Mountain Fork known as the Mountain Fork of the Little River, is a 98-mile-long tributary of the Little River in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma in the United States. Via the Little and Red rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River; the Mountain Fork rises in the Ouachita Mountains in Le Flore County and flows southeastwardly into Polk County, Arkansas southwestwardly into McCurtain County, where it turns southward for the remainder of its course. It joins the Little River in 10 miles southeast of Broken Bow. In its upper course, the river flows through a portion of the Ouachita National Forest. In McCurtain County, the river is dammed to form Broken Bow Lake. Nancy Branch is a tributary of the river; the Upper Mountain Fork River offers 31.7 miles of canoeing or kayaking from near Hatfield, Arkansas to Broken Bow Lake. This part of the river has Class II rapids. Clear water, fishing for Smallmouth bass and other species, excellent scenery with pine forests covering the hills and bluffs along the river's course.
Water levels in the river are adequate for boating year-round. On the upper portion of Broken Bow Lake is the McCurtain County Wilderness Area, an Oklahoma State-owned 14,000 acres tract which contains the largest remaining virgin Shortleaf Pine/hardwood forest in the nation. Hunting is permitted in the Wilderness Area. Below Broken Bow dam and lake, the 18.8 miles of the Lower Mountain Fork is described as the "consistently flowing and best whitewater stream" in Oklahoma. Class I and II rapids are found in the upper part of this section and paddlers must navigate waterfalls with a four foot drop. Bald Cypress trees line and, in some places, grow in the river; the cool waters issuing below Broken Bow dam provide year round habitat and fishing for Rainbow and Brown Trout which are stocked throughout the year. In 2008, a 17 pound 4 ounce Brown Trout was caught by an angler in the Mountain Fork. List of Arkansas rivers List of Oklahoma rivers Columbia Gazetteer of North America DeLorme. Arkansas Atlas & Gazetteer.
Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. ISBN 0-89933-345-1. DeLorme. Oklahoma Atlas & Gazetteer. Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. ISBN 0-89933-283-8. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Mountain Fork Mountain Fork River - Video footage of the area and a list of local activities and resources. Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory
Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek
The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was a treaty signed on September 27, 1830, proclaimed on February 24, 1831, between the Choctaw American Indian tribe and the United States Government. This was the first removal treaty carried into effect under the Indian Removal Act; the treaty ceded about 11 million acres of the Choctaw Nation in what is now Mississippi in exchange for about 15 million acres in the Indian territory, now the state of Oklahoma. The principal Choctaw negotiators were Chief Greenwood LeFlore and Nittucachee. S. negotiators were Colonel John Secretary of War John Eaton. The site of the signing of this treaty is in the southwest corner of Noxubee County; the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was the last major land cession treaty signed by the Choctaw. With ratification by the U. S. Congress in 1831, the treaty allowed those Choctaw who chose to remain in Mississippi to become the first major non-European ethnic group to gain recognition as U. S. citizens. On August 25, 1830, the Choctaw were supposed to meet with Andrew Jackson in Franklin, but Greenwood Leflore informed the Secretary of War, John H. Eaton, that the chiefs were fiercely opposed to attending.
The president was upset but, as the journalist Len Green wrote in 1978, "Although angered by the Choctaw refusal to meet him in Tennessee, Jackson felt from LeFlore's words that he might have a foot in the door and dispatched Secretary of War Eaton and John Coffee to meet with the Choctaws in their nation." Jackson appointed Eaton and General John Coffee as commissioners to represent him to meet the Choctaws where the "rabbits gather to dance." The commissioners met with the headmen on September 15, 1830, at Dancing Rabbit Creek. In a carnival-like atmosphere, the US officials explained the policy of removal through interpreters to an audience of 6,000 men and children; the Choctaws faced migration west of the Mississippi River or submitting to U. S. and state law as citizens. The treaty would sign away the remaining traditional homeland to the United States; the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was one of the largest land transfers signed between the United States Government and American Indians in time of peace.
The Choctaw ceded their remaining traditional homeland to the United States. Article 14 allowed for some Choctaw to remain in the state of Mississippi, if they wanted to become citizens: ART. XIV; each Choctaw head of a family being desirous to remain and become a citizen of the States, shall be permitted to do so, by signifying his intention to the Agent within six months from the ratification of this Treaty, he or she shall thereupon be entitled to a reservation of one section of six hundred and forty acres of land, to be bounded by sectional lines of survey. If they reside upon said lands intending to become citizens of the States for five years after the ratification of this Treaty, in that case a grant in fee simple shall issue. Persons who claim under this article shall not lose the privilege of a Choctaw citizen, but if they remove are not to be entitled to any portion of the Choctaw annuity; the Choctaw were the first of the "Five Civilized Tribes" to be removed from the southeastern United States, as the federal and state governments desired Indian lands to accommodate a growing agrarian American society.
In 1831, tens of thousands of Choctaw walked the 800-kilometer journey to Oklahoma and many died. Like the Creek, Cherokee and Seminole who followed them, the Choctaw attempted to resurrect their traditional lifestyle and government in their new homeland; the Choctaw at this crucial time became two distinct groups: the Nation in Oklahoma and the Tribe in Mississippi. The nation retained its autonomy to regulate itself, but the tribe left in Mississippi had to submit to state and U. S. laws. Under article XIV, in 1830 the Mississippi Choctaws became the first major non-European ethnic group to gain U. S. citizenship. The Choctaw sought to elect a representative to the U. S. House of Representatives; the preamble begins with, A treaty of perpetual, friendship and limits, entered into by John H. Eaton and John Coffee, for and in behalf of the Government of the United States, the Mingoes, Chiefs and Warriors of the Choctaw Nation and held at Dancing Rabbit Creek, on the fifteenth of September, in the year eighteen hundred and thirty...
The following terms of the treaty were: 1. Perpetual peace and friendship. 2. Lands west of the Mississippi River to be conveyed to the Choctaw Nation. 3. Lands east of the Mississippi River to be ceded and removal to begin in 1831 and end in 1833. 4. Autonomy of the Choctaw Nation and descendants to be secured from laws of U. S. territories forever. 5. U. S. will serve as protectorate of the Choctaw Nation. 6. Choctaw or party of Choctaws part of violent acts against the U. S. citizens or property will be delivered to the U. S. authorities. 7. Offenses against Choctaws and their property by U. S. citizens and other tribes will be examined and every possible degree of justice applied. 8. No harboring of U. S. fugitives with all expenses to capture him or her paid by the U. S. 9. Persons ordered from Choctaw Nation. 10. Traders require a written permit. 11. Nav
Chickasaw National Recreation Area
Chickasaw National Recreation Area is a National Recreation Area situated in the foothills of the Arbuckle Mountains in south-central Oklahoma near Sulphur in Murray County. It includes Arbuckle Recreation District; the area was established as Sulphur Springs Reservation on July 1, 1902. Of the park's 9,888.83 acres, water covers 2,409 acres. The park contains many fine examples of 1930's Civilian Conservation Corps architecture. CCC workers created pavilions, park buildings, enclosures for the park's many natural springs; the Chickasaw National Recreation Area preserves forested hills of south-central Oklahoma near Sulphur. Named to honor the Chickasaw Indian Nation, who were relocated to the area from the Southeastern United States during the 1830s, the park's springs and lakes provide opportunities for swimming, fishing, picnicking and hiking, among other activities; as part of the Chickasaw tribe's arrangement with the U. S. government, the park does not charge an admission fee. When the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes were forced to move from their former lands in the southeastern United States, they found an area within the new Chickasaw nation that contained a number of natural fresh and mineral springs that they believed had healing powers.
Fearing that developers would turn the springs into a private resort, as had happened earlier at Hot Springs, the Chickasaw sold a 640-acre parcel to the U. S. Government, which named it the Sulphur Springs Reservation in 1902. In 1902, Orville H. Platt, a U. S. Senator from the state of Connecticut, introduced legislation to establish the 640-acre Sulphur Springs Reservation, protecting 32 freshwater and mineral springs, in Murray County, Oklahoma; the reservation opened to the public April 29, 1904. On June 29, 1906, Congress re-designated the reservation as Platt National Park, named for the senator, a year after his death, it had the distinctions of being the seventh and smallest national park created in the United States as well as the only national park in Oklahoma, until its redesignation as a National Recreation Area in 1976. Since Gateway Arch National Park has taken its place as the smallest national park at just 91 acres. Visitors soon thronged to the new national park. Both the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway and the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway had built spur lines to Sulphur, which became the main entrance to the park.
According to the National Park Service, in 1914, Platt had more visitors than either Yellowstone or Yosemite. In the 1930s, crews of the New Deal Civilian Conservation Corps developed the park's infrastructure, applying then-popular ideas of landscape design to create a tranquil and scenic oasis; the environment built during this time has remained well-preserved, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2011. Platt National Park was abolished by Congress and made part of the much larger Chickasaw National Recreation Area in 1976, which included Lake of the Arbuckles. In 1983, the city of Sulphur traded the 67-acre Veterans Lake to the recreation area in exchange for a strip of land above the State Highway Seven bridge. In 2011, the United States Mint issued a quarter featuring the Chickasaw's Lincoln Bridge, a limestone bridge built in 1909 to commemorate the 100th birthday of Abraham Lincoln, as part of its America the Beautiful Quarters series. Travertine district, embracing the old Platt National Park, is like a large city park, three miles long and less than one mile wide.
A narrow road circles the district, passing by parking areas and picnic grounds, the Travertine Nature Center, swimming holes, a bison pasture. Travertine Creek, joined by Rock Creek, flows through the district, rising in Antelope Springs and Buffalo Springs at the eastern end of the park; the springs produce 5 million gallons per day of cool, crystal clear-water and form Travertine Creek, joined by Rock Creek about 2 miles from its source. A number of other fresh water and mineral springs contribute to Travertine and Rock Creek as they flow through Travertine District, dropping in small waterfalls over several ledges. Several miles of walking and biking trails wind through the forested creek bottomland. Popular and crowded in summer, the Travertine district has been described as an oasis in the Oklahoma prairie. Most of the National Recreational Area is taken up by the 2,350 acre Lake of the Arbuckles and the prairie and woodland along its shores; the scenic lake is a principal water supply reservoir for the city of Ardmore, some 30 mi to the southwest.
Lake of the Arbuckles was built by the Bureau of Reclamation in 1966 by impounding Rock Creek. Water quality and clarity are excellent; the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation has rated the lake as the best for bass fishing in the state. The lake features 36 miles of shoreline. Fishing is permitted year-round for crappie, largemouth bass, white bass and bluegill. Facilities include three campgrounds for tents and RVs, picnic areas, public restrooms, boat docks and ramps, several miles of multi-use trails. Hunting is allowed, hunted species are quail, squirrel, dove, ducks and deer. However, due to heavy hunting pressure and small area size, game is declining and trapping is prohibited. Hunting regulations and certain special rules, are designed to regu
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Winding Stair Mountains
The Winding Stair Mountains is a mountain ridge located within the state of Oklahoma in Le Flore County, north of Talihina. The ridge is part of a larger mountain range, the Ouachita Mountains, itself a subsection of the U. S. Interior Highlands; some of the peaks within this ridge have elevations reaching about 2,400 feet above sea level. Tree species native to this area include the following: shortleaf pine, loblolly pine, southern red oak, white oak and flowering dogwood. In prehistoric times, hunter-gatherer tribes roamed the area. By the time the first Europeans visited the region, it had been populated by the Wichita people; when the United States Government expelled the Choctaw people from their previous homeland in the Southeastern States after 1820, the land became part of the Choctaw Nation in Indian Territory. The Choctaw government was dissolved in 1906, just before the present state of Oklahoma was formed on November 16, 1907. In 1971, it gained Self-Determination status; those Choctaw who removed to the Indian Territory in the early 20th century during the Trail of Tears are federally recognized as the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma.
The mountain range is a popular tourist destination, due to the designated protected areas in the vicinity. The mountain range is entirely located in the Ouachita National Forest; the forest comprises the Winding Stair Mountain National Recreation Area, designated by President Ronald Reagan in 1988. The recreation area covers 26,445 acres; the Talimena National Scenic Byway crosses the mountains from Talihina, Oklahoma to Arkansas. It was designated in 2005 as a National Scenic Byway; the byway, which travels through the Ouachita National Forest, is described as one of the prettiest drives in the country, situated along some of the highest peaks in the Winding Stair Mountains. The byway is a popular destination for many tourists in the area. Kiamichi Country Kiamichi River Ouachita Mountains
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou