Regions of France
France is divided into 18 administrative regions, including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions. The current legal concept of region was adopted in 1982, the term région was officially created by the Law of Decentralisation, which gave regions their legal status. The first direct elections for representatives took place on 16 March 1986. In 2016, the number of regions was reduced from 27 to 18 through amalgamation, in 2014, the French parliament passed a law reducing the number of metropolitan regions from 22 to 13 with effect from 1 January 2016. However, the region of Upper and Lower Normandy is simply called Normandy. Permanent names were to be proposed by the new regional councils by 1 July 2016, the legislation defining the new regions allowed the Centre region to officially change its name to Centre-Val de Loire with effect from January 2015. Two regions, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, opted to retain their interim names, between 1982 and 2015, there were 22 regions in Metropolitan France.
Before 2011, there were four regions, in 2011 Mayotte became the fifth. Regions lack separate legislative authority and therefore cannot write their own statutory law and they levy their own taxes and, in return, receive a decreasing part of their budget from the central government, which gives them a portion of the taxes it levies. They have considerable budgets managed by a council made up of representatives voted into office in regional elections. A regions primary responsibility is to build and furnish high schools, in March 2004, the French central government unveiled a controversial plan to transfer regulation of certain categories of non-teaching school staff to the regional authorities. Critics of this plan contended that tax revenue was insufficient to pay for the costs. In addition, regions have considerable power over infrastructural spending, e. g. education, public transit and research. This has meant that the heads of regions such as Île-de-France or Rhône-Alpes can be high-profile positions.
Number of regions controlled by each coalition since 1986, Overseas region is a recent designation, given to the overseas departments that have similar powers to those of the regions of metropolitan France. Radio France Internationale in English Overseas regions Ministère de lOutre-Mer some explanations about the past and current developments of DOMs and TOMs
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Ascou is a French commune in the Ariège department in the Occitanie region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Ascounais, ascou is an alpine commune located some 40 km south-east of Foix and immediately east of Ax-les-Thermes. The northern border of the commune is the border between the departments of Ariège and Aude, the D258 road branches off the D25 in the commune and goes north-east changing to the D107 at the border and continuing to La Fajolle. Apart from the village there are the hamlets of Goulours, the commune is entirely alpine in nature with no farmland. The Ruisseau de lEycherque rise in the north-east of the commune, the Riu Caud flows from the north to join the Lauze at the Étang de Goulours List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 139 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held five years.
Population Change Sources, Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The Parish Church contains a Statue of the Virgin and child which is registered as a historical object
Occitanie is an administrative region of France that was created on 1 January 2016 from former French regions Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées. Frances Conseil dÉtat approved Occitanie as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, the new Région Occitanie should not be confused with the wider cultural entity of Occitania, of which the new administrative region is part. The new region covers an area of more than 72,724 km2 with a population of 5,626,858. As the provisional name of the new region, the text of the law specified the hyphenated names of the predecessors, Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées. As for most of the regions, a permanent name was proposed by the new regional council. Enacted in 2014, the reform of the regions has been subject to debate for many years. The provisional name of the region was withdrawn on 30 September 2016, toulouse Montpellier Nîmes Perpignan Béziers Montauban Languedoc-Roussillon Midi-Pyrénées Regions of France Occitania Merger of the regions - France 3
Arrout is a French commune in the Ariège department in the Occitanie region of south-western France. Access to the commune is by a road from the end of the D404. There is a road from Alas in the north-east. The commune is rugged and heavily forested throughout, the Lez river forms the south-eastern border of the commune as it flows north-east to join the Salat at Saint-Girons. The Cayssau stream rises in the north-west and forms the border before joining the Ruisseau de Lachein. The Ruisseau de Lasquert rises in the centre of the commune, list of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 75 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held five years
Arignac is a French commune in the Ariège department in the Occitanie region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Arignacois or Arignacoises Arignac is located 2 km north of Tarascon-sur-Ariège, access to the commune is by road D88 from Tarascon-sur-Ariège in the south passing through the village and continuing north-east to join National Highway N20 at Exit 14. The N20 passes through the south-east of the commune but the nearest exit is Exit 14 just east of the commune, the town covers about 10% of the commune with the rest mostly forest and hill country with a few farms in the south. The Ariège river forms the border of the commune and the Saurat flows south through the commune. List of successive mayors In 2009, the commune had 706 inhabitants, the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held five years
Arvigna is a French commune in the Ariège department in the Occitanie region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Arvignais or Arvignaises, Arvigna is a commune in the Pre-Pyrenees located some 11 km south-east of Pamiers and 12 km west by south-west of Mirepoix. Access to the commune is by the D12 road from Vira in the south-west passing through the commune east of the village, There are extensive forests in the commune covering about 40% of the land area with the rest farmland. The Douctouyre river flows along the edge of the forests in the north-east of the commune from south-east to north and it continues north to join the Hers near Vals. Four streams rise in the commune and flow north-east to join the Douctouyre in the commune - the Ruisseau de Lafage, the Ruisseau de Truffet, a stream. The western border is delineated by a stream which flows north to join Le Canal south of Saint-Amadou. The population is split between four hamlets which are scattered around the Town hall and the school.
The church is on the slopes of Cantegril hill above Arvigna village, There are eight other hamlets in the commune, List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 215 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held five years. Population Change Sources, Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 There are four structures registered as monuments in Arvigna. This memorial is located inside the walls of the church, funeral Chapel of the Barrière family Wayside Cross at Roubichou Parish Church of Saint-Vincent and Saint-Martial. The Church of Saint-Vincent and Saint-Martial contains many items that have registered as historical objects. These are, School, an inter-communal educational grouping for the Douctouyre Valley groups together the communes of Arvigna, Vira, five classes are open, including one at Arvigna with a canteen service and a CLAE.
There is a centre that operates on Wednesdays and during the holidays at Dun. There are two rural Gîtes, a Hiking or Mountain bike trail 7 km long trail which is an Earth Society path starting from the hamlet of Minguet to the site of a former Cathar castle, the Festival Committee organises various annual events, local festivals and fireworks. It includes many people from the commune and elsewhere and old
In archaeology a type site is a site that is considered the model of a particular archaeological culture. For example, the site of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A culture is Jericho. A type site is often the eponym. For example, the site of the pre-Celtic/Celtic Bronze Age Hallstatt culture is the lakeside village of Hallstatt. In geology the term is used similarly for a site considered to be typical of a rock formation etc. A type site contains artifacts, in an assemblage, that are typical of that culture, type sites are often the first or foundational site discovered about the culture they represent. The use of term is therefore similar to that of the specimen type in biology or locus typicus in geology. New Caledonia, of the Lapita culture
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. There are 96 departments in metropolitan France and 5 overseas departments, each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, they were called general councils, the departments were created in 1791 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity, the title department is used to mean a part of a larger whole. Almost all of them were named after geographical features rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of dArgenson and they have inspired similar divisions in many countries, some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a number, the Official Geographical Code. Some overseas departments have a three-digit number, the number is used, for example, in the postal code, and was until recently used for all vehicle registration plates.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as the 45 and this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René dArgenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration, before the French Revolution, France gained territory gradually through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces, during the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved, partly in order to weaken old loyalties. Their boundaries served two purposes, Boundaries were chosen to break up Frances historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences, Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a days ride of the capital of the department. This was a security measure, intended to keep the national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of rural areas far from any centre of government.
The old nomenclature was carefully avoided in naming the new departments, most were named after an areas principal river or other physical features. Even Paris was in the department of Seine, the number of departments, initially 83, was increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleons defeats in 1814-1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size, in 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice, the 89 departments were given numbers based on their alphabetical order. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following Frances defeat in the Franco-Prussian War