Aniche is a French commune in the Nord department in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France. The commune, located in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais mining area, long lived on the mining of coal with fourteen pits on its territory, eleven pits were owned by the Aniche Mining Company and three by the Compagnie des mines dAzincourt. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Anichois or Anichoises and he regulated the rights of the Abbey on tithing. In 1209, Bauduin of Obrechicourt, waived his rights for tithes from Aniche, in 1219, sire of Aniche, made an award in favour of the Abbey for land that he contested with Jean le Mirail dAniche. In 1340, during the Hundred Years War, the people of Douai, Frances allies and Auberchicourt long had the same lords. The Gouache painting was painted in 1603 and appears in the Albums de Croÿ. The oval medallion contains a cartouche with the name of the village over a representation of the landscape seen from the south in late summer, in the foreground A road on the left with two figures.
This road would be the way from Bouchain to Auberchicourt and Douai, in the centre bottom a shepherd on a hill with four sheep with a further ten sheep between the path and the plowed field. In the background The village houses grouped around the church on the edge of the plowed field, note that the artist has featured hooks on the church roof which trapped snow and allowed the hanging of ladders for maintenance of the slates. Two turrets are visible on the side of the church with covered with slate. Seven buildings to the left of the church, eleven to the right all with 2 sided roofs, the nave seems be made of four bays without an aisle. The choir appears to be of Roman style and lower and this church differs from the present church which was rebuilt from 1857 to 1859 and the tower rebuilt in 1872. Another impressive building is located on the right, in the far background A dominant hill on the right. For The Entombment, Rubens painted the Christ naked, according to Eugéne-Bouly de Lesdain it is no longer intact, A foreign hand cast a veil of decency on the painting which he felt obliged to impose.
An alien hand that may be attributed to Anonymous of Antwerp, the Entombment by Rubens is always visible in the Church of Saint-Gery of Cambrai. Under Charles V Aniche became a possession of the King of Spain until the Treaty of Nijmegen in 1678 when the Chatellenie of Bouchain returned to Louis XIV, King of France. In 1686, Eugène de Sainte-Adelgonde, Baron of Bours and Rieulay held the right of justice in the land of Aniche under letters patent of engagement. In 1778, on the night of 11 to 12 September, on the morning of 7 February 1827 at the Saint Hyacinthe pit, fire broke out in an access passage for the workers to descend into the pit
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Hauts-de-France is a Region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014 by the merger of Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy. The new region came into existence on 1 January 2016, after the elections in December 2015. Frances Conseil dÉtat approved Hauts-de-France as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, the region covers an area of more than 31,813 km2, and with a population of 5,973,098. The regions interim name Nord-Pas-de-Calais-Picardie was a placename, created by hyphenating the merged regions names—Nord-Pas-de-Calais. On 14 March 2016, well ahead of the 1 July deadline, the provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region, Hauts-de-France, took effect
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. There are 96 departments in metropolitan France and 5 overseas departments, each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, they were called general councils, the departments were created in 1791 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity, the title department is used to mean a part of a larger whole. Almost all of them were named after geographical features rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of dArgenson and they have inspired similar divisions in many countries, some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a number, the Official Geographical Code. Some overseas departments have a three-digit number, the number is used, for example, in the postal code, and was until recently used for all vehicle registration plates.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as the 45 and this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René dArgenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration, before the French Revolution, France gained territory gradually through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces, during the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved, partly in order to weaken old loyalties. Their boundaries served two purposes, Boundaries were chosen to break up Frances historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences, Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a days ride of the capital of the department. This was a security measure, intended to keep the national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of rural areas far from any centre of government.
The old nomenclature was carefully avoided in naming the new departments, most were named after an areas principal river or other physical features. Even Paris was in the department of Seine, the number of departments, initially 83, was increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleons defeats in 1814-1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size, in 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice, the 89 departments were given numbers based on their alphabetical order. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following Frances defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
Battle of Le Cateau
On the morning of 26 August, the Germans arrived and attacked II Corps. The British deployed their artillery in the open, about 50–200 metres behind their infantry, the British 5th Division was positioned on the right flank, on the southern side of the Le Cateau–Cambrai road between Inchy and Le Cateau. The 3rd Division was in the centre, holding the ground between Caudry and Inchy, the 4th Division was on the left flank, on the northern bank of the Warnelle. This was a choice of terrain on the part of the British, because the road was sunken in places. In fact, in most cases, the Germans could march close up to the British positions, which is what they often did. This was especially true at the weakest point in the British line, the right flank west of Le Cateau, the British position was on the forward slope and consequently, casualties were heavy during the withdrawal. At 03,30, Smith-Dorrien decided to strike the enemy hard and after he had done so, the purpose of the operation was unclear to his subordinates.
A hold at all costs mentality was evident in the 5th Division on the British right flank, the order was confirmed by a colonel from the II Corps staff, upon arriving, repeated it. Smith-Dorriens delaying operation never occurred because the order to defend arrived at the front line about the time the Germans did. Nor were the conditions of a doctrinal delay observed, such as refusing to let British units become decisively engaged with the enemy and he did not choose positions with adequate fields-of-fire and with prepared and hidden routes of withdrawal. 75 percent of IV Corps troops were in contact before they received this order, the IV Corps commander did not control the other half of the German forces, II Cavalry Corps, which fought independently. Holding their ground despite many casualties, the British right and the left began to break around midday. That night, the Allies withdrew to Saint-Quentin, of the 40,000 British troops fighting at Le Cateau,7,812 British casualties were incurred, including 2,600 taken prisoner.
Thirty-eight guns were abandoned, most having their breech blocks removed, II Corps retreated on the morning of 27 August and in two days of marching, broke contact with the Germans. Having lost 7,000 of its infantry at Le Cateau and 2, 500–3,000 footsore and exhausted men who had to be evacuated to Le Mans for recuperation, II Corps was not battleworthy for at least two days. Although credited at the time by Field Marshal Sir John French for having saved the BEF, the Germans were pleased with their victory. It was this mistake which allowed II Corps to retire as German troops were given a night of rest instead of being sent to pursue the British forces. Retreat from Mons La Ferté-sous-Jouarre memorial The Battle of Le Cateau,1914 The Battle of Le Cateau,26 August 1914 Battle of Le Cateau,26 August 1914
Ludovico Sforza of Milan, seeking an ally against the Republic of Venice, encouraged Charles VIII of France to invade Italy, using the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples as a pretext. For several months, French forces moved through Italy virtually unopposed, Charles VIII made triumphant entries into Pisa on November 8,1494, Florence on November 17,1494, and Rome on December 31,1494. Upon reaching the city of Monte San Giovanni in the Kingdom of Naples, Charles VIII sent envoys to the town, the garrison killed and mutilated the envoys and sent the bodies back to the French lines. This enraged the French army so that reduced the castle in the town with blistering artillery fire on February 9,1495 and stormed the fort. This was the sack of Naples. News of the French Armys sack of Naples provoked a reaction among the city-states of Northern Italy, the League was specifically formed to resist French aggression. The League was established on 31 March after negotiations by Venice, Milan and the Holy Roman Empire.
Later on the League consisted of the Holy Roman Empire, the Duchy of Milan, the Papal States, the Republic of Florence, the Duchy of Mantua and this coalition, cut Charles army off from returning to France. After establishing a government in Naples, Charles started to march north on his return to France. However, in the town of Fornovo he met the League army. In contemporary tradition, the battle counted as a Holy League victory, because the French forces had to leave, to the Italian coalition, however, it was at best a pyrrhic victory, in that its strategic outcome and long-term consequences were unfavorable. Although the League managed to force Charles VIII off the battlefield, it suffered much higher casualties and could not prevent the opposing army crossing the Italian lands as it returned to France. As a result of Charles VIIIs expedition, the states of Italy were shown once. In fact, the individual Italian states could not field armies comparable to those of the feudal monarchies of Europe in numbers.
Thus, Charles VIII lost all that he conquered in Italy, King Charles VIII died on April 7,1498 and was succeeded to the throne of France by his cousin, Louis II, Duke of Orléans, who became Louis XII of France. Ludovico Sforza retained his throne in Milan until 1499, when Charless successor, Louis XII of France, invaded Lombardy, Louis XII justified his claim to the Duchy of Milan by right of his paternal grandfather, Louis duc dOrléans having married Valentina Visconti in 1387. Valentina Visconti was the heir to the Duchy of Milan in the Visconti dynasty, the marriage contract between Valentina Visconti and Louis, duc dOrléans, guaranteed that in failure of male heirs, she would inherit the Visconti dominions. However, when the Visconti dynasty died out in 1447, the Milanese ignored the Orleans claim to the Duchy of Milan, bitter factionalism arose under the new republic which set the stage for Francisco Sforza to seize control of Milan in 1450
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cambrai
The current archbishop is François Charles Garnier, appointed in December 2000. Since 2002 the archdiocese has been a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lille, originally erected in the late 6th century as the Diocese of Cambrai, when the episcopal see after the death of the Frankish bishop Saint Vedast was relocated here from Arras. Though subordinate to the Archdiocese of Reims, Cambrais jurisdiction was immense and included even Brussels, Cambrai from 1512 was part of the Imperial Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle and – like the Prince-Bishopric of Liège – was not incorporated into the Seventeen Provinces of the Burgundian Circle. The councils of Leptines, at which Saint Boniface played an important role, were held in what was the part of the former Diocese of Cambrai in the Southern Netherlands. Under King Louis XIV the Bishopric of Cambrai finally became French after the Siege of Cambrai of 1677, from 1790 Cambrai was part of the new Nord department. By the Napoleonic Concordat of 1801, Cambrai was again reduced to a bishopric, suffragan to Paris, and included remnants of the former dioceses of Tournai, Ypres.
In 1817 both the pope and the king were eager for the erection of a see at Lille, but Bishop Louis de Belmas, immediately upon his death, in 1841, Cambrai once more became an archbishopric, with the diocese of Arras as suffragan. For the first bishops of Arras and Cambrai, who resided at the former place, on the death of Saint Vedulphus the episcopal residence was transferred from Arras to Cambrai. François Buisseret François van der Burch Gaspard Nemius François de Salignac de La Mothe-Fénelon and writer, Jean d Estrées Cardinal Joseph de la Tremoille. Cardinal Guillaume Dubois, minister to Louis XV, Charles de Saint-Albin Leopold-Charles de Choiseul-Stainville Henri-Marie-Bernardin de Ceilhes de Rosset de Fleury Ferdinand Maximilien Mériadec de Rohan. Louis de Belmas Pierre Giraud René-François Régnier Alfred Duquesnay, the list of notable people associated with the Diocese of Cambrai is very extensive, and their biographies, although short, take up no less than four volumes of the work by Canon Destombes.
The English college of Douai, founded by William Allen in 1568, gave in subsequent centuries a number of apostles. Since the promulgation of the law of 1875 on higher education, notable French and Flemish composers who served as maître de chapelle at Cambrai include Guillaume Dufay, Robert de Févin, Johannes Lupus and Jean de Bonmarché. See Johann Esch and Heinrich Voes, a chronicle of the bishops of Cambrai was written in the 11th century. This Gesta episcoporum Cambracensium was for some time attributed to Balderic, archbishop of Noyon, the work is of considerable importance for the history of the north of France during the 11th century, and was first published in 1615. Under the old regime the Archdiocese of Cambrai contained forty-one abbeys, a Benedictine abbey formerly extant here was converted by Marie Antoinette into a house of noble canonesses. Therese, the Sisters of Our Lady of Treille, and the Religious of the Holy Union of the Sacred Hearts, Catholic Church in France Gams, Pius Bonifatius.
Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo, Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. p. 526-528