Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris. Le Figaro is the oldest national daily in France and is one of the three French newspapers of record, along with Le Monde and Libération. With its center-right editorial line, Le Figaro is the second-largest national newspaper in France after Le Parisien and before Le Monde, although some regional papers such as Ouest-France have larger circulations. In 2012, the paper had an average circulation of 330,952 copies per issue; the paper is published in the berliner format, switching from a broadsheet in 2009. The newspaper is owned by Le Figaro Group owned by Dassault Group since 2004 whose publications include TV Magazine and Evene. Le Figaro was founded as a satirical weekly in 1826, taking its name and motto from Le Mariage de Figaro, the 1778 play by Pierre Beaumarchais that poked fun at privilege, its motto, from Figaro's monologue in the play's final act, is "Sans la liberté de blâmer, il n'est point d'éloge flatteur".
In 1833, editor Nestor Roqueplan fought a duel with a Colonel Gallois, offended by an article in Le Figaro, was wounded but recovered. Albert Wolff, Émile Zola, Alphonse Karr, Jules Claretie were among the paper's early contributors, it was published somewhat irregularly until 1854, when it was taken over by Hippolyte de Villemessant. In 1866, Le Figaro became a daily newspaper, its first daily edition, that of 16 November 1866, sold 56,000 copies, having highest circulation of any newspaper in France. Its editorial line was royalist. Pauline Savari was among the contributors to the paper at this time. On 16 March 1914, Gaston Calmette, the editor of Le Figaro, was assassinated by Henriette Caillaux, the wife of Finance Minister Joseph Caillaux, after he published a letter that cast serious doubt on her husband's integrity. In 1922, Le Figaro was purchased by perfume millionaire François Coty. Abel Faivre did cartoons for the paper. Coty enraged many when he renamed the paper Figaro, which it remained until 1933.
By the start of World War II, Le Figaro had become France's leading newspaper. After the war, it became the voice of the upper middle class, continues to maintain a conservative position. In 1975, Le Figaro was bought by Robert Hersant's Socpresse. In 1999, the Carlyle Group obtained a 40% stake in the paper, which it sold in March 2002. Since March 2004, Le Figaro has been controlled by Serge Dassault, a conservative businessman and politician best known for running the aircraft manufacturer Dassault Aviation, which he inherited from his father, its founder, Marcel Dassault. Dassault owns 80% of the paper. In 2006, Le Figaro was banned in Egypt and Tunisia for publishing articles insulting Islam. Le Figaro switched to Berliner format in 2009; the paper has published The New York Times International Weekly on Friday since 2009, an 8-page supplement featuring a selection of articles from The New York Times translated into French. In 2010, Lefigaro.fr created a section called Le Figaro in English, which provides the global English-speaking community with daily original or translated content from Le Figaro’s website.
The section ended in 2012. Le Figaro has traditionally held a conservative editorial stance, becoming the voice of the French upper and middle classes; the newspaper's ownership by Serge Dassault has been a source of controversy in terms of conflict-of-interest, as Dassault owns a major military supplier and has served in political positions from the Union for a Popular Movement party. His son Olivier Dassault is a member of the French National Assembly. Dassault has remarked in an interview in 2004 on the public radio station France Inter that "newspapers must promulgate healthy ideas" and that "left-wing ideas are not healthy ideas."In February 2012, a general assembly of the newspaper's journalists adopted a motion accusing the paper's managing editor, Étienne Mougeotte, of having made Le Figaro into the "bulletin" of the governing party, the Union for a Popular Movement, of the government and of President Nicolas Sarkozy. They accused the paper of one-sided political reporting. Mougeotte had said that Le Figaro would do nothing to embarrass the government and the right.
Mougeotte publicly replied: "Our editorial line pleases our readers. I don't see. We are a right-wing newspaper and we express it by the way. Our readers our journalists too. There's nothing new to that!" In the period of 1995–96, the paper had a circulation of 391,533 copies, behind Le Parisien's 451,159 copies. Libération Madame Figaro Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher; the World's Great Dailies: Profiles of Fifty Newspapers pp 124–29 Le Figaro website Le Figaro digital archives from 1826 to 1942 in Gallica, the digital library of the BnF
L'Équipe is a French nationwide daily newspaper devoted to sport, owned by Éditions Philippe Amaury. The paper is noted for coverage of association football, rugby and cycling, its predecessor was L'Auto, a general sports paper whose name reflected not any narrow interest but the excitement of the time in car racing. L'Auto originated the Tour de France cycling stage race in 1903 as a circulation booster; the race leader's yellow jersey was instituted in 1919 to reflect the distinctive yellow newsprint on which L'Auto was published. The competition that would become the UEFA Champions League was the brainchild of a l'Équipe journalist, Gabriel Hanot. L'Auto and therefore L'Équipe owed its life to a 19th-century French scandal involving soldier Alfred Dreyfus - the Dreyfus affair. With overtones of antisemitism and post-war paranoia, Dreyfus was accused of selling secrets to France's old enemy, the Germans; as different sides of society insisted he was guilty or innocent – he was cleared but only after rigged trials had banished him to an island prison camp – the split came close to civil war and still have their echoes in modern French society.
France's largest sports paper, Le Vélo, mixed sports coverage with political comment. Its editor, Pierre Giffard, believed Dreyfus innocent and said so, leading to acrid disagreement with his main advertisers. Among them were the automobile-maker the Comte de Dion and the industrialists Adolphe Clément and Édouard Michelin. Frustrated at Giffard's politics, they planned a rival paper; the editor was a prominent racing cyclist, Henri Desgrange, who had published a book of cycling tactics and training and was working as a publicity writer for Clément. Desgrange was a strong character but lacked confidence, so much doubting the Tour de France founded in his name that he stayed away from the pioneering race in 1903 until it looked like being a success. Three years after the foundation of L'Auto-Vélo in 1900, a court in Paris decided that the title was too close to its main competitor, Giffard's Le Vélo, thus reference to'Vélo' was dropped and the new paper became L'Auto. It was printed on yellow paper.
Circulation was sluggish and only a crisis meeting called "to nail Giffard's beak shut", as Desgrange phrased it, came to its rescue. On the first floor of the paper's offices in the rue du Faubourg-Montmartre in Paris, a 26-year-old cycling and rugby writer called Géo Lefèvre suggested a race round France, bigger than any other paper could rival and akin to six-day races on the track; the Tour de France proved a success for the newspaper. The record circulation claimed by Desgrange was 854,000, achieved during the 1933 Tour. Desgrange died in ownership passed to a consortium of Germans; the paper began printing comments favourable to the occupying Nazis and so its doors were nailed shut with the return of peace, like all other papers that had printed under the Germans. In 1940 Jacques Goddet succeeded Desgrange as editor and nominal organiser of the Tour de France. Jacques Goddet was the son of Victor Goddet. Goddet defended his paper's role in a court case brought by the French government but was never wholly cleared in the public mind of being close to the Germans or to the Head of the French State, Philippe Pétain.
Goddet could point, however, to clandestine printing of Resistance newspapers and pamphlets in the L'Auto print room and so was allowed to publish a successor paper called L'Équipe. It occupied premises across the road from where L'Auto had been, in a building, in owned by L'Auto, although the original paper's assets had been sequestrated by the state. One condition of publication imposed by the state was that L'Équipe was to use white paper rather than yellow, too attached to L'Auto; the new paper published three times a week from 28 February 1946. Since 1948 it has been published daily; the paper benefited from the demise of its competitors, L'Élan, Le Sport. Its coverage of car racing hints at the paper's ancestry by printing the words L'Auto at the head of the page in the gothic print used in the main title of the prewar paper. L'Équipe is published in broadsheet format. In 1968 L'Équipe was bought by founder of the Amaury publishing empire. Among L'Équipe's most respected writers have been Antoine Blondin and Gabriel Hanot.
The death of Émilien Amaury in 1977 led to a six-year legal battle over inheritance between his son and daughter. This was settled amicably with Philippe Amaury owning the dailies while his sister owned magazines such as Marie-France and Point de Vue. Philippe founded Éditions Philippe Amaury, which included L'Équipe, Le Parisien and Aujourd'hui. At Philippe's death in 2006, the group passed to his widow, Marie-Odile, their children. In 1980 L'Équipe began publishing a magazine with its Saturday edition. On 31 August 1998, L'Équipe TV was formed. In 2005 a Sports et Style supplement was added to the Saturday edition. In 2006 L'Équipe Féminine was first published. In 2006 L'Équipe bought Le Journal du Golf. In early 2007 L'Équipe supplemented its main website with L'équipe junior, dedicated to youth; the biggest-selling issue was 13 July 1998, the day after the France national football team won the World Cup. It sold 1,645,907 copies; the second best was on 3 July 2000 after France won the Eur
La Croix is a daily French general-interest Roman Catholic newspaper. It is published in Paris and distributed throughout France, with a circulation of just under 110,000 as of 2009, it is not explicitly right on major political issues. The newspaper rather adopts the Church's position. However, La Croix ought not be confused with a religious newspaper—its topics are of general interest: world news, the economy and spirituality, parenting and science. Upon its appearance in 1880, the first version of La Croix was a monthly news magazine; the Augustinians of the Assumption, who ran the paper, realized that the monthly format was not getting the widespread readership that the paper deserved. Therefore, the Augustinians of the Assumption, decided to convert to a daily sheet sold at one penny. Accordingly, La Croix transitioned into a daily newspaper on 16 June 1883. Father Emmanuel d'Alzon, the founder of the Assumptionists and the Oblates of the Assumption, started the paper. Alsom, La Criox's biggest early advocate was Father Vincent-de-Paul Bailly.
La Bonne Presse was the first publishing house of the newspaper, which would be called Bayard Presse in 1950. La Croix succeeded in bringing together certain groups of Roman Catholics who were seeking to position themselves outside of party politics and ideologies. At the end of the 19th century, it was the most read Roman Catholic publication in France, with a clerical readership of more than 25,000, it gained more readers when it took the lead in attacking Dreyfus as a traitor and stirred up anti-Semitism. The Radical government, under Waldeck-Rousseau, forced the Assumptionists into exile from France; the newspaper's publishing house, la Bonne Presse, was purchased by Paul Féron-Vrau, who oversaw operations until the Assumptionists returned to France under the amnesty laws of 1905. For many years, La Croix appeared in two formats; the first was a small-format periodical aimed at popular readership, the second a large-format newspaper aimed at a more intellectual audience. In 1927, Father Leon Merklen having become editor in chief, La Croix began to address social problems.
This was led to the initiative founding Catholic Action and helped to create a formal link between the Catholic Working Youth and the French Roman Catholic Church. During the Second World War La Croix moved its editorial offices first to Bordeaux to Limoges; the paper was shut down comparatively late in the occupation, on 21 June 1944. It would not reappear until February 1945. Father Gabel oversaw the relaunch of the paper. Editor in chief from 1949, he introduced new sections, such as sports, cinema and theatre. On 1 February 1956, La Croix began to appear for the first time without a crucifix as a part of its header. In March 1968, the newspaper adopted a tabloid format. In January 1972, the newspaper changed its name to La Croix-l’Événement; the choice of the new title was a reflection of the editorship's desire to show that the paper was not just a religious paper, but a regular daily, reflective of modern society. The paper has a loyal readership, as expressed by the fact that 87% of its sales are by subscription.
To celebrate its centennial in 1983, la Croix-l’Événement took on a newer layout. The paper added new sections with the arrival of editor in chief; the readership continued to decline, but the new team led by Bruno Frappat, former editing director of Le Monde who arrived in January 1995, hopes to fight against this trend of general disaffectation with the press, plaguing a large number of French newspapers.. Bayard Press is reacting to this with a double strategy. On the one hand they are investing in the modernisation of La Croix, with electronic editing and a full electronic archive of the paper. On the other hand, they have increased their diversification, taking on a bigger presence in French children's press and adding new publications of a Catholic nature, they have been involved in coproducing children's television and turning certain titles, such as Notre temps, into international publications. The paper's efforts have met in 2005 reported a 1.55 % increase in circulation. Today, La Croix is one of only three daily national French newspapers to turn a profit, the most successful in growing its circulation in the 21st century.
The editors of La Croix observed another centennial on 12 January 1998 by examining the newspaper's role in the Dreyfus Affair. Whereas in 1898 they published "Down with the Jews!" and labeled Dreyfus as "the enemy Jew betraying France," the editors in 1998 stated "Whether Assumptionists or laymen, the editors of La Croix had at the time an inexcusable attitude." In December 2003, the newspaper La Croix made headlines after firing one of its own journalists, Alain Hertoghe, for writing a book, damaging to the newspaper's editorial line. Hertoghe accused the four major French newspapers—Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération and Ouest-France—in addition to La Croix, of biased reporting during the U. S. war in Iraq. Alain Fleury, « La Croix » et l'Allemagne. 1930-1940, Paris, Le Cerf, 1986 La Croix online Regular French Press Review - Radio France International La Croix digital archives from 1880 to 1944 in Gallica, the digital library of the BnF
Armand Colin is a French publishing house founded in 1870 by Auguste Armand Colin. It specializes in publishing works concerning human sciences and education. Among its best-known publications are the "U" collection begun in 1968 and the "Cursus" collection. In 1987 Armand Colin was purchased by Masson which, in turn, became part of the City Group in 1994, it is now owned by Hachette. Official website
Le Monde diplomatique
Le Monde diplomatique is a monthly newspaper offering analysis and opinion on politics and current affairs. Le Monde diplomatique is a left-wing newspaper; the publication is owned by Le Monde diplomatique SA, a subsidiary company of Le Monde which grants it complete editorial autonomy. Worldwide there were 71 editions in 26 other languages. Le Monde diplomatique was founded in 1954 by Hubert Beuve-Méry, founder and director of Le Monde, the French newspaper of record. Subtitled the "organ of diplomatic circles and of large international organisations," 5,000 copies were distributed, comprising eight pages, dedicated to foreign policy and geopolitics, its first editor in chief, François Honti, developed the newspaper as a scholarly reference journal. Honti attentively followed the birth of the Non-Aligned Movement, created out of the 1955 Bandung Conference, the issues of the "Third World". Claude Julien became the newspaper's second editor in January 1973. At that time, the circulation of Le Monde diplomatique had jumped from 5,000 to 50,000 copies, would reach, with Micheline Paulet, 120,000 in under 20 years.
Without renouncing its "Third-worldism" position, it extended the treatment of its subjects, concentrating on international economic and monetary problems, strategic relations, the Middle-East conflict, etc. Le Monde diplomatique took an independent stance, criticising both the neoliberal ideology of the left and conservative policies represented by UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and US President Ronald Reagan in the 1980s. After the November 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the 1990-1991 Gulf War, the newspaper began to criticise what it described as an "American crusade". Ignacio Ramonet was elected director or editor-in-chief in January 1991, serving until 2008. Under his leadership, Le Monde diplomatique analysed the post-Cold War world, paying specific attention to "ethnic" conflicts that arose in this period: the wars in former Yugoslavia, the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, the conflicts in the Caucasus, etc. as well as to the new information technology.
Ramonet has published books about the media and their relationship to national societies. As noted by François Cusset, French universities have not developed an interdisciplinary approach to media studies, he notes that leftist journals including Le Monde Diplomatique have had an editorial approach, committed to "critique of dominant media", both in terms of their roles in setting agendas and in enjoying status perks. Both Ramonet and his successor, Serge Halimi, published books that critiqued the media from outside academic circles; the newspaper established financial and editorial independence from Le Monde in 1996, forming its own company. Le Monde owns 51%. In an editorial in January 1995, Ignacio Ramonet coined the term "pensée unique" to describe the supremacy of the neoliberal ideology; the newspaper supported the November–December 1995 general strike in France against Prime minister Alain Juppé's plan to cut pensions. Three years after a proposal in a 1997 editorial by Ramonet, Le Monde diplomatique took a founding role in the creation of ATTAC, an alter-globalisation NGO.
It was founded to advocate the Tobin tax, chapters have been started throughout the world. It now supports a variety of left-wing causes; the newspaper took an important role in the organisation of the 2001 Porto Alegre World Social Forum. After the Second Gulf War, started in 2003 under the George W. Bush administration, Le Monde diplomatique continued to criticise the US policy of "violent intervention" in the Middle East and the neoconservative project to "reshape" the so-called "Greater Middle East" region. Ramonet devoted considerable space to reporting on Hugo Chávez, with whom he was said to have developed a close relationship, his Bolivarian Revolution. Ramonet was succeeded by Serge Halimi, who has a PhD, earned in Political Science at the University of California Berkeley. In 2018, LMD publishes a total of online editions, in a total of 20 languages; the August 2017 issue of the monthly was not marketed in Algeria. According to sources close to the distributor, the newspaper did not get permission to do so.
Algerian authorities gave no explanation. The heads of the newspaper claim that it was "banned" from sale in the country because of a report by journalist Pierre Daum, he is best known for writing a book about the harkis who stayed in Algeria after Independence, about the difficult social and economic situation of some young Algerians. André Fontaine, the director of Le Monde, signed a 1989 convention with Claude Julien which guaranteed the monthly's autonomy, but it gained complete statutory and financial independence in 1996 with the creation of Le Monde diplomatique SA. With a donation from Günter Holzmann, a German antifascist exiled before World War II to Bolivia, the monthly's employees acquired one-quarter of the capital, while Les Amis du Monde diplomatique, a 1901 Law association of readers, bought another quarter. Thus, since the end of 2000, the newspaper's employees and readers retain 49% of Le Monde diplomatique SA's capital above the control stock necessary to control the direction and editorial line of the Monde diplo.
The remaining 51% is owned by Le Monde. Jean-Marie Colombani, former editor of the daily Le Monde, was attributed by Le Monde diplomatique's former director general Bernard Cassen as saying: "Le Monde diplomatique is a journal of opinion; the Norwegian ve
Ouest-France is a daily French newspaper known for its emphasis on both local and national news. The paper is produced in 47 different editions covering events in different French départments within the régions of Brittany, Lower Normandy and Pays de la Loire, its readership has been unaffected by the decline of newspaper reading in France, unlike most other dailies. With 2.5 million daily readers, it is by far the most read francophone newspaper in the world, ahead of French national newspapers Le Figaro and Le Monde. Ouest-France was founded in 1944 by Adolphe Le Goaziou and others following the closure of Ouest-Éclair, banned by Liberation forces for collaborationism during the war, it is based in Rennes and Nantes and has a circulation about 792,400 in Brittany. Its editorial line has been pro-European integration from the beginning, influenced by Christian democracy, now MoDem, Nouveau Centre or Union for a Popular Movement; the paper had a circulation of 773,471 copies in 2001 and 764,731 copies in 2002 with a market share of 14.41%.
The 47 different editions are divided among twelve départements: List of French newspapers Ouest-France website
Le Monde is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, published continuously since its first edition. It is one of the most important and respected newspapers in the world. Le Monde is one of the French newspapers of record, counting Libération, Le Figaro, the main publication of La Vie-Le Monde Group, it reported an average circulation of 323,039 copies per issue in 2009, about 40,000 of which were sold abroad. It has had its own website since 19 December 1995, is the only French newspaper obtainable in non-French-speaking countries, it should not be confused with the monthly publication Le Monde diplomatique, of which Le Monde has 51% ownership, but, editorially independent. The paper's journalistic side has a collegial form of organization, in which most journalists are not only tenured, but financial stakeholders in the enterprise as well, participate in the elections of upper management and senior executives.
In the 1990s and 2000s, La Vie-Le Monde Group expanded under editor Jean-Marie Colombani with a number of acquisitions. However, its profitability was not sufficient to cover the large debt loads it took on to fund this expansion, it sought new investors in 2010 to keep the company out of bankruptcy. In June 2010, investors Matthieu Pigasse, Pierre Bergé, Xavier Niel acquired a controlling stake in the newspaper. In contrast to other world newspapers such as The New York Times, Le Monde was traditionally focused on offering analysis and opinion, as opposed to being a newspaper of record. Hence, it was considered less important for the paper to offer maximum coverage of the news than to offer thoughtful interpretation of current events. For instance, on the 10th anniversary of the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, the newspaper directly implicated François Mitterrand, the French president at the time, in the operation. In recent years the paper has established a greater distinction between opinion.
Le Monde was founded in 1944 at the request of General Charles de Gaulle after the German army was driven from Paris during World War II, took over the headquarters and layout of Le Temps, the most important newspaper in France before but whose reputation had suffered during the Occupation. Beuve-Méry demanded total editorial independence as the condition for his taking on the project. In 1981 it backed the election of socialist François Mitterrand, in part on the grounds that the alternation of the political party in government would be beneficial to the democratic character of the state; the paper endorsed centre-right candidate Édouard Balladur in the 1995 presidential election, Ségolène Royal, the Socialist Party candidate, in the 2007 presidential election. According to the Mitrokhin Archive investigators, Le Monde was the KGB's key outlet for spreading anti-American and pro-Soviet disinformation to the French media; the archive identified two senior Le Monde journalists and several contributors who were used in the operations.
Michel Legris, a former journalist with the paper, wrote Le Monde tel qu'il est in 1976. According to him, the journal minimized the atrocities committed by the Cambodian Khmer Rouge. In their 2003 book titled La Face cachée du Monde, authors Pierre Péan and Philippe Cohen alleged that Colombani and then-editor Edwy Plenel had shown, amongst other things, partisan bias and had engaged in financial dealings that compromised the paper's independence, it accused the paper of dangerously damaging the authority of the French state by having revealed various political scandals. This book remains controversial, but attracted much attention and media coverage in France and around the world at the time of its publication. Following a lawsuit, the authors and the publisher agreed in 2004 not to proceed to any reprinting. Le Monde has been found guilty of defamation for saying that Spanish football club FC Barcelona was connected to a doctor involved in steroid use; the Spanish court fined the newspaper nearly $450,000.
In April 2016, a Le Monde reporter was denied a visa to visit Algeria as part of the French Prime Minister press convoy to Algeria. Le Monde had published names of Algerian officials directly involved with the Panama papers corruption scandal. Le Monde is published around midday, the date on the masthead is the following day's. For instance, the issue released at midday on 15 March shows 16 March on the masthead, it is available on newsstands in France on the day of release, received by mail subscribers on the masthead date. The Saturday issue is a double one, for Sunday, thus the latest edition can be found on newsstands from Monday to Friday included, while subscribers will receive it from Tuesday to Saturday included. In December 2006, on the 60th anniversary of its publishing début, Le Monde moved into new headquarters in Boulevard Auguste-Blanqui, 13th arrondissement of Paris; the building—formerly the headquarters of Air France—was refashioned by Bouygues from the designs of Christian de Portzamparc.
The building's façade has an enormous fresco adorned by doves flying towards Victor Hugo, symbolising freedom of the press. It will move into a new headquarters in the 13th arrondissement, around 2017