Soviet Antarctic Expedition
The Soviet Antarctic Expedition was part of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of the Soviet Committee on Antarctic Research of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The Soviet Union's Ministry of Sea Transport was responsible for the administration and supply of the expeditions; the first Soviet contact with Antarctica was in January 1947 when the Slava whaling flotilla began whaling in Antarctic waters. The first Soviet Antarctic station, was established near the coast on February 13, 1956; this was added to in December 1957 by another station, Vostok built inland near the south geomagnetic pole. Mirny Vostok Novolazarevskaya Molodyozhnaya Bellingshausen Leningradskaya Russkaya Progress Komsomolskaya Pionerskaya Druzhnaya I Druzhnaya II List of stations in use during the International Geophysical Year. Sovetskaya Pole of inaccessibility station The Soviet Union engaged in expeditions to Antarctica from 1955 to its dissolution. After this, the Soviet Antarctic stations were taken over by Russia.
Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute List of Antarctic expeditions Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations List of Russian explorers Zapadnoye Lake Boczek, B. A. "The Soviet Union and the Antarctic Regime" in The American Journal of International Law, 78:834–58 Voronin, V. I. "The first Antarctic whaling expedition of the Slava flotilla" in Proceedings of the Soviet Geographical Society, 80:213–222 Nudel'man, A. V.. Soviet Antarctic Expeditions 1955-1959. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR. Gan, I, Towards the great unknown: the Soviets prepare for their thrust into the Antarctic interior and transnational agendas in Antarctic Research from the 1950s and beyond. Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop of the SCAR Action Group on the History of Antarctic Research, BPRC Technical report no. 2011-01, Byrd Polar Research Centre, Ohio, pp. 116–130. Gan, I,'The first practical Soviet steps towards getting a foothold in the Antarctic': the Soviet Antarctic whaling flotilla Slava, Polar Record, 47, pp. 21–28.
ISSN 0032-2474 Gan, I, Soviet Antarctic plans after the International Geophysical Year: changes in policy, Polar Record, 46, pp. 244–256. ISSN 0032-2474 Gan, I, The reluctant hosts: Soviet Antarctic expedition ships visit Australia and New Zealand in 1956, Polar Record, 45, pp. 37–50. ISSN 0032-2474 Gan, I, Will the Russians abandon Mirny to the penguins after 1959... or will they stay?, Polar Record, 45, pp. 167–175. ISSN 0032-2474 Gan, I, The Soviet Preparation for the IGY Antarctic Program and the Australian Response: Politics and Science, Bolet%#237. Gan, I, The Soviet Preparation for the IGY Antarctic Program and the Australian Response: Politics and Science, 2nd SCAR Workshop on the History of Antarctic Research, 21–22 September 2006, Chile, pp. 11–15. Gan, I, There was no cold war in Antarctica. Soviet-Australian contacts in 1950s, Russia in Antarctica Conference proceedings, April 2006, Saint Petersburg, pp. 77–78
Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen
Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen, a Baltic German naval officer in the Imperial Russian Navy and explorer, who rose to the rank of admiral. He participated in the First Russian circumnavigation of the globe and subsequently became a leader of another circumnavigation expedition that discovered the continent of Antarctica. Bellingshausen started his service in the Russian Baltic Fleet, after distinguishing himself joined the First Russian circumnavigation of the Earth in 1803–1806, serving on the merchant ship Nadezhda under the captaincy of Adam Johann von Krusenstern. After the journey he published a collection of maps of the newly explored areas and islands of the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, he commanded several ships of the Black Sea Fleets; as a prominent cartographer, Bellingshausen was appointed to command the Russian circumnavigation of the globe in 1819–1821, intended to explore the Southern Ocean and to find land in the proximity of the South Pole. Mikhail Lazarev prepared the expedition and was made Bellingshausen's second-in-command and the captain of the sloop Mirny, while Bellingshausen himself commanded the sloop Vostok.
During this expedition Bellingshausen and Lazarev became the first explorers to see the land of Antarctica on 27 January 1820. They never lost each other from view, thus they disproved Captain Cook's assertion that it was impossible to find land in the southern ice-fields. The expedition discovered and named Peter I Island, Zavodovski and Visokoi Islands, the Antarctic Peninsula and Alexander Island, made other discoveries in the tropical waters of the Pacific. Made counter admiral on his return, Bellingshausen participated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829. Promoted to vice-admiral, he again served in the Baltic Fleet in 1830s, from 1839 he was the military governor of Kronstadt, where he died. In 1831 he published the book on his Antarctic travels, called Double Investigation of the Southern Polar Ocean and the Voyage Around the World. Russians remember him as one of their greatest explorers. Multiple geographical features and locations in the Antarctic, named in honor of Bellingshausen, commemorate his role in the exploration of the southern polar region.
Bellingshausen was born to a Baltic German noble Bellingshausen family in the Lahhentagge manor, Ösel County in the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire. His paternal family had Holsteinish origins, the surname Bellingshausen was first recorded in Lübeck, he enlisted as a cadet in the Imperial Russian Navy at the age of ten. After graduating from the Kronstadt naval academy at age eighteen, Bellingshausen rose to the rank of captain. A great admirer of Cook's voyages, Bellingshausen served from 1803 in the first Russian circumnavigation of the Earth, he was one of the officers of the vessel Nadezhda, commanded by Adam Johann von Krusenstern. The mission was completed in 1806. After the journey Bellingshausen published a collection of maps of the newly explored areas and islands of the Pacific Ocean. Bellingshausen's career continued with the command of various ships in the Black Seas. From 1812 to 1816 he commanded the frigate Minerva and from 1817 to 1819 the frigate Flora, both in the Black Sea Fleet.
During 1812 he met on Macquarie island Richard Siddins, the Australian captain of the ship Campbell Macquarie. When Emperor Alexander I authorized an expedition to the south polar region in 1819, the authorities selected Bellingshausen to lead it as an experienced captain and explorer, a prominent cartographer; the expedition was intended to explore the Southern Ocean and to find land in the proximity of the South Pole. The preparation work on the two ships, the 985-ton sloop-of-war Vostok and the 530-ton support vessel Mirny was carried out by Mikhail Lazarev, who had captained his own circumnavigation of the globe before. Bellingshausen became the captain of Vostok, Lazarev captained Mirny; the journey started from Kronstadt on 4 June 1819. Leaving Portsmouth on 5 September 1819 the expedition crossed the Antarctic Circle on 26 January 1820. On 27 January the expedition discovered the Antarctic mainland approaching the Antarctic coast at a point with coordinates 69º21'28"S 2º14'50"W and seeing ice-fields there.
The point in question lies within twenty miles of the Antarctic mainland. Bellingshausen's diary, his report to the Russian Naval Minister on 21 July 1821 and other documents, available in the Russian State Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic in Saint Petersburg, were compared with the log-books of other claimants by the British polar historian A. G. E. Jones in his 1982 study Antarctica Observed. Jones concluded that Bellingshausen, rather than the Royal Navy's Edward Bransfield on 30 January 1820 or the American Nathaniel Palmer on 17 November 1820, was indeed the discoverer of the sought-after Terra Australis. During the voyage Bellingshausen visited Ship Cove in New Zealand, the South Shetland Islands, discovered and named Peter I, Zavodovski and Visokoi Islands, a peninsula of the Antarctic mainland that he named the Alexander Coast but that has more borne the designation of Alexander Island. Bellingshausen and Lazarev managed to twice circumnavigate the continent and never lost each other from view.
Thus they disproved Captain Cook's assertion that it was impossible to find land in the southern ice fields. The expedition made disco
Mirny was a 20-gun sloop-of-war of the Imperial Russian Navy, the second ship of the First Russian Antarctic Expedition in 1819—1821, during which Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev circumnavigated the globe, discovered the continent of Antarctica and twice circumnavigated it, discovered a number of islands and archipelagos in the Southern Ocean and the Pacific. Mirny was under construction in 1818 at Lodeynoye Pole, it was named Ladoga, but when a new ship became needed for an Antarctic expedition, the decision was taken not to build a new one, but to refit Ladoga. It was reconstructed under surveillance of its future commander Mikhail Lazarev. On 14 July 1819 Vostok under the captaincy of Commander Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, the leader of the expedition, alongside Mirny under the command of Lieutenant Commander Mikhail Lazarev left Kronshtadt and on 28 January 1820 reached the shore of Antarctica, sighted for the first time in history. After repair in Sydney in Australia, the expedition explored the tropical parts of the Pacific, on 12 November 1820 again turned to Antarctica.
On 22 January 1821 the sloops reached the southernmost point of their voyage at 69° 53' S and 92° 19' W. On 5 August 1821 they returned to Kronshtadt. In 751 days they covered 49 723 miles. Apart from the discovery of the world's sixth continent, Antarctica, 29 islands were mapped and complex oceanographic works carried out. A medal was issued by the Russian Admiralty to commemorate the expedition. Mirny Rupes, a mountain chain on planet Mercury. Mirny Peak, a prominent peak, 750 m, 4 nautical miles northeast of Enigma Peak in the north part of Rothschild Island first seen from a distance in 1821 by the First Russian Antarctic Expedition. Mirny Station, a Russian Antarctic research station on the coast of the Davis Sea, established on February 13, 1956 by the 1st Soviet Antarctic Expedition. Mirny Peninsula, on which Mirny Station is located. Морской энциклопедический словарь. Л.: Судостроение, 1991. ISBN 5-7355-0280-8 Mirny, with model scheme at hobbyport.ru
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Operation Highjump titled The United States Navy Antarctic Developments Program, 1946–1947, was a United States Navy operation organized by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, Jr. USN, Officer in Charge, Task Force 68, led by Rear Admiral Richard H. Cruzen, USN, Commanding Officer, Task Force 68. Operation Highjump commenced 26 August 1946 and ended in late February 1947. Task Force 68 included 4,700 men, 13 ships, 33 aircraft. Operation Highjump's primary mission was to establish the Antarctic research base Little America IV. Highjump's objectives, according to the U. S. Navy report of the operation, were: Training personnel and testing equipment in frigid conditions; the Western Group of ships reached the Marquesas Islands on December 12, 1946, whereupon the Henderson and Cacapon set up weather monitoring stations. By December 24, the Currituck had begun launching aircraft on reconnaissance missions; the Eastern Group of ships reached Peter I Island in late December 1946. On January 1, 1947, Lieutenant Commander Thompson and Chief Petty Officer Dixon utilized "Jack Browne" masks and DESCO Oxygen rebreathers to log the first dive by Americans under the Antarctic.
Paul Allman Siple, Ph. D. was the senior U. S. War Department representative on the expedition. Dr. Siple was the same Eagle Scout who accompanied Admiral Byrd on the previous Byrd Antarctic expeditions; the Central Group of ships reached the Bay of Whales on January 15, 1947, where they began construction of Little America IV. Naval ships and personnel were withdrawn back to the United States in late February 1947, the expedition was terminated due to the early approach of winter and worsening weather conditions. Admiral Byrd discussed the lessons learned from the operation in an interview with Lee van Atta of International News Service held aboard the expedition's command ship the USS Mount Olympus; the interview appeared in the Wednesday, March 5, 1947 edition of the Chilean newspaper El Mercurio and read in part as follows: Admiral Richard E. Byrd warned today that the United States should adopt measures of protection against the possibility of an invasion of the country by hostile planes coming from the polar regions.
The admiral explained that he was not trying to scare anyone, but the cruel reality is that in case of a new war, the United States could be attacked by planes flying over one or both poles. This statement was made as part of a recapitulation of his own polar experience, in an exclusive interview with International News Service. Talking about the completed expedition, Byrd said that the most important result of his observations and discoveries is the potential effect that they have in relation to the security of the United States; the fantastic speed with which the world is shrinking – recalled the admiral – is one of the most important lessons learned during his recent Antarctic exploration. I have to warn my compatriots that the time has ended when we were able to take refuge in our isolation and rely on the certainty that the distances, the oceans, the poles were a guarantee of safety. After the operation ended, a follow-up Operation Windmill returned to the area in order to provide ground-truthing to the aerial photography of Highjump from 1947-1948.
Finn Ronne financed a private operation to the same territory until 1948. As with other U. S. Antarctic expeditions, interested persons were allowed to send letters with enclosed envelopes to the base, where commemorative cachets were added to their enclosures, which were returned to the senders; these souvenir philatelic covers are available at low cost. It is estimated that at least 150,000 such envelopes were produced, though their final number may be higher. On December 30, 1946, aviation radiomen Wendell K. Hendersin, Fredrick W. Williams, Ensign Maxwell A. Lopez were killed when their Martin PBM Mariner George 1 crashed during a blizzard; the surviving six crew members were rescued 13 days including aviation radioman James H. Robbins and co-pilot William Kearns. A plaque honoring the three killed crewmen was erected at the McMurdo Station research base, Mount Lopez on Thurston Island was named in honor of killed airman Maxwell A. Lopez. In December 2004, an attempt was made to locate the remains of the plane.
There are ongoing efforts to repatriate the bodies of the three men killed in the crash. On January 21, 1947, Vance N. Woodall died during a "ship unloading accident". In a crew profile, deckman Edward Beardsley described his worst memory as "when Seaman Vance Woodall died on the Ross Ice Shelf under a piece of roller equipment designed to'pave' the ice to build an airstrip." Task Force 68Rear Admiral Richard H. Cruzen, USN, Commanding Eastern Group Capt. George J. Dufek, USN, Commanding Seaplane Tender USS Pine Island. Capt. Henry H. Caldwell, USN, Commanding Destroyer USS Brownson. Cdr. H. M. S. Gimber, USN, Commanding Tanker USS Canisteo. Capt. Edward K. Walker, USN, CommandingWestern Group Capt. Charles A. Bond, USN, Co
Admiral Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev was a Russian fleet commander and an explorer. Lazarev was born in a scion of the old Russian nobility from the Vladimir province. In 1800, he enrolled in Russia's Naval College. Three years he was sent to the British Royal Navy, where he would stay for a continuous five-year navigation. From 1808 to 1813, Lazarev served in the Baltic Fleet, he took part in the Russo-Swedish War of 1808–1809 and Patriotic War of 1812. Lazarev first circumnavigated the globe in 1813–1816, aboard the vessel Suvorov. During this voyage, Lazarev discovered the Suvorov Atoll; as a commander of the ship Mirny and Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen's deputy on his world cruise in 1819–1821, Lazarev took part in the discovery of Antarctica and numerous islands. On 28 January 1820 the expedition discovered the Antarctic mainland, approaching the Antarctic coast at the coordinates 69°21′28″S 2°14′50″W and seeing ice-fields there. In 1822–1825, Lazarev circumnavigated the globe for the third time on his frigate Kreyser, conducting broad research in the fields of meteorology and ethnography.
In 1826, Lazarev became commander of the ship Azov, which would sail to the Mediterranean Sea as the flagship of the First Mediterranean Squadron under command of Admiral Login Petrovich Geiden and participated in the Battle of Navarino in 1827. Lazarev received the rank of rear admiral for his excellence during the battle. In 1828–1829, he was in charge of the Dardanelles blockade. In 1830, Lazarev became a commander of naval units of the Baltic Fleet. Two years he was made Chief of Staff of the Black Sea Fleet. In February–June 1833, Lazarev led a Russian squadron to the Bosporus and signed the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi with the Ottoman Empire. In 1833, Lazarev was appointed Commander of the Black Sea Fleet, the Black Sea ports, military governor of Sevastopol and Nikolayev. Admiral Lazarev was influential both as a mentor to younger officers, he advocated the creation of a steam-powered fleet, but Russia's technical and economical backwardness was a major hindrance to this. He tutored a number of the Russian fleet commanders, including Pavel Nakhimov, Vladimir Alexeyevich Kornilov, Vladimir Istomin, Grigory Butakov.
An atoll in the Pacific Ocean, capes in the Amur Liman and on the Unimak Island, a former island in the Aral Sea, a bay and a port in the Sea of Japan and sea in the South Ocean, a settlement near Sochi and other locations bear Lazarev's name. Several ships were named after the admiral: A light cruiser ordered for the Imperial Russian Navy in 1914, completed and renamed Krasnyi Kavkaz after the Russian Revolution. Admiral Lazarev was a Sverdlov-class cruiser built in the early 1950s; the Kirov-class battlecruiser Frunze was renamed Admiral Lazarev after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Lazarev is buried with his disciples Nakhimov and Istomin in the Admirals' Burial Vault in Sevastopol. A minor planet 3660 Lazarev, discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1978, is named after him. Order of St. George, IV class Order of St. Vladimir, 1st class Order of St. Alexander Nevsky Order of White Eagle Knight of the Order of the Bath Military Order of St. Louis Media related to Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev at Wikimedia Commons A map of his Antarctic expedition, attention – all dates there are Julian