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Layup

A layup in basketball is a two-point shot attempt made by leaping from below, laying the ball up near the basket, using one hand to bounce it off the backboard and into the basket. The motion and one-handed reach distinguish it from a jump shot; the layup is considered the most basic shot in basketball. When doing a layup, the player lifts the outside foot, or the foot away from the basket. An undefended layup is a high percentage shot; the main obstacle is getting near the rim and avoiding blocks by taller defenders who stand near the basket. Common layup strategies are to create spaces, release the ball from a different spot, or use alternate hands. A player able to reach over the rim might choose to perform a more spectacular and higher percentage slam dunk instead; as the game has evolved through the years, so has the layup. Several different versions of the layup are around today. Layups can be broadly categorized into two types: the overarm; the underarm layup involves using most of the wrist and the fingers to'lay' the ball into the net or off the board.

This layup is more known as the finger roll. Wilt Chamberlain was one of the early practitioners of a showy finger roll layup. Notable past NBA players who rely on the underarm finger roll are Mike Bibby and Allen Iverson. Finger rolls today have many forms, including the "Around the World" which involves a complete circle around the player before the layup and a variety of faking in the approach to the rim. A classic example is a play by Jason Williams during his time with Sacramento, in which Williams brought the ball behind his back with his right hand, in a fake of a back pass, brought it front again with the same hand for the finish; the other layup is the overhand shot, similar to a jump shot but from a close range. Overhand layups nearly always involve the action of the backboard. Players like Scottie Pippen and Karl Malone have used this move to great effect; the Reverse Layup is a more stylish method of making the ball from close. You fake the defender into defending a regular layup on the near side and jump to the far side of the basket before shooting.

One notable Reverse Layup was that of Michael Jordan. His Reverse Layup consisted of him staying on the same side of the hoop while doing the Reverse Layup, it is common for players to create room for a layup by making use of the allotted two steps before the layup attempt. Variations and improvisations exist, yet the most common form is the'Euro-Step'. So called as it was introduced to the NBA by European players, it has been adopted by guards and forwards as it relies on agility and footwork to avoid larger defenders, although bigger players such as Joel Embiid have been seen making use of the move; the Euro-Step itself involves picking up one's dribble while dribbling, taking one step in one direction quickly taking a step in the other direction to avoid the defender to create room for a layup attempt. To make use of the move efficiently, it is best to dribble in aggressively take two broad steps in different directions while bringing the ball over one's head in the direction one is stepping for maximum evasion and protection while drawing a foul.

Information on Layup and Variants "How to do a Reverse Layup in Basketball". Wikihow.com. Retrieved 11 Feb 2014. Layups and Dunks

Leonid Rudenko

Leonid Rudenko, better known by his stage name, Rudenko, is a record producer and DJ from Russia, born and raised in Moscow. Rudenko started producing when he was 10 years old and spent all of his spare time experimenting with new sounds. "Destination", released in 2008, was Rudenko's first major single in Russia. But his second single, "Everybody", was his greatest international success, it was released in the UK in February, 2009 and peaked on the UK Singles Chart at number 24. Rudenko composed the music, played during the opening of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, when the athletes entered the stadium; the music from the ceremony was released as a digital album called Parade of Nations on February 28, 2014 due to massive fan demand from around the world. Destination Everybody Real Life Love Story Goodbye Stranger Восточный экспресс feat. Mitya Fomin

Government of Meiji Japan

The Government of Meiji Japan was the government, formed by politicians of the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain in the 1860s. The Meiji government was the early government of the Empire of Japan. Politicians of the Meiji government were known as the Meiji oligarchy, who overthrew the Tokugawa shogunate. After the Meiji Restoration, the leaders of the samurai who overthrew the Tokugawa shogunate had no clear agenda or pre-developed plan on how to run Japan, they did have a number of things in common –, according to Andrew Gordon, “It was their intermediate status and their insecure salaried position, coupled with their sense of frustrated ambition and entitlement to rule, that account for the revolutionary energy of the Meiji insurgents and their far-reaching program of reform”. Most were in their mid-40s, most were from the four tozama domains of western Japan. Although from lower-ranked samurai families, they had risen to military leadership roles in their respective domains, came from a Confucian-based educational background which stressed loyalty and service to society.

Most either had first-hand experience in travel overseas, or second-hand experience through contacts with foreign advisors in Japan. As a result, they knew of the military superiority of the western nations and of the need for Japan to unify, to strengthen itself to avoid the colonial fate of its neighbors on the Asian continent; however after the resignation of Tokugawa Yoshinobu in 1867, with no official centralized government, the country was a collection of semi-independent daimyōs controlled feudal domains, held together by the military strength of the Satchō Alliance, by the prestige of the Imperial Court. In early March 1868, with the outcome of the Boshin War still uncertain, the new Meiji government summoned delegates from all of the domains to Kyoto to establish a provisional consultative national assembly. In April 1868, the Charter Oath was promulgated, in which Emperor Meiji set out the broad general outlines for Japan's development and modernization. Two months in June 1868, the Seitaisho was promulgated to establish the new administrative basis for the Meiji government.

This administrative code was drafted by Fukuoka Takachika and Soejima Taneomi, was a mixture of western concepts such as division of powers, a revival of ancient structures of bureaucracy dating back to Nara period. A central governmental structure, or Daijōkan, was established; the Daijōkan had seven departments: Legislative Executive Shinto Finance Military Foreign Affairs Civil AffairsA separate Justice Ministry was established to create a form of separation of powers in imitation of the western countries. The government instigated Fuhanken Sanchisei, dividing territory into urban prefectures or municipalities and rural prefectures. Local government in Japan consisted of area confiscated from the Tokugawa, administered from the Department of Civil Affairs, 273 semi-independent domains. Agents from the central government were sent to each of the domains to work towards administrative uniformity and conformation to the directives of the central government. In early 1869, the national capital was transferred from Kyoto to Edo, renamed Tokyo.

In March 1869, the central government led by Ōkubo Toshimichi of Satsuma felt strong enough to effect further centralization. After merging the armies of Satsuma and Chōshū into a combined force, Ōkubo and Kido Takayoshi convinced the daimyō of Satsuma, Chōshū, Hizen and Tosa to surrender their domains to the emperor. Other daimyō were forced to do the same, all were reappointed as “governors” to their respective domains, which were now treated as sub-divisions of the central government. In the spring of 1871, Ōkubo, Inoue Kaoru, Yamagata Aritomo, Saigō Takamori, Ōyama Iwao, Sanjō Sanetomi and Iwakura held a secret meeting during which it was decided to proceed with abolition of the han domains entirely; that year, all of the ex-daimyō were summoned to the Emperor, he issued a decree converting the domains to prefectures headed by a bureaucratic appointee from the central government. The daimyō were generously pensioned off into retirement, their castles became the local administrative centers for the central government.

This decree resulted in 305 units of local administration, which were reduced to 72 prefectures and 3 municipalities by the end of the year through various mergers, so that by the end of 1871, Japan had become a centralized state. The transition was made so that there was no disruption to the lives of the common people, no outbreaks of resistance or violence; the central government absorbed all of the debts and obligations of the domains, many former officials in the domains found new employment with the central government. In 1871, the central government supported the creation of consultative assembles at the lowest levels of government, at the town and county level; the membership of the prefectural assemblies was drawn from these local assemblies. As the local assemblies only had the power of debate, not legislation, they provided an important safety valve, without the ability to challenge the authority of the central government. While domains were being abolished and local administrative boundaries were being moved around, in August 1869, the central government itself underwent some restructuring to reinforce centralized authority.

The idea of division of powers was abandoned. The new government was based on a national assembly, an appointive