The Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galangang, Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan known as Katipunan or KKK, was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish colonialism Filipinos in Manila in 1892. Documents discovered in the 21st century suggest that the society had been organized as early as January 1892 but may not have become active until July 7 of the same year. Founded by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, Darilyo Valino, Rulfo Guia, Dano Belica, Tiburcio Liamson, Gabrino Manzanero, the Katipunan was a secret organization until it was discovered in 1896; this discovery led to the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution. The Tagalog word "katipunan" meaning'association' or'assembly', comes from the root word "tipon", a Tagalog word meaning "gather"."Being a secret organization, its members were subjected to the utmost secrecy and were expected to abide by the rules established by the society. Aspiring applicants were given standard initiation rites in order to become members of the society.
At first, membership in the Katipunan was only open to male Filipinos. The Katipunan had its own publication, Kalayaan which issued its first and last printing in March 1896. Revolutionary ideals and works flourished within the society, Filipino literature was expanded by some of its prominent members. In planning the revolution, Bonifacio contacted Rizal for his full-fledged support for the Katipunan in exchange for a promise to rescue Rizal from his detention. In May 1896, a delegation was sent to Emperor Meiji of Japan in order to solicit funds and military arms; the Katipunan's existence was revealed to the Spanish authorities after a member named Teodoro Patiño revealed the Katipunan's illegal activities to his sister, to the mother portress of Mandaluyong Orphanage. Seven days after the Spanish authorities learned of the existence of the secret society, on December 26, 1896, Bonifacio and his men tore up their cédulas during the Cry of Balintawak that started the Philippine Revolution of 1896.
The name "Katipunan" comes from the full Tagalog name for the society: "Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galang na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan". The Tagalog word "katipunan" meaning'association' or'assembly', comes from the root word "tipon", a Tagalog word meaning "gather"; the Katipunan and the Cuerpo de Compromisarios were successor organizations of La Liga Filipina, founded by José Rizal. This organization was part of the late 19th century Propaganda Movement in the Philippines; the founders of the Katipunan were Deodato Arrellano, Teodoro Plata, Valentin Diaz, Ladislao Diwa, Andres Bonifacio, Jose Dizon. Katipunan founders Bonifacio and Plata were all members of La Liga and were influenced by the nationalistic ideals of the Propaganda Movement in Spain. Marcelo H. del Pilar, another leader of the Propaganda Movement in Spain influenced the formation of the Katipunan. Modern-day historians believe that he had a direct hand in its organization because of his role in the Propaganda Movement and his eminent position in Philippine Masonry.
The Katipunan had initiation ceremonies that were copied from masonic rites. It had a hierarchy of rank, similar to that of freemasonry. Rizal's Spanish biographer Wenceslao Retana and Filipino biographer Juan Raymundo Lumawag saw the formation of the Katipunan as Del Pilar's victory over Rizal: "La Liga dies, the Katipunan rises in its place. Del Pilar's plan wins over that of Rizal. Del Pilar and Rizal had the same end if each took a different road to it." Captured Katipunan members, who were members of La Liga, revealed to the Spanish colonial authorities that there was a difference of opinion among members of La Liga. One group insisted on La Liga's principle of a peaceful reformation while the other espoused armed revolution. On July 7, 1892, writer José Rizal was banished and exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao; that night Bonifacio, a member of the La Liga Filipina. They established the Katipunan when anti-Spanish Filipinos had realized that societies such as the La Liga Filipina would be suppressed by colonial authorities.
Despite their reservations about the peaceable reformation that Rizal espoused, they named Rizal as honorary president, without his knowledge. The Katipunan, established as a secret brotherhood organization, was known as the Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan; the Katipunan had four aims, namely: to develop a strong alliance with each and every Katipunero to unite Filipinos into one solid nation. The rise of the Katipunan signaled the end of the crusade to secure reforms from Spain by means of a peaceful campaign; the Propaganda Movement led by Rizal, del Pilar and others had failed its mission. The Katipunan was governed by the Supreme Council; the fi
Philippine Independent Church
The Philippine Independent Church is an independent Christian denomination in the form of a national church in the Philippines. Its schism from the Roman Catholic Church was proclaimed in 1902 by the members of the Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina, due to the alleged mistreatment of the Filipinos by Spanish priests and the execution of José Rizal during Spanish colonial rule. Isabelo de los Reyes was one of the initiators of the separation, suggested that former Catholic priest Gregorio Aglipay be the head of the church, it is known as the "Aglipayan Church", after its first Supreme Bishop, Gregorio Aglipay, who like José Rizal became a Freemason, in May 1918. Pope Leo XIII instructed the Archbishop of Manila, Bernardino Nozaleda y Villa to excommunicate those who initiated the schism. Since 1960 the church has been in full communion with the Episcopal Church in the United States, through it, the entire Anglican Communion. Members believe in the rejection of the exclusivity right to apostolic succession by the Petrine papacy, the allowing of priestly ordination of women, optional clerical celibacy, tolerance of Freemasonry, lack of requiring in believing transubstantiation and the Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, support for contraception and same-sex civil rights.
Many saints canonized by Rome after the 1902 schism are not recognized by the Aglipayan church and its members. As of 2017 the Supreme Bishop was Rhee Timbang, whose central office is located at the National Cathedral of the Holy Child in Ermita, Manila; the church's official name is Iglesia Filipina Independiente, or, in English, the Philippine Independent Church. The church or its members are referred to by the acronym IFI as well as by a variety of names in the various languages of the Philippines, such as Ilokano: Siwawaya nga Simbaan ti Filipinas. Gregorio Aglipay was an activist and a Roman Catholic priest from Ilocos Norte who would be excommunicated by Archbishop of Manila Bernardino Nozaleda y Villa for fomenting schism with the Pope. During the Philippine Revolution, Isabelo de los Reyes and Aglipay acted to reform the Filipino Catholic clergy. Aglipay was the convener of the Filipino Ecclesiastical Council, in response to Mabini's manifesto urging the Filipino clergy to organize a Filipino national Church.
He was a member of the Malolos Congress, the lone member coming from the religious sector, although he represented Ilocos Norte. He was a guerilla leader of Ilocos Norte during the Philippine–American War with the rank of lieutenant general. Following the Philippine–American War, Aglipay and De los Reyes founded the Philippine Independent Church in 1902; the new church rejected the spiritual authority of the Pope and abolished the celibacy requirement for priests, allowing them to marry. At that time, all of its clergy were former Catholic priests. Aglipay drew upon the Masons for some concepts of worship, he was supported by Miguel Morayta, the Grand Master of the Spanish Orient Lodge of Freemasonry in Madrid. Aglipay became a Mason in 1918; the historian John N. Schumacher contends that Morayta and other non-Filipino laymen pushed Aglipay toward schism with the Catholic Church because of their resentment of the activities of Catholic religious orders in the Philippines rather than Filipino nationalism.
The new Iglesia Filipina Independiente reformed the Latin Tridentine liturgy, adopting the vernacular in worship, modeling its liturgy on the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. Mass in the IFI has been said in Spanish since the earliest days of its independence, but it is said in Tagalog. Visiting other churches while traveling abroad, Aglipay developed his theology, coming to reject the divinity of Jesus and the concept of the Trinity and becoming theologically Unitarian. Other IFI officials refused to accept this revised theology. Aglipay's unitarian and progressive theological ideas were evident in his novena, Pagsisiyam sa Birhen sa Balintawak, 1925 and its English translation, Novenary of the Motherland. Winning large numbers of adherents in its early years because of its nationalist roots, Aglipayan numbers decreased due to factionalism and doctrinal disagreements; the American government of occupation, after the Philippine–American War ended in July 1902, decided to return to the Catholic Church those parish buildings that had become Aglipayan during the Philippine Revolution and this further limited church growth.
There were tensions within the church from the beginning between Aglipay's liberal followers and more traditional members. There would be a schism: after Aglipay's death in 1940 the courts awarded the name and assets to the Trinitarian faction; some factions formally joined other denominations including the Episcopal Church and the American Unitarians. In 1961, the IFI joined the Anglican Communion and its bishops were re-consecrated into the historic succession of the Anglican line. Today, Aglipayans in the Philippines claim to number at least 6 to 8 million members, with most from the northern part of Luzon in the Ilocos Region and in the parts of Visayas like Antique and Guimaras provinces. Congregations are found throughout the Philippine diaspora in North America, Middle East and Asia; the church is the second-largest single Christian denomination in the country after the Roman Catholic Church, comprising about 6.7% of the total population of the Philippines. By contrast, the 2010 Philippine census recorded onl
First Philippine Republic
The Philippine Republic, more known as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic, was a nascent revolutionary government in the Philippines. It was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 21, 1899, in Malolos and endured until the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo by the American forces on March 23, 1901, in Palanan, which dissolved the First Republic; the First Philippine Republic was established after the Philippine Revolution against Spanish Empire and the Spanish–American War between Spain and the United States. Following the American victory at the Battle of Manila Bay, Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines, issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12, 1898, established a revolutionary Philippine government. In December 1898, Spain sold the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris, making the United States formally the Philippines colonial power; the Malolos Constitution establishing the First Philippine Republic was proclaimed the following month.
The Philippine–American War began in February 1899, which the Philippine Republic lost. The Philippine Republic was the first constitutional republic in Asia. Although there were several Asian republics predating the First Philippine Republic for example, the Mahajanapadas of ancient India, the Novgorod Republic, the Lanfang Republic, the Republic of Formosa or the Republic of Ezo, the Republic at Malolos was the first to frame a comprehensive constitution duly approved by a elected congress. In 1896, the Philippine Revolution began against Spanish colonial rule. In 1897, Philippine forces led by Aguinaldo signed a ceasefire with the Spanish authorities and Aguinaldo and other leaders went into exile in Hong Kong. In April 1898, the Spanish–American War broke out; the U. S. Navy's Asiatic Squadron in Hong Kong, sailed to the Philippines to engage the Spanish naval forces. On May 1, 1898, the U. S. Navy decisively defeated the Spanish Navy in the Battle of Manila Bay. In May, Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines, established a dictatorial government on May 24, 1898, on June 12, 1898, at Aguinaldo's ancestral home in Cavite, issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain.
Following the proclamation of independence Aguinaldo established a revolutionary government on June 23, 1898, under which the partly-elected and partly-appointed Malolos Congress convened on 15 September to write a constitution. On December 10, 1898, the 1898 Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Spanish–American War and transferring the Philippines from Spain to the United States; the Malolos Constitution written by the congress was proclaimed on 22 January 1899, creating what is known today as the First Philippine Republic, with Aguinaldo as its president. The constitution was approved by delegates to the Malolos Congress on January 20, 1899, sanctioned by Aguinaldo the next day; the convention had earlier elected Aguinaldo president on January 1, 1899, leading to his inauguration on January 23. Parts of the constitution gave Aguinaldo the power to rule by decree; the constitution was titled "Constitución política", was written in Spanish. When the First Philippine Republic was constituted on January 22, 1899 in Malolos, that municipality became the seat of government of the Philippine Republic, was serving as such when hostilities erupted between U.
S. and Filipino forces in the Second Battle of Manila on February 4. On February 4, 1899, armed conflict erupted in Manila between Philippine Republic forces and American forces occupying the city subsequent to the conclusion of the Spanish–American War; that day President Aguinaldo issued a proclamation ordering and commanding that "peace and friendly relations with the Americans be broken and that the latter be treated as enemies, within the limits prescribed by the laws of war." The fighting escalated into the Second Battle of Manila, with Philippine Republic forces being driven out of the city. American forces pushing north from Manila after the outbreak of fighting captured Caloocan on February 10. On March 29, as American forces threatened Malolos, the seat of government moved to San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. On March 31, American forces captured Malolos, the initial seat of the Philippine Republic government, gutted by fires set by withdrawing Philippine Republic forces. Emilio Aguinaldo and the core of the revolutionary government had by moved to San Isidro, Nueva Ecija.
Peace negotiations with the American Schurman Commission during a brief ceasefire in April–May 1899 failed, San Isidro fell to American forces on May 16. The Philippine Republic core government had moved by to Bamban and subsequently moved to Tarlac town. Aguinaldo's party had left Tarlac, the last capital of the Philippine Republic, by the time American troops occupied it on November 13. American forces captured Calumpit, Bulacan on April 27 and, moving north, captured Apalit, Pampanga with little opposition on May 4 and San Fernando, Pampanga on May 5; this forced the seat of government to be shifted according to the demands of the military situation. In October 1899 American forces were in San Fernando and the Philippine Republic was headquartered not far north of there, in Angeles. On October 12, an American offensive to the north forced the Philippine Republic to relocate its headquarters in November to Tarlac, to Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya. On November 13, under pressure by American forces, Aguinaldo and a party departed Bayombong by rail for Calasiao, from where they proceeded eastwards to Sta.
Barbara in order to evade pursuing American forces
Republic of Negros
The Republic of Negros was a short-lived cantonal revolutionary republic in the eponymous Visayan island, an administrative division, which existed while the Philippines was under Spanish and American sovereignty. From November 3–6, 1898, the Negrenses rose in revolt against the Imperial Spanish authorities headed by the politico-military governor, colonel Isidro de Castro; the Spaniards decided to surrender upon seeing armed troops marching in a pincer movement towards Bacolod, the main city of the island. The revolutionaries, led by generals Juan Araneta, from Bago and Aniceto Lacson, from Talisay, were carrying fake arms consisting of rifles carved out of palm fronds and cannons of rolled bamboo mats painted black. On 5 November, Spanish officials surrendered themselves to native leaders. A provisional government was established with Aniceto Lacson as President, a notice of this was sent to Emilio Aguinaldo in Luzon. On November 27, 1898, the unicameral Chamber of Deputies met in Bacolod and declared the establishment of the Cantonal Republic of Negros.
The Chamber of Deputies acted as a Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution. The proposed constitution of the Federal Republic of Negros was not implemented. With the looming invasion of the United States Army, President Aniceto Lacson raised the American flag in the Casa Real to welcome the army as a friendly force. Despite the initial protest from the Negros Oriental deputies, the republic was surrendered to U. S. forces on March 4, 1899, came under U. S. protection on April 30, 1899 as a separate state from the rest of the Philippine Islands. On 22 July 1899, it was renamed the Republic of Negros. However, on 30 April 1901, it had been dissolved and the island of Negros was annexed to the Philippine Islands by the United States, which retained control until the Japanese imperial occupation in World War II. On January 1, 1899, the Federal Republic of Negros was proclaimed as a State or Canton with two Provinces. Notice of its establishment was sent to General Aguinaldo. On March 4, the island of Negros was surrendered to U.
S. forces. The leaders of the short-lived republic were: In Bago City, the event was chronicled in a historic marker found in the Public Plaza, which bears the following inscription: November 5 has been observed as a special non-working holiday in Negros Occidental through Republic Act No. 6709, signed by President Corazon Aquino on 10 February 1989. Negros Revolution Negros Island Region Cebuano Visayan State Kalaw, Maximo Manguiat; the Present Government of the Philippines. Oriental commercial. ISBN 1-4067-4636-3; the opposition to the Americans and the Canton Republic of Negros
Bacong, Negros Oriental
Bacong the Municipality of Bacong, is a 4th class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 36,527 people. Bacong was the hometown of the Visayan hero of the Philippine Revolution, Pantaleon Villegas, better known as León Kilat. Bacong is politically subdivided into 22 barangays; the Province's first town to the south of the capital may be its smallest, but it has some big things going for it. Its church of San Agustin, for one, has Oriental Negros’ tallest belfry, oldest main altar with gold-leafing and painted friezes, a pipe organ from Zaragoza, installed in 1898 shortly before the revolution against Spain broke out in Oriental Negros; the only other pipe organ of similar provenance is found in Bohol. With its reasonably well-preserved complex including churchyard and convent, San Agustin of Bacong is one of the 26 colonial churches all over the country selected for restoration by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts.
Bacong's historical importance is well-monumented: it is the birthplace of Negros Oriental's hero and only Katipunero – General Pantaleon Villegas, aka Leon Kilat, whose birthday is celebrated every July 27. Barrio Isugan was site of a battle between American soldiers. Beginning the Second World War, Japanese Imperial forces were entered and occupied in Bacong in 1942. Filipino soldiers and guerrillas were encounter by the Japanese Imperial forces start the conflicts from 1942 to 1945 during occupation; when Allied forces liberated in Bacong was fought against the Japanese Occupation until the end in World War II in 1945. The general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary was active in 1945 to 1946 in Bacong during and aftermath in World War II. Points of touristic interest are a string of beaches the length of the Bacong shoreline, sinamay hand looms, the Negros Oriental Arts and Heritage which produces export quality stone craft furniture, jewel boxes and fashion accessories.
One of the town's bigger barangays, San Miguel, marks its local fiesta with a unique Sinulog de San Miguel, where the archangel and his heavenly army are depicted battling the forces of evil. Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information Local Governance Performance Management System
An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank a senior military, police or government officer, or to a member of a royal family or a head of state. An aide-de-camp may participate at ceremonial functions, the first aide-de-camp is the foremost personal aide; this is not to be confused with an adjutant, the senior administrator of a military unit. The badge of office for an aide-de-camp is the aiguillette, a braided cord in gold or other colours, worn on the shoulder of a uniform. Whether it is worn on the left or the right shoulder is dictated by protocol. In some countries, aide-de-camp is considered to be a title of honour, which confers the post-nominal letters ADC or A de C. In Argentina, three officers, are appointed as aide-de-camp to the president of the republic and three others to the minister of defense, these six being the only ones to be called "edecán", one Spanish translation for aide-de-camp. A controversy was raised in 2006, when president Néstor Kirchner decided to promote his army aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Colonel Graham to colonel, one year ahead of his class.
Upon taking office, former president Cristina Kirchner decided to have, for the first time, female officers as her aides-de-camp. In each of the armed forces, the chief of staff and other senior officers have their own adjutants of the rank of major or lieutenant colonel, or its equivalent. At unit level, the unit S-1 doubles as the unit commander's adjutant, although in recent times in many units this practice has been left only for ceremonial purposes, while for everyday duties a senior NCO performs the adjutant's activities. An aiguillette is worn on the right shoulder by aides-de-camp and adjutants as a symbol of their position, the colour of the aiguillette depending of the rank of the person they are serving. In Belgium the title of honorary aide-de-camp to the King can be granted by the royal court for services rendered. Notable people include Major General Baron Édouard Empain, Count Charles John d'Oultremont, Lieutenant General Baron Albert du Roy de Blicquy. An aide-de-camp, according to an 1816 military dictionary, was defined as an officer appointed to attend a general officer, was traditionally under the grade of captain: "The King may appoint for himself as many as he pleases, which appointment gives the rank of colonel in the army.
Generals being field marshals, have four, lieutenant generals two, major generals one". In British colonies and modern-day British overseas territories, an aide-de-camp is appointed to serve the governor and the governor general; these aides were from military branches or native auxiliaries. They were entitled to use letters A de C after their names; the emblem of the office is the aiguillette worn on their uniform. Australian Defence Force officers serve as aides-de-camp to specific senior appointments, such as the Queen, Governor-General, state governors, Chief of the Defence Force, other specified Army and Air Force command appointments. Honorary aides-de-camp to the Governor-General or state governors are entitled to the post-nominal ADC during their appointment. Officers of and above the ranks of rear admiral, major general, air vice marshal in designated command appointments are entitled to an aide de camp with the army rank of captain. Within the navy, an aide-de-camp is called a "flag lieutenant".
In 1973, the Governor of Bermuda, Sir Richard Sharples, his aide-de-camp, Captain Hugh Sayers, were murdered on the grounds of Government House. Aides-de-camp in Canada are appointed to the Queen and some members of the royal family, the governor general, lieutenant governors, to certain other appointments. In addition to the military officers appointed as full-time aides-de-camp to the governor general, several other flag/general and senior officers are appointed ex officio as honorary aides-de-camp to the governor general or Members of the Royal Family including: The Chief of the Defence Staff The commandant of the Royal Military College of Canada A senior officer of the Quebec-based Royal 22e Régiment Commanding officer, The Governor General's Horse Guards Commanding officer, Governor General's Foot Guards Commanding officer, The Canadian Grenadier Guards Commanding officer, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada The commanding officers of Naval Reserve divisionsMost aides-de-camp wear a gold pattern aiguillette when acting in their official capacity.
All aides-de-camp wear the cypher or badge of the principal to whom they are appointed. Honorary appointees to the Queen, to the Duke of Edinburgh, or the Prince of Wales, wear the appropriate cypher on their uniform epaulette and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters ADC for the duration of their appointment. Aides-de-camp to the governor general wear the governor general's badge and aides-de-camp to a lieutenant governor wear the lieutenant governor's badge
Philippine Declaration of Independence
The Philippine Declaration of Independence was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 in Cavite II el Viejo, Philippines. With the public reading of the Act of the Proclamation of Independence of the Filipino People, Filipino revolutionary forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain. In 1896, the Philippine Revolution began. In December 1897, the Spanish government and the revolutionaries signed a truce, the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, requiring that the Spanish pay the revolutionaries 800,000 pesos and that Aguinaldo and other leaders go into exile in Hong Kong. In April 1898, at the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, Commodore George Dewey aboard the U. S. S. Olympia sailed into Manila Bay leading the Asiatic Squadron of the U. S. Navy. On May 1, 1898, the United States defeated the Spanish in the Battle of Manila Bay. Emilio Aguinaldo decided to return to the Philippines to help American forces defeat the Spaniards.
The U. S. Navy agreed to transport him back aboard the USS McCulloch, on May 19, he arrived in Cavite. Independence was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 between four and five in the afternoon in Cavite at the ancestral home of General Emilio Aguinaldo some 30 kilometres south of Manila; the event saw the unfurling of the Flag of the Philippines, made in Hong Kong by Marcela Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo, Delfina Herboza, the performance of the Marcha Filipina Magdalo, as the national anthem, now known as Lupang Hinirang, composed by Julián Felipe and played by the San Francisco de Malabon marching band. The Act of the Declaration of Independence was prepared and read by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista in Spanish; the Declaration was signed by 98 people, among them a United States Army officer who witnessed the proclamation. The final paragraph states that there was a "stranger" who attended the proceedings, Mr. L. M. Johnson, described as "a citizen of the U. S. A, a Colonel of Artillery". Despite his prior military experience, Johnson had no official role in the Philippines.
The proclamation of Philippine independence was, promulgated on 1 August, when many towns had been organized under the rules laid down by the Dictatorial Government of General Aguinaldo. 190 municipal presidents of different towns from 16 provinces—Manila, Laguna, Bulacan, Infanta, Tayabas, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, La Union and Zambales—ratified the Proclamation of Independence in Bacoor, Cavite. At Malolos, the Malolos Congress modified the declaration upon the insistence of Apolinario Mabini who objected to that the original proclamation placed the Philippines under the protection of the United States; the declaration was never recognized by either Spain. In 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish–American War; the Philippine Revolutionary Government did not recognize the treaty or American sovereignty, subsequently fought and lost a conflict with the United States referred to by the Americans as the "Philippine Insurrection" but now and called the Philippine–American War, which ended when Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by U.
S. forces, issued a statement acknowledging and accepting the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines. This was followed on July 2, 1902, by U. S. Secretary of War Elihu Root telegraphing that the insurrection the United States had come to an end and that provincial civil governments had been established everywhere except those areas inhabited by Moro tribes. Pockets of resistance continued for several years. Following the end of World War II, the United States granted independence to the Philippines on 4 July 1946 via the Treaty of Manila. July 4 was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until August 4, 1964 when, upon the advice of historians and the urging of nationalists, President Diosdado Macapagal signed into law Republic Act No. 4166 designating June 12 as the country's Independence Day. June 12 had been observed as Flag Day and many government buildings are urged to display the Philippine Flag in their offices; the Declaration is housed in the National Library of the Philippines.
It is not on public display but can be viewed with permission like any other document held by the National Library. During the Philippine–American War, the American government captured and sent to the United States about 400,000 historical documents. In 1958, the documents were given to the Philippine government along with two sets of microfilm of the entire collection, with the U. S. Federal Government keeping one set. Sometime in the 1980s or 1990s the Declaration was stolen from the National Library; as part of a larger investigation into the widespread theft of historical documents and a subsequent public appeal for the return of stolen documents, the Declaration was returned to the National Library in 1994 by historian and University of the Philippines professor Milagros Guerrero, who mediated the return of the documents. The Act of the Proclamation of the Independence of the Filipino People is part of a long line of declarations of independence including the United States Declaration of Independence.
It includes a list of grievances against the Spanis