Akbariyya is a branch of Sufi metaphysics based on Ibn Arabi's teachings, an Andalusian Sufi, a gnostic and philosopher. The word is derived from Ibn Arabi's nickname, "Shaykh al-Akbar," meaning "the greatest shaykh." Akbariyya has never been used to indicate a Sufi society in history. It is nowadays used to refer to all historical or contemporary Sufi metaphysicians and Sufis influenced by Ibn Arabi's doctrine Wahdat al-Wujud, it is not to be confused with Al Akbariyya, a secret Sufi society founded by Swedish Sufi'Abdu l-Hadi Aguéli. Wahdat al-Wajud meaning the "unity of being" is a Sufi philosophy emphasizing that'there is no true existence except the Ultimate Truth' or in other words, that the only truth within the universe is God, that all things exist within God only. Ibn Arabi is most characterized in Islamic texts as the originator of this doctrine. However, it is not found in his works; the first to employ this term was Ibn Sabin. Ibn Arabi's disciple and stepson Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi used this term in his works and explained it using philosophical terms.
See Sufi metaphysics In the 20th century there has been focus on the Akbariyya School in academic circles and universities. Viewed in a historical context, increased government support for the study of the Muslim world and Islamic languages emerged in the United States after the Second World War where many students were attracted to Islam and religious studies during the 1970s; the greatest growth in American scholarship on Sufism, took place from the work done by scholars trained during the 1970s. Alexander Knysh notes that “in the decades after World War Two the majority of Western experts in Sufism were no longer based in Europe, but in North America.” Henri Corbin and Fritz Meier who were prominent among these experts, made important contributions to the study of Islamic mysticism. Another important names were Miguel Asín Palacios, Louis Massignon made contributions to Ibn Arabi studies. While Palacios discovered some Akbarian elements in Dante's famous work Divine Comedy Louis Massignon studied on famous Sufi Al-Hallaj saying "Anal Hak" and because of that expression he was executed.
Seyyed Hossein Nasr and his students and academic disciples, have come to play an important role in certain subfields of Sufi studies. The Influence of Nasr and other Traditionalist writers like Rene Guenon and Frithjof Schuon on Sufi studies can be seen on the interpretation of the works of Ibn Arabi and the Akbarian school by such scholars as Titus Burckhardt, Martin Lings, James Morris, William Chittick, Sachiko Murata and others; these names are both practitioners of Sufism and scholars studying Sufism. Viewed, Turkey is situated where Ibn Arabi's most prominent disciple and stepson Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi and other important commentators of Arabi's works lived in the past. Dawūd al-Qayṣarī was invited to Iznik by Orhan Ghazi to be director and teacher of the first Ottoman university was the disciple of Kamāl al-Dīn al-Qāshānī, himself a disciple of Sadr al-Dīn al-Qūnawī; this means that the official teaching itself was set in motion by a great master of the Akbarian school. Not only Sufis but Ottoman sultans and intellectuals had been impressed by Ibn Arabi and his disciples and interpreters.
Seyyed Muhammad Nur al-Arabi was impressed by Ibn Arabi's doctrine, though that continued to decrease until the Modern Era. In the 20th century the last important commentator of Fusûs was Ahmed Avni Konuk, he was a composer of Turkish music. Studies on Sufism Akbarian works, were not common until the first Ph. D. thesis was written by Prof. Dr. Mahmud Erol Kılıc in Marmara University's Faculty of Theology titled "Ibn'Arabi's Ontology" in 1995. Academic studies on Akbarian metaphysics and philosophy began to rise after studies on this topic were conducted by Turkish scholars such as Mustafa Tahralı and Mahmud Erol Kılıc. In terms of Akbarian studies, the most important event to take place was the translation of Ibn Arabi's magnum opus,"Futuhat-ı Makkiyya", to Turkish. A Turkish scholar, Prof. Dr. Ekrem Demirli started translating the work in the form of 18 volumes in 2006 and finished in 2012; this particular translation was the first complete translation to another language. Demirli's work includes translating Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi's corpus to Turkish and writing a PhD thesis on him in 2004, writing a commentary on Fusus al-Hikam by Ibn Arabi, writing a book titled İslam Metafiziğinde Tanrı ve İnsan.
There are many Akbarian works in Ottoman Turkish. There had and have been many Akbarian Sufis and philosophers in history from all over the world. Ibn Arabi created the philosophy of Wahdat al-Wujud; the Sufis listed below were members of different orders, but following the concept of Wahdat al-Wujud. Masataka Takeshita: Ibn'Arabi's Theory of the Perfect Man and Its Place in the History of Islamic Thought, Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 1987 William C. Chittick: Ibn'Arabi's Imaginal Worlds: Creativity of Imagination and the Problem of Religious Diversity _____________: The Sufi Path of Knowledge: Ibn al-'Arabi's Metaphysics of Imagination ______________: Ibn'Arabi - Heir to the Prophets. ______________: Imaginal Worlds. ______________: The Self-Disclosure of God Stephen Hirtenstein: The Unlimited Mercifier: The Spiritual Life and Thought of Ibn'Arabi _____________: Prayer and Contemplation
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Dervish or darwish in Islam can refer broadly to members of a Sufi fraternity, or more narrowly to a religious mendicant, who chose or accepted material poverty. The latter usage is found in Persian and Turkish, corresponding to the Arabic term faqir, their focus is on the universal values of love and service, deserting the illusions of ego to reach God. In most Sufi orders, a dervish is known to practice dhikr through physical exertions or religious practices to attain the ecstatic trance to reach God, their most common practice is Sama, associated with the 13th-century mystic Rumi. In folklore, dervishes are credited with the ability to perform miracles and described with supernatural powers; the Persian word darvīsh is of ancient origin and descends from a Proto-Iranian word that appears in Avestan as drigu-, "needy, mendicant", via Middle Persian driyosh. Dervishes try to approach God rather by virtues and individual experience, than by religious scholarship. Many dervishes are mendicant ascetics.
The main reason they beg is to learn humility, but dervishes are prohibited to beg for their own good. They have to give the collected money to other poor people. Others work in common professions; some classical writers indicate that the poverty of the dervish is not economic. Saadi, for instance, who himself travelled as a dervish, wrote extensively about them, says in his Gulistan: Of what avail is frock, or rosary, Or clouted garment? Keep thyself but free From evil deeds, it will not need for thee To wear the cap of felt: a darwesh be In heart, wear the cap of Tartary. Rumi writes in Book 1 of his Masnavi: Water that's poured inside will sink the boat While water underneath keeps it afloat. Driving wealth from his heart to keep it pure King Solomon preferred the title'Poor': That sealed jar in the stormy sea out there Floats on the waves because it's full of air, When you've the air of dervishood inside You'll float above the world and there abide... The whirling dance or Sufi whirling, proverbially associated with dervishes is best known in the West by the practices of the Mevlevi order in Turkey, is part of a formal ceremony known as the Sama.
It is, however practiced by other orders. The Sama is only one of the many Sufi ceremonies performed to try to reach religious ecstasy; the name Mevlevi comes from the Persian poet Rumi, a dervish himself. This practice, though not intended as entertainment, has become a tourist attraction in Turkey. There are various orders of dervishes all of which trace their origins from various Muslim saints and teachers Imam Ali. Various orders and suborders have disappeared over the centuries. Dervishes spread into North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Pakistan, India and Tajikistan. Other dervish groups include the Bektashis, who are connected to the janissaries, the Senussi, who are rather orthodox in their beliefs. Other fraternities and subgroups chant verses of the Qur'an, play drums or whirl in groups, all according to their specific traditions, they practice meditation, as is the case with most of the Sufi orders in South Asia, many of whom owe allegiance to, or were influenced by, the Chishti order.
Each fraternity uses its own garb and methods of acceptance and initiation, some of which may be rather severe. The Dervish movement was an early 20th-century Somali Sunni Islamic state, established by Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, a religious leader who gathered Somali soldiers from across the Horn of Africa and united them into a loyal army known as the Dervishes; this Dervish army enabled Hassan to carve out a powerful state through conquest of lands claimed by the Somali Sultans, the Ethiopians and the European powers. The Dervish movement acquired renown in the Islamic and Western worlds due to its resistance against Britain and Italy; the Dervish movement repulsed British-led Somali and Ethiopian forces four times and forced them to retreat to the coastal region. The polity maintained relations with other authorities, receiving support from the Ottoman and German empires; the Turks named Hassan Emir of the Somali nation, the Germans promised to recognize any territories the Dervishes were to acquire.
The Dervish movement was defeated by the British in 1920. Various western historical writers have sometimes used the term dervish rather loosely, linking it to, among other things, the Mahdist uprising in Sudan and other rebellions against colonial powers. In such cases, the term "dervishes" may have been used as a generic term for the opposing Islamic entity and all members of its military and religious institutions, including persons who would not be considered "dervishes" in the strict sense. For example, a contemporary British drawing of the fighting in Sudan was entitled "The defeat of the dervishes at Toski". Derviş, a variant of the spelling Fakir Qalandariyya Warsangeli Daraawiish The Tale of the Four Dervishes Qissa Chahar Dervish Death and the Dervish, a novel by Yugoslav writer Meša Selimović The Journey of the Sufi / The Dervish Bektashi Order of Dervishes Rifai Dervish Order Rifai Dervishes A photo essay on the Sufis and Sufi dervishes of Pakistan Videos of Dervish music and dances of Rumi
Bektashi Order or Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah is a Sufi dervish order named after the 13th century Alevi Wali Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan. The order, whose headquarters is in Tirana, Albania, is found throughout Anatolia and the Balkans, was strong in Albania and among Ottoman era Greek Muslims from the regions of Epirus and Macedonia. However, the Bektashi order does not seem to have attracted quite as many adherents from among Bosnian Muslims, who tended to favor more mainstream Sunni orders such as the Naqshbandiyya and Qadiriyya; the order represents the official ideology of Bektashism. In addition to the spiritual teachings of Haji Bektash Veli, the Bektashi order was significantly influenced during its formative period by the Hurufis, the Qalandariyya stream of Sufism, to varying degrees the Shia beliefs circulating in Anatolia during the 14th to 16th centuries; the mystical practices and rituals of the Bektashi order were systematized and structured by Balım Sultan in the 16th century after which many of the order's distinct practices and beliefs took shape.
A large number of academics consider Bektashism to have fused a number of Shia and Sufi concepts, although the order contains rituals and doctrines that are distinct. Throughout its history Bektashis have always had wide appeal and influence among both the Ottoman intellectual elite as well as the peasantry; the Bektashi Order is a Sufi order and shares much in common with other Islamic mystical movements, such as the need for an experienced spiritual guide—called a baba in Bektashi parlance — as well as the doctrine of "the four gates that must be traversed": the "Sharia", "Tariqah", "Marifa", "Haqiqah". Bektashism places much emphasis on the concept of Wahdat-ul-Wujood وحدة الوجود, the "Unity of Being", formulated by Ibn Arabi; this has been labeled as pantheism, although it is a concept closer to panentheism. Bektashism is heavily permeated with Shiite concepts, such as the marked reverence of Ali, The Twelve Imams, the ritual commemoration of Ashurah marking the Battle of Karbala; the old Persian holiday of Nowruz is celebrated by Bektashis as Imam Ali's birthday.
In keeping with the central belief of Wahdat-ul-Wujood the Bektashi see reality contained in Haqq-Muhammad-Ali, a single unified entity. Bektashi do not consider this a form of trinity. There are many other practices and ceremonies that share similarity with other faiths, such as a ritual meal and yearly confession of sins to a baba. Bektashis base their practices and rituals on their non-orthodox and mystical interpretation and understanding of the Quran and the prophetic practice, they have no written doctrine specific to them, thus rules and rituals may differ depending on under whose influence one has been taught. Bektashis revere Sufi mystics outside of their own order, such as Ibn Arabi, Al-Ghazali and Jelalludin Rumi who are close in spirit to them. Bektashis hold that the Quran has two levels of meaning: an inner, they hold the latter to be superior and eternal and this is reflected in their understanding of both the universe and humanity. Bektashism is initiatic and members must traverse various levels or ranks as they progress along the spiritual path to the Reality.
First level members are called aşıks عاشق. They are those who, while not having taken initiation into the order, are drawn to it. Following initiation one becomes a mühip محب. After some time as a mühip, one can become a dervish; the next level above dervish is that of baba. The baba is considered to be the head of a qualified to give spiritual guidance. Above the baba is the rank of halife-baba. Traditionally there were twelve of these; the dedebaba was considered to be the highest ranking authority in the Bektashi Order. Traditionally the residence of the dedebaba was the Pir Evi, located in the shrine of Hajji Bektash Wali in the central Anatolian town of Hacıbektaş, known as Hajibektash complex; the Bektashi are the disciples of some of his descendants. The Bektashi order was widespread in the Ottoman Empire, their lodges being scattered throughout Anatolia as well as many parts of the southern Balkans and in the imperial city of Constantinople; the order had close ties with the Janissary corps, the elite infantry corp of the Ottoman Army, therefore became associated with Anatolian and Balkan Muslims of Eastern Orthodox convert origin Albanians and northern Greeks.
With the abolition of Janissaries, the Bektashi order was banned throughout the Ottoman Empire by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826. This decision was supported by the Sunni religious elite as well as the leaders of other, more orthodox, Sufi orders. Bektashi tekkes were closed and their dervishes were exiled. Bektashis regained freedom with the coming of the Tanzimat era. After the foundation of republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk banned all Sufi orders and shut down the lodges in 1925; the Bektashi leadership moved to Albania and established their headquarters in the city of Tirana. Among the most famous follower
A tariqa is a school or order of Sufism, or a concept for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking Haqiqa, which translates as "ultimate truth". A tariqa has a murshid; the members or followers of a tariqa are known as muridin, meaning "desirous", viz. "desiring the knowledge of God and loving God". The metaphor of "way, path" is to be understood in connection of the term sharia which has the meaning of "path", more "well-trodden path; the "path" metaphor of tariqa is that of a further path, taken by the mystic, which continues from the "well-trodden path" or exoteric of sharia towards the esoteric haqiqa. A fourth "station" following the succession of shariah and haqiqa is called marifa; this is the "unseen center" of haqiqa, the ultimate aim of the mystic, corresponding to the unio mystica in Western mysticism. Tasawwuf, Arabic word that refers to mysticism and Islamic esotericism, is known in the West as Sufism; the most popular tariqa in the West is the Mevlevi Order, named after Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi.
In the same time the Bektashi Order was founded, named after the Alevi Muslim saint Haji Bektash Veli. Four large tariqas in South Asia are: the Naqshbandi Order, named after Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari. Large tariqats in Africa include Tijaniyya. Others can be offshoots of a tariqa. For example, the Qalandariyya has roots in Malamatiyya and Wafa'i of orders are offshoots of the Suhrawardi order; the Ashrafia after the 13 the century illustrious sufi saint Ashraf Jahangir Semnani is the sub branch of Chisti spiritual lineage. The Maizbhandari Tariqa or Maizbhandari Sufi Order is a liberated Sufism order established in the Bangladesh in the 19th century by the Gausul Azam Shah Sufi Syed Ahmadullah Maizbhandari, 27th descendent of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Membership of a particular Sufi order is not exclusive and cannot be likened to the ideological commitment to a political party. Unlike the Christian monastic orders which are demarcated by firm lines of authority and sacrament, Sufis are members of various Sufi orders.
The non-exclusiveness of Sufi orders has consequences for the social extension of Sufism. They cannot be regarded as indulging in a zero sum competition which a purely political analysis might have suggested. Rather their joint effect is to impart to Sufism a cumulant body of tradition, rather than individual and isolated experiences. In most cases the sheikh nominates his khalifa or "successor" during his lifetime, who will take over the order. In rare cases, if the sheikh dies without naming a khalifa, the students of the tariqa elect another spiritual leader by vote. In some orders it is recommended to take a Khalif from the same order as the murshid. In some groups it is customary for the khalifa to be the son of the sheikh, although in other groups the khalīfa and the sheikh are not relatives. In yet other orders a successor may be identified through the spiritual dreams of its members. Tariqas have silsilas "chain, lineage of sheikhs". All orders except the Naqshbandi order claim a silsila that leads back to Muhammad through Ali..
Every Murid, on entering the tariqa, gets his awrad, or daily recitations, authorized by his murshid. These recitations are extensive and time-consuming. One must be in a state of ritual purity; the recitations change. The Initiation ceremony is routine and consists of reading chapter 1 of the Quran followed by a single phrase prayer. Criteria have to be met to be promoted in rank: the common way is to repeat a single phrase prayer 82,000 times or more as in the case of Burhaniyya, a number that grows with each achieved rank. Murids who experience unusual interaction during meditation: hear voices like "would you like to see a prophet?" or see visions who might communicate with the Murid are held dear in the "Haḍra", the weekly group-chanting of prayers in attempt of reaching spirits as they are to experience something unusual and pass it on. This Murid is promoted faster than others; the least common way is to cause a miracle to happen with criteria similar to that of Catholic Sainthood. Being followers of the spiritual traditions of Islam loosely referred to as Sufism, these groups were sometimes distinct from the Ulma or mandated scholars, acted as informal missionaries of Islam.
They provided accepted avenues for emotional expressions of faith, the Tariqas spread to all corners of the Muslim world, exercised a degree of political influence inordinate to their size (take for example the influence that the sheikhs of the Safavid had over the armies of Tamerlane, or the missionary work of Ali-Shir Nava'i in Tu
The Aissawa is a religious and mystical brotherhood founded in Meknes, Morocco, by Sheikh al-Kamil Mohamed al-Hadi ben Issa, best known as the Shaykh Al-Kamil, or "Perfect Sufi Master". The terms Aissawiyya and Aissawa, derive from the name of the founder, designate the brotherhood and its disciples, they are known for their spiritual music, which comprises songs of religious psalms, characterized by the use of the oboe ghaita accompanied by percussion using polyrhythm. Complex ceremonies, which use symbolic dances to bring the participants to ecstatic trance, are held by the Aissawa in private during domestic ritual nights, in public during celebrations of national festivals as well as during folk performances or religious festivities, such as Ramadan, or mawlid, the "birth of the Prophet." These are organized by the Algerian States. Some details regarding Ben Issa remain unknown, he has a controversial genealogy and a hagiography that projects the image of a Sufi master and legendary ascetic of considerable spiritual influence.
Ben Issa built his own mausoleum in Zaouia in the city of Meknes. This is now a destination for his modern followers to visit and pray while participating in individual or collective acts of piety. Ben Issa was initiated into Sufism by three masters of the tariqa Shadhiliyya/Jazuliyya: Abu al-Abbas Ahmad Al-Hariti, Abdelaziz al-Tebaa and Muhammad as-Saghir as-Sahli; the spiritual doctrine of the Issawa follows the earlier mystical tradition of the tariqa Shadhiliyya/Jazuliyya. This religious teaching first appeared in 15th century Marrakesh and is the most orthodox mystical method to appear in the western region of North Africa known as the Maghreb. Issawa disciples are taught to follow the instruction of their founder by adhering to Sunni Islam and practising additional psalms including the long prayer known as "Glory to the Eternal"; the original Issawa doctrine makes no mention of ecstatic or ritual exercises such as music and dance. The Zaouia or monastery in Meknes is the main spiritual centre of the Issawa brotherhood.
Founded by Muhammad Ben Issa at the end of the 15th century, construction resumed three centuries under sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah. Renovated by the Ministry for Habous and Islamic Affairs and maintained by the municipal services, this is the center of the brotherhood's international network; the site is open to the public all year round and is the location of the tombs of founder Shiekh al-Kamil, his disciple Abu ar-Rawayil, the alleged son of the founder, Issa Al-Mehdi. Issawa's international growth began in the 18th century. From Morocco, it has spawned organizations in Algeria, Libya, Egypt and Iraq. Outside of these countries, Issawi practice without immediate access to Issawa institutions, as in France, Italy, the Netherlands, the USA and Canada. There is a building movement in the United States, focused in Chicago. Theoretically, the brotherhood's network is led from the mother-monastery in Meknes by direct biological descendants of Muhammad Ben Issa; the leader is Sidi Allal al-Issawi, a teacher and member of the League of Oulemas of Morocco and Senegal, as well as a poet and historian.
In Morocco, the brotherhood – the musicians together with their rituals and music – enjoy a particular vogue. The basic cell of the religious order in Morocco is the team, which takes the form of a traditional musical orchestra with twenty to fifty disciples. Since a decision taken in the 17th century by the mother-monastery, groups of musicians are placed under the authority of a delegate. There are orchestras of the brotherhood across Morocco, but they are numerous in the towns of Fes and Meknes, under the authority of the master Haj Azedine Bettahi, a well-known Sufi musician; as leader of the muqaddem-s, Haj Azedine Bettahi has under his authority the following individuals: Haj Mohamed Ben Bouhama Haj Muhammad'Azzam Haj Said El Guissy Haj Said Berrada Abdeljelil Al Aouam'Abdelatif Razini'Adnan Chouni'Omar'Alawi'Abou Lhaz Muhammad'Abdallah Yaqoubi Muhammad Ben Hammou Haj Hussein Lbaghmi Idriss Boumaza Haj'Abdelhak Khaldun Muhammad Ben Chabou Mohcine Arafa Bricha Moustafa Barakat Nabil Ben Slimane Hassan Amrani Youssef'Alami Youssef Semlali'Abdellah al-Mrabet Benaissa Ghouali Djamel Sahli Nadjib Mekdia Lounis Ghazali Djamel Blidi Essaid Haddadou Mustapha Ben Ouahchia Hadj Ali Al Badawi Cheikhuna Hakim Meftah Al Bedri Abdelillah BerrahmaAll Issawa groups lead ceremonies that mix mystical invocation with exorcisms and trance-inducing group dances.
In Morocco, the ceremonies of the Issawa brotherhood take the form of domestic nightly rituals, organized by Imam Shiekh Boulila, at the request of women sympathizers. Women are the principal customers of the orchestras of the brotherhood in Morocco; as the Aissawa are supposed to bring to people blessings, reasons for organizing a ceremony are varied and include celebration of a Muslim festivity, birth, circumcision, or exorcism, the search for a cure for illness or to make contact with the divine through the extase. Rituals have standardized phases among all the Aissawa orchestras; these include mystical recitations of Sufi litanies and the singing of spiritual poems along with exorcisms, collective dances. Ludic aspects of the ceremony are attested to by the participants' laughter and dances, alongside ecstatic emo
Qawwali is a form of Sufi Islamic devotional music originating from South Asia, notably popular in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan. It is part of a musical tradition. Performed at Sufi shrines or dargahs throughout South Asia, it gained mainstream popularity and an international audience in late 20th century. Qawwali music received international exposure through the work of the late Pakistani singers Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Sabri Brothers, Aziz Mian due to several releases on the Real World label, followed by live appearances at WOMAD festivals. Other famous Qawwali singers include Pakistan's Fareed Ayyaz & Abu Muhammad, Rahat Fateh Ali Khan, Badar Maindad, Rizwan & Moazzam Duo, the late Amjad Sabri and Bahauddin Qutbuddin. Delhi's Sufi saint Amir Khusrow of the Chisti order of Sufis is credited with fusing the Persian, Arabic and Indian musical traditions in the late 13th century in India to create Qawwali as we know it today; the word Sama is still used in Central Asia and Turkey to refer to forms similar to Qawwali, in India and Bangladesh, the formal name used for a session of Qawwali is Mehfil-e-Sama.
Qaul is an "utterance", Qawwāl is someone who repeats a Qaul, Qawwāli is what a Qawwāl sings. The songs which constitute the qawwali repertoire are in Persian, Hindi and Punjabi. There are some in Persian from the Mughal era, a smattering in Saraiki and dialects of north India like Brajbhasha and Awadhi. There is qawwali in some regional languages but the regional language tradition is obscure; the sound of the regional language qawwali can be different from that of mainstream qawwali. This is true of Chhote Babu Qawwal, whose style of singing is much closer to the Bengali Baul music than to the qawwali of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, for example; the poetry is implicitly understood to be spiritual in its meaning though the lyrics can sometimes sound wildly secular, or outright hedonistic. The central themes of qawwali are love and longing. Qawwalis are classified by their content into several categories: A hamd, Arabic for praise, is a song in praise of Allah. Traditionally, a qawwali performance starts with a hamd.
A na`at, Arabic for description, is a song in praise of Muhammad. The opening hamd is traditionally followed by a naat. A manqabat is a song in one of the Sufi saints. Manaqib in praise of Ali are sung at both Shi'a gatherings. If one is sung, it will follow right after the naat. There is at least one manqabat in a traditional programme. A marsiya, Arabic for lamentation for a dead person, is a lamentation over the death of much of Imam Husayn's family in the Battle of Karbala; this would be sung only at a Shi'a gathering. A ghazal, Arabic for love song, is a song. There are two extended metaphors that run through ghazals—the joys of drinking and the agony of separation from the beloved; these songs feature exquisite poetry, can be taken at face value, enjoyed at that level. In fact, in Pakistan and India, ghazal is a separate, distinct musical genre in which many of the same songs are performed in a different musical style, in a secular context. In the context of that genre, the songs are taken at face value, no deeper meaning is implied.
But in the context of qawwali, these songs of intoxication and yearning use secular metaphors to poignantly express the soul's longing for union with the Divine, its joy in loving the Divine. In the songs of intoxication, "wine" represents "knowledge of the Divine", the "cup-bearer" is God or a spiritual guide, the "tavern" is the metaphorical place where the soul may be fortunate enough to attain spiritual enlightenment. Intoxication is being filled with the joy of loving the Divine. In the songs of yearning, the soul, having been abandoned in this world by that cruel and cavalier lover, sings of the agony of separation, the depth of its yearning for reunion. A kafi is a poem in Punjabi, Seraiki or Sindhi, in the unique style of poets such as Sultan Bahoo, Shah Hussain, Bulleh Shah and Sachal Sarmast. Two of the more well-known Kafis include Mera Piya Ghar Aaya. A munajaat, Arabic for a conversation in the night or a form of prayer, is a song where the singer displays his thanks to Allah through a variety of linguistic techniques.
It is sung in Persian, with Mawlana Jalāl-ad-Dīn Rumi credited as its author. A group of qawwali musicians, called a party consists of eight or nine men including a lead singer, one or two side singers, one or two harmoniums, percussion. If there is only one percussionist, he plays the tabla and dholak the tabla with the dominant hand and the dholak with the other one. There will be two percussionists, in which case one might play the tabla and the other the dholak. There is a chorus of four or five men who repeat key verses, who aid percussion by