Annoisin-Chatelans is a commune in the Isère department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southeastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Nuisantins or Nuisantines The Village of Annoisin-chatelans is located on the foothills and the plateau of the Isle-Crémieu, some 40 km east of Lyon and just 2 km north-east of the town of Crémieu, it is part of the Community of communes of l'Isle-Crémieu which includes all the communes around Crémieu, the plain side of Lyon with Chamagnieu and Villemoirieu next to the Optevoz hills area. The commune is characterized by scattered settlements which comes from the merger of two towns of comparable size, Annoisin which faces Crémieu and Chatelans another two kilometres north which faces on to the valley of Amby. There are two other hamlets south of the village called Michalieu and Le Mollard. Access to the commune is by the D521 minor road from Crémieu in the south passing through the heart of the commune and the village and continuing north east to join the D52A to Optevoz.
The commune is quite forested in the north and along the eastern and western borders however the southern part of the commune is farmland. The plateau of Larina has been occupied since the beginning of the first millennium. There are still traces on the Larina site north of the commune; the first known text on Annoisin was regarding the Parish and its Church in the 1172-1275 period of the Capetian Kings. Attached to Optevoz, Chatelans was attached to the commune of Annoisin in the early twentieth century. List of Successive Mayors In 2009 the commune had 623 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune has a number of buildings and sites that are registered as historical monuments: An Archaeological Site The Domain de la Tour House The War Memorial A House at le Mollard A Primary School at Chatelans A Farmhouse at Chatelans The Town Hall The commune has two religious buildings and sites that are registered as historical monuments: The Parish Church of Notre-Dame The Church contains several items that are registered as historical objects: A Pulpit A Confessional The Furniture in the Church The Cemetery The Cemetery contains several items that are registered as historical objects: A Priest's Tomb The Tomb of Benoît Parent A Cemetery Cross This small village in northern Isère has retained many of its houses made of golden stone extracted from quarries that are still used, its surprising octagonal tower, its communal ovens and lavoirs hidden in the green meadows.
The curiosity of the commune, it is the number of bread ovens and lavoirs whether at Annoisin with one oven. There are many marked trails that wind through the woods and the blue juniper bushes found in abundance on the limestone plateau, they thrive on the edge of beautiful cliffs overlooking the Rhone valley or on the hills where the top of the Alps and Mont Blanc can be seen. Communes of the Isère department Annoisin-Chatelans on the National Geographic Institute website Annoisin-Chatelans on Lion1906 Annoisin-Chatelans on Google Maps Annoisin-Chatelans on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Annoizin and Chatelan on the 1750 Cassini Map Annoisin-Chatelans on the INSEE website INSEE
The French Alps are the portions of the Alps mountain range that stand within France, located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur regions. While some of the ranges of the French Alps are in France, such as the Mont Blanc massif, are shared with Switzerland and Italy. At 4,808 metres, Mont Blanc, on the French-Italian border, is the highest mountain in the Alps, the highest Western European mountain. Notable towns in the French Alps include Grenoble, Annecy, Chambéry, Évian-les-Bains and Albertville; the largest connected ski areas are: Les Trois Vallées: 600 km of pistes. Portes du Soleil: 288 slopes, 650 km of slopes not connected. Paradiski, Champagny-en-Vanoise: 239 slopes, 420 km of slopes. Via Lattea: 214 slopes, 400 km of slopes. Évasion Mont-Blanc: 183 slopes, 420 km of slopes not connected. Espace Killy: 137 slopes, 300 km of slopes. Grand Massif: 134 slopes, 265 km of slopes. Les Aravis: 133 slopes, 220 km of slopes not connected. Les Grandes Rousses: 117 slopes, 236 km of slopes.
Serre Chevalier: 111 slopes, 250 km of slopes. La Forêt Blanche: 104 slopes, 180 km of slopes. Les Sybelles: 96 slopes, 310 km of slopes. Valloire and Valmeinier: 83 slopes, 150 km of slopes. Grand Domaine: 82 slopes, 150 km of slopes Espace San Bernardo: 73 slopes, 150 km of slopes. Les Deux Alpes and La Grave: 69 slopes, 220 km of slopes; the other large ski areas are: Le Val d'Arly: 150 km of slopes. L'Espace Cristal: 80 km of slopes L'Espace Diamant is a combination of Espace Val d'Arly and Espace Cristal with 185 km of slopes Villard-de-Lans et Corrençon-en-Vercors: 125 km of slopes Valberg - Beuil les Launes: 90 km of slopes Espace Lumière: 170 km of slopes Superdévoluy - La Joue du Loup: 100 km of slopes A range of winter and summer activities are available in the French Alps. In the winter, these include skiing and snowboarding as well as alternatives such as snowshoeing, sledging. There is a range of other activities that happen such as gliding which most happens during the summer months.
Summer activities include hiking, mountaineering and rock climbing. La Grande Odyssée 1924 Winter Olympics 1968 Winter Olympics 1992 Winter Olympics List of highest paved roads in Europe List of mountain passes List of national parks in the Alps List of ski areas and resorts in Europe Raoul Blanchard, Les Alpes Occidentales. Paris: Édition Arthaud. Roger Frison-Roche, Les montagnes de la terre. Paris: Flammarion. Sergio Marazzi, Atlante Orografico delle Alpi. SOIUSA. Pavone Canavese: Priuli & Verlucca editori. ISBN 978-88-8068-273-8 Sergio Marazzi, La "Suddivisione orografica internazionale unificata del Sistema Alpino" - article with maps and illustrations, PDF
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Allevard, is a commune in the Isère department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southeastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Allevardins or Allevardines or alternatively as Allevardais or Allevardaises The commune has been awarded two flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of Cities and Villages in Bloom. Allevard is located in the Belledonne mountains 40 km south-east of Chambéry and 38 km north-east of Grenoble; the commune is accessed by the D525 from Goncelin in the south-west following the mountain ridge through the village and continuing north-east to La Chapelle-du-Bard. There are some minor roads such as the D9 parallel to the D525 going to the north and the D108 which accesses the village from the D525. There is a tortuous mountain road - the D109 - which goes east of the village and circles back to the north of the commune; the town has quite a large urban area in the west of the commune however the rest of the commune is mountainous and forested.
The Bourg stream forms the southern boundary of the commune flowing west and the Buisson forms the northern boundary flowing west. These streams together with numerous other streams flow into the Breda which flows north through the commune west to join the Isère near Pontcharra. There are several localities in the commune; these are: Allevard Castle stood above the town on a hill surrounded by a wall 60 toises long and described: "and water flowed from the Breyda and from the Sabaudie". The village was fortified, its enclosure was 1413 toises accessible through four doors. It was first mentioned in 1100. A large house on the edge of town, near Vingtain and the mill canals in 1367. A quoted recollection: "meniis Curtina et clausura", it noted "quaddam hospitium seu fortalicium sum et domum fortem que situatur infra villam de alarvardo" in 1367 about an ancient tower and fortified house belonging to Guillaume Barral which connected the ditches of the city in 1393In the Middle Ages Allevard was the seat of a lordship.
The survey of 1339 reported the existence of a large house in a place called the "Bâtie d'Arvillard": "Castrum Bastide alti villaris". Located on a mound dominating the Allevard valley for 100 m, the site is protected on three sides by cliffs. On the accessible side a hummock bars the way; the survey states: "Dictum autem castrum situatum est in quodam altissimo molare valde eminente et deffensabile". The lords gave the people of Allevard many exemptions successively modified by the franchise charter from the university in 1315 and in 1337; until 1558 these charters were, depending on the financial needs of the crown, more or less respected by the kings of France. In 1558 Henry II committed to sell, subject to possible repurchase, the land of Allevard. In 1644, the "Engagiste" Lord of Allevard was called Thomas Chabo of Saint Maurice, a Savoyard noble, his son, was Ambassador of Savoy to the Court of Versailles. Charles subrogated the sale to François de Barral, advisor to the Parliament of the Dauphiné - the son of Gaspard, a lawyer and adviser to the Queen mother and to Mary Vignon, the wife of François de Bonne, Constable of France.
Gaspard de Barral owned a steel mill near Renage and iron mines on the mountain of Saint-Pierre d'Allevard. The Barral family were influential and powerful as they were related to the Ponat and Tencin families who were richly established in Voironnais and Saint-Aupre. Under François Barral de Clermont major work was undertaken in the small and unhealthy walled town of Allevard: "The people are piled up in old unhealthy houses and without comfort or usual support; the streets are unpaved and winding with mud kept wet with the dampness which favoured epidemics and the emergence or persistence of goiter". The construction of the first stone bridge dates from 1688 and the renovation of the old church plus the redevelopment of the former castle were completed between 1692 and 1693; the first opening in the south wall of the city followed. François de Barral de Clermont, the uncle of the famous Tencin died in 1699 as the Dean of the Parliament of Grenoble. In 1751 the King established the territory of Allevard under his command under the name of the County of Barral as a perpetual lordship for Jean-Baptiste de Barral.
Paulin de Barral 17, his grandson, was the last lord of Allevard and of Jaligny in Bourbonnais who sold at a loss his castle and his factories in 1817 to A. B. Champel AB. Allevard was an important centre for metallurgy and for the quality of its steel products until the early 20th century. There is a legend, created from the text of Suetonius and Polybius, which claims that Hannibal went to Allevard to manufacture his weapons; the history of Allevard is linked to the alpine steel industry. In 1450, Pierre and Arthur Boisson had a trip hammer in Allevard town which still existed in 1724. During a tour of the factory by special commissioners of the king in 1724 "it was determined to be the oldest of its kind in the kingdom". Another Trip hammer at the same era was in operation in the village of Pinsot, upstream on the Breda. A study of the remains indicated that the Allevard community had, between 1643 and 1727, a total of 76 works on the "Bredal" stream: 3 blast furnaces, 21 Trip hammers, 36 flour mills, 2 hemp beaters, 6 presses, 6 water-powered saws, 1 nail factory, 1 fuller's earth plant.
The steel industry was profitable because at the same time, the price per hundred kilos for the melting furnace - total production in Allevard was 54,255 kg - went fro
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Auberives-en-Royans is a commune in the Isère department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Albaripaines. Auberives-en-Royans is located at the foot of the Vercors plateau in the Isère valley some 19 km east of Romans-sur-Isère and 11 km south of Saint-Marcellin; the southern border of the commune is the border between Drôme departments. Access to the commune is by the D531 road which branches from the D1532 east of Saint-Nazaire-en-Royans which passes through the south of the commune and the village and continues along the southern border east to Pont-en-Royans; the D518 road comes from Saint-Romans in the north and passes down the eastern border of the commune to Pont-en-Royans. The commune has some forests in the north and the rest is farmland; the southern border of the commune consists of the Bourne river as it flows west to join the Isère at Saint-Nazaire-en-Royans. The Tarze river flows through the centre of the commune from the north and joins the Bourne near the village.
The Canal de la Bourne starts in the south-west of the commune and flows through the commune parallel to the Bourne towards the Isère. List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 359 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 A Church from the 19th century A Fortified house Communes of the Isère department Parc naturel régional du Vercors Auberives-en-Royans on Google Maps Auberives-en-Royans on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Anberive en Royans on the 1750 Cassini Map Auberives-en-Royans on the INSEE website INSEE
Assieu is a commune in the Isère department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Assieutoises. Assieu is located some 30 km south by south-east of Givors and 8 km east by north-east of Saint-Maurice-l'Exil. Access to the commune is by the D131 road from the D134 in the south passing north east in the commune to the town north and continuing north-west to Route nationale 7. Apart from the town there is the village of Les Bruyeres in the west; the commune has large forests in the east as well as one in the west with significant residential areas and the rest of the land farmland. The Vareze river forms the northern border and gathers many tributaries rising in the commune as it flows west to join the Rhône at Saint-Alban-du-Rhône. List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 1,316 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.
Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Chateau Juveneton Chateau Richoux Church from the 19th century Communes of the Isère department Assieu on the old IGN website Assieu on Lion1906 Assieu on Google Maps Assieu on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Aßien on the 1750 Cassini Map Assieu on the INSEE website INSEE