was teaching a "substantially different faith". Si
Papal infallibility is a dogma of the Catholic Church that states that, in virtue of the promise of Jesus to Peter, the Pope is preserved from the possibility of error "when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church." "Infallibility means more than exemption from actual error. According to Catholic theology, there are several concepts important to the understanding of infallible, divine revelation: Sacred Scripture, Sacred Tradition, the Sacred Magisterium; the infallible teachings of the Pope are part of the Sacred Magisterium, which consists of ecumenical councils and the "ordinary and universal magisterium". In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is one of the channels of the infallibility of the Church; the infallible teachings of the Pope must be based on, or at least not contradict, Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture. The doctrine of infallibility relies on one of the cornerstones of Catholic dogma: that of Petrine supremacy of the pope, his authority as the ruling agent who decides what are accepted as formal beliefs in the Roman Catholic Church.
The use of this power is referred to as speaking ex cathedra. The solemn declaration of papal infallibility by Vatican I took place on 18 July 1870. Since that time, the only example of an ex cathedra decree took place in 1950, when Pope Pius XII defined the Assumption of Mary as an article of faith. Prior to the solemn definition of 1870, there were other decrees which fit the definition of ex cathedra, for example, Pope Boniface VIII in the bull Unam Sanctam of 1302, Pope Pius IX in the Papal constitution Ineffabilis Deus of 1854; the church teaches that infallibility is a charism entrusted by Christ to the whole church, whereby the Pope, as "head of the college of bishops," enjoys papal infallibility. This charism is the supreme degree of participating in Christ's divine authority, which, in the New Covenant, so as to safeguard the faithful from defection and guarantee the profession of faith, ensures the faithful abide in the truth; the church further teaches that divine assistance is given to the Pope when he exercises his ordinary Magisterium.
According to the teaching of the First Vatican Council and Catholic tradition, the conditions required for ex cathedra papal teaching are as follows: the Roman Pontiff speaks ex cathedra, that is, when, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole ChurchThe terminology of a definitive decree makes clear that this last condition is fulfilled, as through a formula such as "By the authority of Our Lord Jesus Christ and of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, by Our own authority, We declare and define the doctrine... to be revealed by God and as such to be and immutably held by all the faithful," or through an accompanying anathema stating that anyone who deliberately dissents is outside the Catholic Church. For example, in 1950, with Munificentissimus Deus, Pope Pius XII's infallible definition regarding the Assumption of Mary, there are attached these words: "Hence if anyone, which God forbid, should dare willfully to deny or to call into doubt that which We have defined, let him know that he has fallen away from the divine and Catholic Faith."As with all charisms, the church teaches that the charism of papal infallibility must be properly discerned, though only by the Church's leaders.
The way to know if something a pope says is infallible or not is to discern if they are ex cathedra teachings. Considered infallible are the teachings of the whole body of bishops of the Church but not only in an ecumenical council. Pastor aeternus does not allow any infallibility for the Pope for new doctrines. Any doctrines defined must be "conformable with Sacred Scripture and Apostolic Traditions": "For the Holy Spirit was not promised to the successors of Peter that by His revelation they might make known new doctrine, but that by His assistance they might inviolably keep and faithfully expound the Revelation, the Deposit of Faith, delivered through the Apostles. " It gives examples of the kinds of consultations that are appropriate include assembling Ecumenical Councils, asking for the mind of the church scattered around the world, so on. Not all Catholic teaching is infallible; the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith differentiates three kinds of doctrine: to be believed as divinely revealed to be held following a solemn defining act by a Pope or Ecumenical council following a non-defining act by a Pope, confirming or re-affirming a thing taught by the ordinary and universal teaching authority of bishops worldwide otherwise, to be respected or submitted to as part of the ordinary teaching authority of bishops, but without any claim of infallibility.
In July 2005 Pope Benedict XVI stated during an impromptu address to priests in Aosta that: "The Pope is not an oracle. Pope John XXIII once remarked: "I am only infallible if I speak infallibly but I shall never do th
One true church
A number of Christian denominations assert that they alone represent the one true church – the church to which Jesus gave his authority in the Great Commission. The Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox communion and the Assyrian Church of the East each understands itself as the one and only original church; the claim to the title of the "one true church" relates to the first of the Four Marks of the Church mentioned in the Nicene Creed: "one, holy and apostolic church". The concept of schism somewhat moderates the competing claims between some churches – one can repair schism. For example, the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches each regard the other as schismatic rather than heretical. A number of groups, such as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, view apostolic succession as an essential element in constituting the one true church, arguing that it has inherited the spiritual and sacramental authority and responsibility that Jesus Christ gave to the Apostles.
Other groups, such as Iglesia ni Cristo, believe in a last-messenger doctrine, where no such succession takes place. A few believe they have restored the original church, in practice; the Seventh-day Adventist Church regards itself to be the one true church in the sense of being a faithful remnant. Many mainstream Protestants regard all baptized Christians as members of the Christian Church; some other Christians, such as Anglicans of Anglo-Catholic churchmanship, espouse a version of branch theory which teaches that the true Christian Church comprises Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, Old Catholic, Oriental Orthodox, Scandinavian Lutheran, Roman Catholic branches. The Catholic Church teaches that Christ created only "one true Church", that this Church of Christ is the Catholic Church, subsists only in the Catholic Church. From this follows that it regards itself as instrumental to "the universal sacrament of salvation for the human race" and "the only true religion". According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Catholic ecclesiology professes the Catholic Church to be the "sole Church of Christ" e.g. the one true church defined as "one, holy and apostolic" in the Four Marks of the Church in the Nicene Creed.
This teaching was formulated at the Council of Nicea at which time the Apostle's Creed had been ratified. The church teaches that only the Catholic Church was founded by Jesus Christ, who appointed the Twelve Apostles to continue his work as the Church's earliest bishops. Catholic belief holds that the Church "is the continuing presence of Jesus on earth", that all duly consecrated bishops have a lineal succession from the apostles. In particular, the Bishop of Rome, is considered the successor to the apostle Simon Peter, from whom the Pope derives his supremacy over the Church; the Church is further described in the papal encyclical Mystici corporis Christi as the Mystical Body of Christ. Thus, the Catholic Church holds that "the one Church of Christ which in the Creed is professed as one, holy and apostolic... This Church constituted and organized in the world as a society, subsists in the Catholic Church, governed by the successor of Peter and by the Bishops in communion with him."In responding to some questions regarding the doctrine of the Church concerning itself, the Vatican's Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith stated, "Clarius dicendum esset veram Ecclesiam esse solam Ecclesiam catholicam romanam..."
And it clarified that the term "subsistit in" used in reference to the Church in the Second Vatican Council's decree Lumen gentium "indicates the full identity of the Church of Christ with the Catholic Church". One of the earlier councils declared that: "There is one universal Church of the faithful, outside of which there is no salvation", a statement of what is known as the doctrine of extra Ecclesiam nulla salus; the Church is further described in the papal encyclical Mystici corporis Christi as the "Mystical Body of Christ". In the encyclical Mortalium animos of 6 January 1928, Pope Pius XI wrote that "in this one Church of Christ no man can be or remain who does not accept and obey the authority and supremacy of Peter and his legitimate successors" and quoted the statement of Lactantius: "The Catholic Church is alone in keeping the true worship; this is the fount of truth, this the house of Faith, this the temple of God: if any man enter not here, or if any man go forth from it, he is a stranger to the hope of life and salvation."
Accordingly, the Second Vatican Council declared: "Whosoever, knowing that the Catholic Church was made necessary by Christ, would refuse to enter or to remain in it, could not be saved. In the same document, the Council continued: "The Church recognizes that in many ways she is linked with those who, being baptized, are honored with the name of Christian, though they do not profess the faith in its entirety or do not preserve unity of communion with the successor of Peter." And in a decree on ecumenism, Unitatis redintegratio, it stated: "Catholics must gladly acknowledge and esteem the Christian endowments from our common heritage which are to be found among our separated brethren. It is right and salutary to recognise the riches of Christ and virtuous works in the lives of others who are bearing witness to Christ, sometimes to the shedding of their blood. For God is always wonderful in His works and worthy of all praise."The Church teaches that the fullness of the "means of salvation" exists only in
The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the Pope’s name and with his authority for the good and for the service of the particular Churches and provides the central organization for the Church to advance its objectives; the structure and organization of responsibilities within the Curia are at present regulated by the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus, issued by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988, which Pope Francis has decided to revise. Other bodies that play an administrative or consulting role in Church affairs are sometimes mistakenly identified with the Curia, such as the Synod of Bishops and regional conferences of bishops. Cardinal Gerhard Müller, former prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, wrote in 2015 that "the Synod of Bishops is not a part of the Roman Curia in the strict sense: it is the expression of the collegiality of bishops in communion with the Pope and under his direction.
The Roman Curia instead aids the Pope in the exercise of his primacy over all the Churches." Curia in medieval and Latin usage means "court" in the sense of "royal court" rather than "court of law". The Roman Curia is sometimes anglicized as the Court of Rome, as in the 1534 Act of Parliament that forbade appeals to it from England, it assists the Pope in carrying out his functions. The Roman Curia can be loosely compared to cabinets in governments of countries with a Western form of governance, but only the Second Section of the Secretariat of State, known as the Section for Relations with States, the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and the Congregation for Catholic Education, can be directly compared with specific ministries of a civil government, it is normal for every Latin Catholic diocese to have its own curia for its administration. For the Diocese of Rome, these functions are not handled by the Roman Curia, but by the Vicariate General of His Holiness for the City of Rome, as provided by the apostolic constitution Ecclesia in Urbe.
The Vicar General of Rome, traditionally a cardinal, his deputy the vicegerent, who holds the personal title of archbishop, supervise the governance of the diocese by reference to the Pope himself, but with no more dependence on the Roman Curia, as such, than other Catholic dioceses throughout the world. A distinct office, the Vicar General for Vatican City, administers the portion of the Diocese of Rome in Vatican City; until there still existed hereditary officers of the Roman Curia, holding titles denominating functions that had ceased to be a reality when the Papal States were lost to the papacy. A reorganization, ordered by Pope Pius X, was incorporated into the 1917 Code of Canon Law. Further steps toward reorganization were begun by Pope Paul VI in the 1960s. Among the goals of this curial reform were the modernization of procedures and the internationalization of the curial staff; these reforms are reflected in the 1983 Code of Canon Law. The offices of the Vatican City State are not part of the Roman Curia, composed only of offices of the Holy See.
The following organs or charges, according to the official website of the Holy See, comprise the Curia. All members of the Curia except the Cardinal Camerlengo and the Major Penitentiary resign their office after a papal death or resignation. See sede vacante. Sr. Luzia Premoli, superior general of the Combonian Missionary Sisters, was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in 2014, becoming the first woman to be appointed a member of a Vatican congregation; the principal departments of the Roman Curia are called dicasteries. The most recent comprehensive constitution of the church, Pastor bonus, provides this definition: "By the word "dicasteries" are understood the Secretariat of State, Tribunals and Offices"; those remain the five principal categories of departments, with the noteworthy change in that there is now more than a single Secretariat. Two new departments announced to begin functioning on 1 August 2016 and 1 January 2017 have been identified only as dicasteries–Dicastery for the Laity and Life and Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development.
Both are headed by a prefect. The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the government of the Roman Catholic Church, it is headed by the Secretary of State, since 15 October 2013 by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, responsible for all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See. The Secretariat is divided into two sections, the Section for General Affairs and the Section for Relations with States, known as the First Section and Second Section, respectively; the Secretariat of State was created in the 15th century and is now the department of the curia most involved in coordinating the Holy See's activities. Matters not within the competence of another dicastery are dealt with by the Secretariat of State; the Secretariat for the Economy was established by Pope Francis in 2014, with the Australian Cardinal George Pell the Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney, as its Cardinal Prefect. Pell's appointment was terminated on 12 December 2018. Two departments of the Roman Curia established by Pope Francis in 2016 have been identified as "dicasteries" rather than as one of the traditional department types.
A third dicastery was named on 23 June 2018. Pope Francis announced on 15 August 2016 the creation of the Dicastery for the Laity and Life, effective 1 September 2016, it took over the responsibilities of the Pontifical Council for the Laity and the Pontifical Council for the Family. As its first Prefect, Francis named Bishop Kevin Farrell