Louis-Marie Ernest Daudet was a French journalist and historian. Prolific in several genres, Daudet began his career writing for magazines and provincial newspapers all over France, his younger brother was Alphonse Daudet. Ernest Daudet was born in an old Roman city of Languedoc, France, his father, Vincent Daudet, was a silk merchant whose lack of business sense involved him in bankruptcy. His mother, Adeleine Reynaud, was descended from a respected Provençal family. In 1857 he went to Paris with his brother. For a time he managed the Petit Moniteur, he was the secretary-editor of the Legislative Corps and chief of the Cabinet of the Senate. He died in Petites-Dalles in 1921, aged 84. Bruyère, Marcel. La Jeunesse D'Alphonse Daudet. Paris: Nouvelles Editions Latines. Giocanti, Stéphane. C'Était les Daudet. Paris: Flammarion. James, Henry. "Alphonse Daudet." In: Partial Portraits. London: Macmillan & Co. pp. 195–239. Works by Ernest Daudet at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Ernest Daudet at Internet Archive Works by Ernest Daudet, at Hathi Trust Works by Ernest Daudet, at Gallica Works by Ernest Daudet, at Europeana Ernest Daudet, le Frère Oublié
Guy de Maupassant
Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant was a French writer, remembered as a master of the short story form, as a representative of the naturalist school of writers, who depicted human lives and destinies and social forces in disillusioned and pessimistic terms. Maupassant was a protégé of Gustave Flaubert and his stories are characterized by economy of style and efficient, effortless dénouements. Many are set during the Franco-Prussian War of the 1870s, describing the futility of war and the innocent civilians who, caught up in events beyond their control, are permanently changed by their experiences, he wrote some 300 short stories, six novels, three travel books, one volume of verse. His first published story, "Boule de Suif", is considered his masterpiece. Henri-René-Albert-Guy de Maupassant was born 5 August 1850 at the Château de Miromesnil (Castle Miromesnil, near Dieppe in the Seine-Inférieure department in France, he was the first son of Laure Le Poittevin and Gustave de Maupassant, both from prosperous bourgeois families.
His mother urged his father when they married in 1846 to obtain the right to use the particule or form "de Maupassant" instead of "Maupassant" as his family name, in order to indicate noble birth. Gustave discovered a certain Jean-Baptiste Maupassant, conseiller-secrétaire to the King, ennobled in 1752, he obtained from the Tribunal Civil of Rouen by decree dated 9 July 1846 the right to style himself "de Maupassant" instead of "Maupassant" and this was his surname at the birth of his son Guy in 1850. When Maupassant was 11 and his brother Hervé was five, his mother, an independent-minded woman, risked social disgrace to obtain a legal separation from her husband, violent towards her. After the separation, Laure Le Poittevin kept her two sons. With the father's absence, Maupassant's mother became the most influential figure in the young boy's life, she was an exceptionally well-read woman and was fond of classical literature Shakespeare. Until the age of thirteen, Guy lived with his mother, at Étretat, in the Villa des Verguies, between the sea and the luxuriant countryside, he grew fond of fishing and outdoor activities.
At age thirteen, his mother next placed her two sons as day boarders in a private school, the Institution Leroy-Petit, in Rouen—the Institution Robineau of Maupassant's story La Question du Latin—for classical studies. From his early education he retained a marked hostility to religion, to judge from verses composed around this time he deplored the ecclesiastical atmosphere, its ritual and discipline. Finding the place to be unbearable, he got himself expelled in his next-to-last year. In 1867, as he entered junior high school, Maupassant made acquaintance with Gustave Flaubert at Croisset at the insistence of his mother. Next year, in autumn, he was sent to the Lycée Pierre-Corneille in Rouen where he proved a good scholar indulging in poetry and taking a prominent part in theatricals. In October 1868, at the age of 18, he saved the famous poet Algernon Charles Swinburne from drowning off the coast of Étretat; the Franco-Prussian War broke out soon after his graduation from college in 1870.
In 1871, he left Normandy and moved to Paris where he spent ten years as a clerk in the Navy Department. During this time his only recreation and relaxation was boating on the Seine on Sundays and holidays. Gustave Flaubert took him under his protection and acted as a kind of literary guardian to him, guiding his debut in journalism and literature. At Flaubert's home, he met Émile Zola and the Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev, as well as many of the proponents of the realist and naturalist schools, he wrote and played himself in a comedy in 1875, "À la feuille de rose, maison turque". In 1878, he was transferred to the Ministry of Public Instruction and became a contributing editor to several leading newspapers such as Le Figaro, Gil Blas, Le Gaulois and l'Écho de Paris, he devoted his spare time to short stories. In 1880 he published what is considered his first masterpiece, "Boule de Suif", which met with instant and tremendous success. Flaubert characterized it as "a masterpiece that will endure."
This was Maupassant's first piece of short fiction set during the Franco-Prussian War, was followed by short stories such as "Deux Amis", "Mother Savage", "Mademoiselle Fifi". The decade from 1880 to 1891 was the most fertile period of Maupassant's life. Made famous by his first short story, he worked methodically and produced two or sometimes four volumes annually, his talent and practical business sense made him wealthy. In 1881 he published his first volume of short stories under the title of La Maison Tellier. In 1883 he finished 25,000 copies of which were sold in less than a year, his second novel Bel Ami, which came out in 1885, had thirty-seven printings in four months. His editor, commissioned him to write more stories, Maupassant continued to produce them efficiently and frequently. At this time he wrote what many consider to be Pierre et Jean. With a natural aversion to society, he loved retirement and meditation, he traveled extensively in Algeria, England, Sicily and from each voyage brought back a new volume.
He cruised on his private yacht Bel-Ami, named after his novel. This life did not prevent him from making friends among the literary celebrities of his day: Alexandre Dumas, fils had a paternal affection for him.
Abel Hermant was a French novelist, playwright and writer, member of the Académie française. Hermant was born in the son of an architect, he received a degree from the École Normale Supérieure in 1880, published his first volume of verse in 1883, The Contempt. After several youthful novels, he moved to ironic analysis of the popular mores of the Belle Époque and achieved popular success, his first semi-autobiographical novel, Monsieur Rabosson of 1884, established his reputation as a satirical social observer. Its follow-up Le Cavalier Miserey of 1887, dealt with the issue of homosexuals in the military. Between 1901 and 1937 Hermant embarked on a series of 20 linked novels with the general title Memoirs to Serve for a History of Society, but his contributions to literature included many popular plays, drama criticism for Le Figaro and Gil Blas, a series of grammarian articles for Le Temps under the name "Lancelot" defending the purity of the French language. By 1899 Hermant was well-connected in society.
After a number of tries Hermant was elected to the Académie française on 30 June 1927. During World War II Hermant's contributions to Jean Luchaire's pro-Nazi evening daily newspaper Les Nouveaux Temps, beginning in 1940, his open support of the Vichy regime, his criticisms of the French Army, marked him as a collaborator. At over 80 years of age, he was sentenced to life in prison on 15 December 1945. Hermant achieved the negative distinction of being one of the four "immortals" removed from the Académie française after World War II for collaboration with Germany. Hermant and Abel Bonnard were expelled outright, in disgrace. Pardoned and released in 1948, Abel Hermant tried to justify his conduct during the Occupation in his Thirteenth Notebook, he died shortly thereafter. Columbia Dictionary of Modern European Literature, by Jean Albert Bédé, William Benbow Marcel Proust, by William C. Carter, page 269 Works by or about Abel Hermant at Internet Archive Association des amis d'Abel Hermant
The Phantom of the Opera
The Phantom of the Opera is a novel by French writer Gaston Leroux. It was first published as a serialization in Le Gaulois from 23 September 1909, to 8 January 1910, it was directed by Aluel Malinao. The novel is inspired by historical events at the Paris Opera during the nineteenth century and an apocryphal tale concerning the use of a former ballet pupil's skeleton in Carl Maria von Weber's 1841 production of Der Freischütz, it has been adapted into various stage and film adaptations, most notable of which are the 1925 film depiction featuring Lon Chaney, Andrew Lloyd Webber's 1986 musical. Leroux first decided he would become a lawyer, but after he spent his inheritance gambling he became a reporter for L’Echo de Paris. At the paper he was critique dramas, as well as being a courtroom reporter. With his job, he was able to travel but he returned to Paris where he became a writer; because of his fascination with both Edgar Allan Poe and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, he wrote a detective mystery entitled The Mystery of the Yellow Room in 1907, four years he published Le Fantôme de l’Opéra.
The novel was first published within newspapers before being published as a novel in 1911. The setting of The Phantom of the Opera came from an actual Paris opera house that Leroux had heard the rumors about from the time the opera house was finished; the details about the Palais Garnier, rumors surrounding it, are linked in Leroux's writing. The underground water tank that he wrote about is accurate to this opera house, it is still used for training firefighters; the mysteries that Leroux uses in his novel about the Phantom are still mysteries. The Phantom of the Opera's origins came from Leroux's curiosity with the Phantom being real. In the prologue he tells the readers about the Phantom and the research that he did to prove the truth of the ghost, his findings connected the corpse from the opera house to the Persian phantom himself. The claims from the prologue of his novel were ones that Leroux held onto up until his death in 1927. In Paris in the 1880s, the Palais Garnier opera house is believed to be haunted by an entity known as the Phantom of the Opera, or the Opera Ghost.
A stagehand named Joseph Buquet is found hanged and the rope around his neck goes missing. At a gala performance for the retirement of the opera house's two managers, a young little-known Swedish soprano, Christine Daaé, is called upon to sing in the place of the Opera's leading soprano, ill, her performance is an astonishing success; the Vicomte Raoul de Chagny, present at the performance, recognizes her as his childhood playmate and recalls his love for her. He attempts to visit her backstage, where he hears a man complimenting her from inside her dressing room, he investigates the room. At Perros-Guirec, Christine meets with Raoul, who confronts her about the voice he heard in her room. Christine tells him she has been tutored by the Angel of Music, whom her father used to tell them about; when Raoul suggests that she might be the victim of a prank, she storms off. Christine visits her father's grave one night, where a mysterious figure appears and plays the violin for her. Raoul attempts to confront it but knocked out in the process.
Back at the Palais Garnier, the new managers receive a letter from the Phantom demanding that they allow Christine to perform the lead role of Marguerite in Faust, that box 5 be left empty for his use, lest they perform in a house with a curse on it. The managers ignore his demands as a prank, resulting in disastrous consequences: Carlotta ends up croaking like a toad, the chandelier drops into the audience, killing a spectator; the Phantom, having abducted Christine from her dressing room, reveals himself as a deformed man called Erik. Erik intends to keep her in his lair with him for a few days, but she causes him to change his plans when she unmasks him and, to the horror of both, beholds his noseless, sunken-eyed face, which resembles a skull dried up by the centuries, covered in yellowed dead flesh. Fearing that she will leave him, he decides to keep her with him forever, but when Christine requests release after two weeks, he agrees on the condition that she wear his ring and be faithful to him.
On the roof of the opera house, Christine tells Raoul about her abduction and makes Raoul promise to take her away to a place where Erik can never find her if she resists. Raoul tells Christine the next day, to which she agrees. However, Christine sympathizes with Erik and decides to sing for him one last time as a means of saying goodbye. Unbeknownst to Christine and Raoul, Erik has been watching them and overheard their whole conversation; the following night, the enraged and jealous Erik abducts Christine during a production of Faust and tries to force her to marry him. Raoul is led by a mysterious opera regular known as "The Persian" into Erik's secret lair deep in the bowels of the opera house, but they end up trapped in a mirrored room by Erik, who threatens that unless Christine agrees to marry him, he will kill them and everyone in the Opera House by using explosives. Christine agrees to marry Erik. Erik tries to drown Raoul and the Persian, using the water which would have been used to douse the explosives, but Christine begs and offers to be his "living bride", promising him not to kill herself after becoming his bride, as she had both contemplated and attempted earlier in the book.
Erik releases Raoul and the Persian from his torture chamber. When Erik is alone with Christine, he lifts his mask to kiss her on her
Alfred Grévin was a 19th-century caricaturist, best known during his lifetime for his caricature silhouettes of contemporary Parisian women. He was a sculptor and designed costumes and sets for popular theater, he founded with journalist Arthur Meyer a waxwork museum. Alfred Grevin was born in a house in the main street of Épineuil in 1827, he studied natural sciences and drawing at the College of Tonnerre. His first job was as an apprentice draughtsman for Paris à Lyon à la Méditerranée railways. In his free time, he would draw for fun. In 1853 he moved to Paris, he put his cartooning talents at the service of the newspaper Le Gaulois headed by Arthur Meyer. He went on to work for Le Journal amusant and Le Charivari. To supplement his meager salary as a cartoonist and illustrator, he worked as a theater costume designer, wrote plays. By 1867 he was able settle at 16bis rue de Berulle. In 1869 he founded l'Almanach des Parisiennes with Louis Adrien Huart, in 1875 Grévin designed the 673 costumes for Jacques Offenbach's opéra-féerie Le voyage dans la lune, for Charles Lecocq's opera comique The Daughter of Madame AngotIn 1881, Meyer had the idea, along with Alfred Grévin, to represent the personalities that made the front page of the news section as wax mannequins, which allowed visitors – in an era before photography was used in the press – to put a face to the names in the news.
This was the beginning of the Musée Grévin, which opened its doors on 5 June 1882 and swiftly became successful. Grévin met Émile Zola on several occasions, whom he wanted to include a portrait of in his collections. Grevin spent the final two years of his life paralyzed, died of a sudden stroke of apoplexy in 1892 at Saint-Mandé. Les Parisiennes, a collection of Grévin's illustrations Grévin's illustrations in Le Journal amusant digital editions from Bibliothèque nationale de France Fontaine, Jean-Pierre. Alfred Grévin: De Tonnerre à Montmartre. Français: Éd. de Bourgogne, 2007. ISBN 978-2-902650-11-8. Personalities of Tonnerre Heritage City of Saint Mandé Works by Grévin on Artchive, ArtNet, Original Art, Christie's Art, Great Caricatures Alfred Grévin in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
Gaston Louis Alfred Leroux was a French journalist and author of detective fiction. In the English-speaking world, he is best known for writing the novel The Phantom of the Opera, made into several film and stage productions of the same name, notably the 1925 film starring Lon Chaney, Andrew Lloyd Webber's 1986 musical, his novel The Mystery of the Yellow Room is one of the most famous locked-room mysteries ever. Leroux died in 1927 in Nice, he went to school in Normandy and studied law in Paris, graduating in 1889. He lived wildly until he nearly reached bankruptcy. In 1890, he began working as a court theater critic for L'Écho de Paris, his most important journalism came when he began working as an international correspondent for the Paris newspaper Le Matin. He was present at, covered, the 1905 Russian Revolution. Another case at which he was present involved the investigation and in-depth coverage of the former Paris Opera; the basement contained a cell. He left journalism in 1907 and began writing fiction.
In 1919, he and Arthur Bernède formed their own film company, Société des Cinéromans, to publish novels and turn them into films. He first wrote a mystery novel titled Le mystère de la chambre jaune, starring the amateur detective Joseph Rouletabille. Leroux's contribution to French detective fiction is considered a parallel to Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's in the United Kingdom and Edgar Allan Poe's in the United States. Leroux published his most famous work, The Phantom of the Opera, as a serial in 1909 and 1910, as a book in 1910. Leroux was made a Chevalier de la Legion d'honneur in 1909. 1907 - Le mystère de la chambre jaune 1908 - Le parfum de la dame en noir 1913 - Rouletabille chez le Tsar 1914 - Rouletabille à la guerre consisting of Le château noir Les étranges noces de Rouletabille 1917 - Rouletabille chez Krupp 1921 - Le crime de Rouletabille 1922 - Rouletabille chez les Bohémiens Première Aventures de Chéri-Bibi Chéri-Bibi et Cécily Nouvelles Aventures de Chéri-Bibi Le Coup d'État de Chéri-Bibi La double vie de Théophraste Longuet Le roi mystère Le fauteuil hanté Un homme dans la nuit La reine de Sabbat Le fantôme de l'Opéra Balaoo L' épouse du soleil La colonne infernale Confitou L' homme qui revient de loin Le capitaine Hyx La bataille invisible Tue-la-mort Le coeur cambriolé Le sept de trèfle La poupée sanglante La machine à assassiner Les ténébreuses: La fin d'un monde & du sang sur la Néva Hardis-Gras ou le fils des trois pères La Farouche Aventure La Mansarde en or Les Mohicans de Babel Mister Flow Les Chasseurs de danses Pouloulou 1887 - "Le petit marchand de pommes de terre frites" 1902 - "Les trois souhaits" 1907 - "Baïouchki baïou" 1908 - "L'homme qui a vu le diable" 1911 - "Le dîner des bustes" 1912 - "La hache d'or" 1924 - "Le Noël du petit Vincent-Vincent" 1924 - "La f