Pouembout is a commune in the North Province of New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France in the Pacific Ocean
Mont-Dore, in common usage Le Mont-Dore, is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France. Mont-Dore is located in the Massif Central, on the right bank of the Dordogne River not far from its source, 50 km by road S. W. of Clermont-Ferrand. The Monts Dore close the valley towards the south; the thermal springs of Mont-Dore, now numbering twelve, were known to the Romans. Sodium bicarbonate and arsenic are the principal ingredients of the waters, which are used both for drinking and bathing. Hot baths are characteristic of the treatment. Due to the elevation and exposure of the valley, the climate of Mont-Dore is severe, the season only lasts from 15 June to 15 September; the bath-house was rebuilt in 1891-1894. Mont-Dore is a ski resort with runs on the slopes of the Puy Ferrand. Thirty runs account for 42 km of downhill skiing, served by a number of lifts of different types. There are 25 km of cross-country trails. In the town park, along the Dordogne, relics of the old Roman baths have been collected.
The surrounding country, with its fir woods, pastures and mountains, is attractive. To the south is the Puy de Sancy, the loftiest peak of central France. Communes of the Puy-de-Dôme department INSEE commune file This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mont-Dore-les-Bains". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 763
Lifou is a commune of France in the Loyalty Islands Province of New Caledonia in the Pacific Ocean. Lifou is made up of Lifou Island, the largest and most populated of the Loyalty Islands, its smaller neighbour Tiga Island, several uninhabited islets in between these two. All these islands lie among the Loyalty Islands, 190 km to the northeast of New Caledonia's mainland. At 1,146 km2, Lifou Island is the largest atoll in the world; the town of Wé, on Lifou Island, is the administrative centre of the commune of Lifou as well as the provincial seat of the Loyalty Islands Province. Like Maré and Ouvéa, the other Loyalty islands, Lifou is made of fossil coral. Lifou is a makatea, an ancient lagoon raised by geological processes. Due to the uplift, Lifou consists of a wide, flat centre surrounded by cliffs which correspond to the ancient reefal cliffs; the coral rock exhibits high porosity and hence, neither Lifou nor any of the other Loyalty Islands have surface water. It does, have a large freshwater reservoir which can be accessed through caves.
These caves were used in the past when searching for fresh water, are important to the island's mythology. The first Europeans to have contact with Lifouans were whalers, who had limited, not friendly, communications with them. Sandalwood traders came to New Caledonia around 1841. By the mid-19th century, there were Anglican missionaries at work on Lifou, although there had been natives and Polynesian immigrants doing religious work before then. In 1843, French Catholic missionaries arrived on Lifou; the missionaries established a school on Lifou Island, from 1840 to the early 20th century taught most of the population to read. They did enough religious work that in 1998 the Lifouans were referred to as "devout Christians." Lifou is a popular cruise port, with many cruises coming from Australia. The most common port-of-call is Easo. Lifou is known for its snorkeling; the Lifouans grow several crops, including yams and bananas. Christian Karembeu, a French footballer who won the 1998 FIFA World Cup with the French National side, is from Lifou.
Rosine Streeter, trade unionist, was born on Lifou. Gallery of images from Lifou Tourism in Loyalty Islands
New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific Ocean, located to the south of Vanuatu, about 1,210 km east of Australia and 20,000 km from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines, a few remote islets; the Chesterfield Islands are in the Coral Sea. Locals refer to Grande Terre as Le Caillou. New Caledonia has a land area of 18,576 km2, its population of 268,767 consists of a mix of Kanak people, people of European descent, Polynesian people, Southeast Asian people, as well as a few people of Pied-Noir and North African descent. The capital of the territory is Nouméa; the earliest traces of human presence in New Caledonia date back to the Lapita period c. 1600 BC to c. 500 AD. The Lapita were skilled navigators and agriculturists with influence over a large area of the Pacific. British explorer Captain James Cook was the first European to sight New Caledonia, on 4 September 1774, during his second voyage.
He named it "New Caledonia". The west coast of Grande Terre was approached by the Comte de Lapérouse in 1788, shortly before his disappearance, the Loyalty Islands were first visited between 1793 and 1796 when Mare, Lifou and Ouvea were mapped by William Raven; the English whaler encountered the island named Britania, today known as Maré, in November 1793. From 1796 until 1840, only a few sporadic contacts with the archipelago were recorded. About fifty American whalers have been recorded in the region between 1793 and 1887. Contacts became more frequent because of the interest in sandalwood; as trade in sandalwood declined, it was replaced by a new business enterprise, "blackbirding", a euphemism for taking Melanesian or Western Pacific Islanders from New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, New Hebrides, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands into indentured or forced labour in the sugar cane plantations in Fiji and Queensland by various methods of trickery and deception. Blackbirding was practiced by both French and British-Australian traders, but in New Caledonia's case, the trade in the early decades of the twentieth century involved relocating children from the Loyalty Islands to the Grand Terre for labour in plantation agriculture.
New Caledonia's primary experience with blackbirding revolved around a trade from the New Hebrides to the Grand Terre for labour in plantation agriculture, mines, as well as guards over convicts and in some public works. The historian Dorothy Shineberg's milestone study, The People Trade, discusses this'migration'. In the early years of the trade, coercion was used to lure Melanesian islanders onto ships. In years indenture systems were developed; this represented a departure from the British experience, since increased regulations were developed to mitigate the abuses of blackbirding and'recruitment' strategies on the coastlines. The first missionaries from the London Missionary Society and the Marist Brothers arrived in the 1840s. In 1849, the crew of the American ship Cutter was eaten by the Pouma clan. Cannibalism was widespread throughout New Caledonia. On 24 September 1853, under orders from Emperor Napoleon III, Admiral Febvrier Despointes took formal possession of New Caledonia. Captain Louis-Marie-François Tardy de Montravel founded Port-de-France on 25 June 1854.
A few dozen free settlers settled on the west coast in the following years. New Caledonia became a penal colony in 1864, from the 1860s until the end of the transportations in 1897, France sent about 22,000 criminals and political prisoners to New Caledonia; the Bulletin de la Société générale des prisons for 1888 indicates that 10,428 convicts, including 2,329 freed ones, were on the island as of 1 May 1888, by far the largest number of convicts detained in French overseas penitentiaries. The convicts included many Communards, arrested after the failed Paris Commune of 1871, including Henri de Rochefort and Louise Michel. Between 1873 and 1876, 4,200 political prisoners were "relegated" to New Caledonia. Only 40 of them settled in the colony. In 1864 nickel was discovered on the banks of the Diahot River. To work the mines the French imported labourers from neighbouring islands and from the New Hebrides, from Japan, the Dutch East Indies, French Indochina; the French government attempted to encourage European immigration, without much success.
The indigenous population or Kanak people were excluded from the French economy and from mining work, confined to reservations. This sparked a violent reaction in 1878, when High Chief Atal of La Foa managed to unite many of the central tribes and launched a guerrilla war that killed 200 Frenchmen and 1,000 Kanaks. A second guerrilla war took place in 1917, with Catholic missionaries like Maurice Leenhardt functioning as witnesses to the events of this war. Leenhardt would pen a number of ethnographic works on the Kanak of New Caledonia. Noel of Tiamou led the 1917 rebellion, which resulted in a number of orphaned children, one of whom was taken into th
Nouméa is the capital and largest city of the French special collectivity of New Caledonia. It is situated on a peninsula in the south of New Caledonia's main island, Grande Terre, is home to the majority of the island's European, Polynesian and Vietnamese populations, as well as many Melanesians, Ni-Vanuatu and Kanaks who work in one of the South Pacific's most industrialised cities; the city lies on a protected deepwater harbour. At the August 2014 census, there were 179,509 inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Greater Nouméa, 99,926 of whom lived in the city of Nouméa proper. 66.8% of the population of New Caledonia live in Greater Nouméa, which covers the communes of Nouméa, Le Mont-Dore, Dumbéa and Païta. The first European to establish a settlement in the vicinity was British trader James Paddon in 1851. Anxious to assert control of the island, the French established a settlement nearby three years in 1854, moving from Balade in the north of the island; this settlement was called Port-de-France and was renamed Nouméa in 1866.
The area served first as a penal colony as a centre for the exportation of the nickel and gold, mined nearby. From 1904 to 1940 Nouméa was linked to Dumbéa and Païta by the Nouméa-Païta railway, the only railway line that existed in New Caledonia. During World War II, Nouméa served as the headquarters of the United States military in the South Pacific; the five-sided U. S. military headquarters complex was adopted after the war as the base for a new regional intergovernmental development organisation: the South Pacific Commission known as the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. The city maintains much of New Caledonia's unique mix of old Melanesian culture. Today the US wartime military influence lingers, both with the warmth that many New Caledonian people feel towards the United States after experiencing the relative friendliness of American soldiers and with the names of several of the quarters in Nouméa. Districts such as "Receiving" and "Robinson", or "Motor Pool", strike the anglophone ear strangely, until the historical context becomes clear.
The city is situated on an irregular, hilly peninsula near the southeast end of New Caledonia, in the south-west Pacific Ocean. Neighbourhoods of Nouméa include: Rivière-Salée 6e km, 7e km, Tina Ducos peninsula: Ducos, Ducos industriel, Kaméré, Logicoop, Tindu 4e Km, Aérodrome, Haut Magenta, Magenta, Ouémo, Portes de fer Faubourg Blanchot and Vallée des Colons Doniambo, Montagne coupée, Vallée du tir Artillerie Nord, Centre Ville, Quartier Latin, Vallée du Génie Anse Vata, Artillerie Sud, Baie des Citrons, Motor Pool, N'géa, Receiving and Val Plaisance The Greater Nouméa urban area had a total population of 179,509 inhabitants at the August 2014 census, 99,926 of whom lived in the commune of Nouméa proper; the Greater Nouméa urban area is made up of four communes: Nouméa Dumbéa, to the north-west of Nouméa Le Mont-Dore, to the north-east of Nouméa Païta, a suburb to the west of Dumbéa and the site of La Tontouta International Airport Average population growth of the Greater Nouméa urban area: 1956-1963: +2,310 people per year 1963-1969: +1,791 people per year 1969-1976: +3,349 people per year 1976-1983: +1,543 people per year 1983-1989: +2,091 people per year 1989-1996: +3,020 people per year 1996-2009: +3,382 people per year 2009-2014: +3,106 people per year The places of birth of the 179,509 residents in the Greater Nouméa urban area at the 2014 census were the following: 66.7% were born in New Caledonia 21.2% in Metropolitan France and its overseas departments 6.3% in foreign countries 5.8% in Wallis and Futuna and French Polynesia The self-reported ethnic communities of the 179,509 residents in the Greater Nouméa urban area at the 2014 census were as follows: 34.5% Europeans 23.4% Kanaks 11.5% Wallisians and Futunians 10.0% mixed ethnicity 20.5% other communities At the 2009 census, 98.7% of the population in the Greater Nouméa urban area whose age was 15 years old and older reported that they could speak French.
97.1% reported that they could read and write it. Only 1.3% of the population whose age was 15 years old and older had no knowledge of French. At the same census, 20.8% of the population in the Greater Nouméa urban area whose age was 15 years old and older reported that they could speak at least one of the Kanak languages. 4.3 % reported. 74.9% of the population whose age was 15 years old and older had no knowledge of any Kanak language. Nouméa features a tropical dry climate with hot summers and warm winters. Temperatures are warmer in the months of January and March with average highs hovering around 30 degrees Celsius and cooler during the months of July and August where average high temperatures are around 23 degrees Celsius; the capital's dry season months are October. The rest of the year is noticeably wetter. Nouméa on average receives 1,100 mm of precipitation annually. Although Nouméa has more sunshine days than any
L'Île-des-Pins is a commune in the South Province of New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France in the Pacific Ocean. L'Île-des-Pins is made up of the Isle of Pines, the smaller Kôtomo Island, several islets around these two, as well as the distant island of Walpole, located 150 km to the east; the Isle of Pines and adjacent islands are located to the south of New Caledonia's mainland. At 16830 km from Paris, L'Île-des-Pins is further from the French capital than any other commune of France; the settlement of Vao, on the Isle of Pines, is the administrative centre of the commune of L'Île-des-Pins. L'Île-des-Pins is one of the main tourist attractions in New Caledonia; the Isle of Pines itself is nicknamed l'île proche du paradis. L'Île-des-Pins can be reached by plane from Nouméa, the capital of New Caledonia, it is renowned for the intense blue colors of its waters and for the ancient pine tree groves spread throughout the Isle of Pines and the neighboring islands. After the Paris Commune, about 2,800 Parisian insurgents were deported to L'Île-des-Pins, a part of whose territory was turned into a penal settlement where the convicts lived for several years.
In 2005 L'Île-des-Pins gained attention when season 5 of French reality show Les Aventuriers de Koh-Lanta, the French version of Survivor, was set on several small islands off the Isle of Pines. Audio interview with Isle of Pines resident available at ULiveWhere.com Jane's Isle of Pines Page Map of L'Île-des-Pins Île des Pins travel guide from Wikivoyage
Ethnic groups in Europe
The indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe. According to German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil there are 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities; the total number of national or linguistic minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans. There are no universally accepted and precise definitions of the terms "ethnic group" and "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people and ethno-linguistic group, are used as synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe. There are eight European ethno-linguistic groups with more than 30 million members residing in Europe.
These eight groups between themselves account for some 465 million or about 65% of European population: Russians, French, Italians, Spaniards, Poles. Smaller ethno-linguistic groups with more than 10 million people residing in Europe include: Romanians, Turks, Swedes, Czechs, Serbs. About 20–25 million residents are members of diasporas of non-European origin; the population of the European Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population. Both Spain and the United Kingdom are special cases, in that the designation of nationality and British, may controversially take ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups, see nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain and native populations of the United Kingdom. Switzerland is a similar case, but the linguistic subgroups of the Swiss are discussed in terms of both ethnicity and language affiliations. Of the total population of Europe of some 740 million, close to 90% fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages, these being.
Romance, including. Germanic, including. Afrikaans, a daughter language of Dutch, is spoken by some South African and Namibian migrant populations. Three stand-alone Indo-European languages do not fall within larger sub-groups and are not related to those larger language families. Besides the Indo-European languages, there are other language families on the European continent which are wholly unrelated to Indo-European: Uralic languages, including. Turkic languages, including. Semitic languages, including. Kartvelian languages, including Georgian, Zan and Laz. Northwest Caucasian languages. Northeast Caucasian languages. Language isolates. Mongolic languages exist in the form of Kalmyk spoken in the Caucasus region of Russia; the Basques have been found to descend from the population of the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age directly. The Indo-European groups of Europe are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture of Bronze Age, proto-Indo-European groups with earlier Mesolithic and Neolithic populations, after migrating to most of Europe from the Pontic steppe.
The Finnic peoples are assumed to be descended from Proto-Uralic populations further to the east, nearer to the Ural Mountains, that had migrated to their historical homelands in Europe by about 3,000 years ago. Reconstructed languages of Iron Age Europe include Proto-Celtic, Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic, all of these Indo-European languages of the centum group, Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic, of the satem group. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan, Rhaetian and Camunic. A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basqu