Montreuil is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 6.6 km from the center of Paris. It is the fourth most populous suburb of Paris. Montreuil is located near the Bois de Vincennes park; the name Montreuil was recorded for the first time in a royal edict of 722 as Monasteriolum, meaning "little monastery" in Medieval Latin. The settlement of Montreuil started as a group of houses built around a small monastery. Under the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XVI the "Peach Walls" which provided the royal court with the fruits were located in Montreuil, it was later home to the Lumière brothers and George Méliès whose workshops were located in lower Montreuil. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighboring communes. On that occasion, the commune of Charonne was disbanded and divided between the city of Paris and Bagnolet. Montreuil received a small part of the territory of Charonne. Today Montreuil is divided into several districts: Le bas Montreuil (which joins together the old workshops, the marché aux puces, The Mairie, La Noue, Le Bel Air, La Boissière.
Decorations in the state school "Voltaire" by Maurice Boitel. Montreuil's inhabitants exaggeratedly nickname the town the "second Malian town after Bamako", or sometimes "Mali-sous-Bois" or "Bamako-sur-Seine" if the Seine doesn't cross the town. Montreuil has indeed a important Malian population: more than 2,000 inhabitants according to the INSEE in 1999, between 6,000 and 10,000 people according to the mairie, which estimates that Montreuil has the largest Malian community in France. 10 % of the population has Malian origins. The mayor of Montreuil is the member of Parti communiste français Patrice Bessac, elected on the second round of 2014 municipal elections, defeating the former ex-Communist mayor Jean-Pierre Brard in a four sides second round; the city is divided into two cantons: canton of Montreuil-1 and canton of Montreuil-2. Video game company Ubisoft has its corporate head office in Montreuil; the Air France Paris office is in Montreuil. The commune's educational services are operated out of the Opale B Administrative Building.
Montreuil has eight collèges, three lycées, two lycées techniques, the IUT of the University of Paris 8. Senior high schools/sixth form colleges: Lycée Eugénie-Cotton Lycée Jean Jaurès Lycée CondorcetThe Montreuil Library consists of the Robert-Desnos Central Library, the Daniel-Renoult Library, the Colonel-Fabien Library, the Paul-Eluard Library. Robert-Desnos, in a park near the commune's town hall, is the largest library in the commune, it houses a Internet access points. Daniel-Renoult, near Montreau Park, serves the Montreau-Ruffins Théophile Sueur community. Colonel-Fabien, in the Ramenas-Fabien-Léo Lagrange community, is near the Intercommunal Hospital. Paul-Eluard is near the La Grande Porte shopping centre and is within 50 metres of the Robespierre Paris Métro station and Rue de Paris. Pierre de Montreuil, famous 13th century architect, died in 1267 in Paris Gaston-Auguste Schweitzer, sculptor Djamel Abdoun, Algerian footballer who played at the 2010 FIFA World Cup Mehdi Abeid, Algerian footballer Oumar Bakari, footballer Rosette Bir, sculptor Souarata Cisse, basketball player Olivier Dacourt, footballer Emmanuel Flipo, artist Mamadou Samassa, footballer Tignous and activist killed in the Charlie Hebdo shooting Élodie Bouchez, actress Henri Decaë, cinematographer Nicolas Aithadi, Visual Effects, Guardians of the Galaxy Jean Delannoy, director Émile Reynaud, director Frédéric Verger, writer Christophe Guilluy, geographer Helno, singer with Lucrate Milk, Bérurier Noir & Les Négresses Vertes Montreuil is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 9: Robespierre, Croix de Chavaux, Mairie de Montreuil.
Montreuil is twinned with: Bistriţa, Bistrița-Năsăud County, Romania Cottbus, Germany Hornec gang Gaston-Auguste Schweitzer Birthplace of this sculptor Pierre de Montreuil Musée de l'Histoire vivante INSEE Official website
The A4 Autoroute known as autoroute de l'Est is a French autoroute that travels 482 km between the cities of Paris and Strasbourg. It forms parts of European routes E25 and E50, it is France's second longest after the A10 autoroute. Its construction began in the 1970s near Paris; the first section between Paris's Porte de Bercy and Joinville-le-Pont opened in 1974 with a single carriageway. A second carriageway was added in 1975, the following sections between Joinville and Metz were opened in 1975 and 1976. Former autoroutes A32 and A34 were integrated into the A4 in 1982. From Paris, the autoroute passes the new town of Disneyland Paris, it continues on to the major cities of France's northeast, including Rheims, terminates in Strasbourg. Local roads provide a connection to southern Germany, its westernmost part between the Périphérique and the A86 ring road in Paris is reputed to be one of the busiest sections of road in Europe, with 257,000 vehicles a day recorded in 2002. A4 autoroute in Saratlas Fiche autoroutière de l'A4
In many countries, Kilometre Zero or similar terms in other languages is a particular location from which distances are traditionally measured. They were markers where drivers could set their odometers to follow the directions in early guide books. One such marker is the Milliarium Aureum of the Roman Empire, believed to be the literal origin for the maxim that "all roads lead to Rome". Argentina marks Kilometre Zero with a monolith in Plaza Congreso in Buenos Aires; the work of the brothers Máximo and José Fioravanti, the structure was placed on the north side of Plaza Lorea on October 2, 1935. An image of Our Lady of Luján appears on the monolith's north face, a relief map of Argentina is on the south face, plaques in honor of José de San Martín are west, on its eastern side, the date of the decree and the name of the relevant authorities. Highways in Australia are built and maintained by the states and territories. In the state of New South Wales, highway distances were traditionally measured from a sandstone obelisk in Macquarie Place in Sydney, designed by Francis Greenway in 1818.
The obelisk lists the distances to various locations in New South Wales at the time. For the railway, it is located at platform 1 of Sydney Central Station; the General Post Office building in Melbourne traditionally serves this purpose in Victoria. In Western Australia, road distances are measured from Point Zero, by the old Treasury Building on the corner of Cathedral Avenue and St George's Terrace in Perth; the Byzantine Empire had an arched building, the Milion of Constantinople, as the starting-place for the measurement of distances for all the roads leading to the other cities. In the 1960s, some fragments were discovered and erected in its original location, now in the district of Eminönü, Turkey; the kilometre zero marker of the eastern origin of the Trans-Canada Highway is located in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′39.78″N 52°42′44.33″W Altitude: 14.02 m The western origin of the Trans-Canada Highway in Victoria, British Columbia, is located on the southern end of Vancouver Island.
Mile zero of the Trans Canada Trail is located adjacent to the Railway Coastal Museum in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′14.0″N 52°42′50.5″W Altitude: 4.5 m Mile zero for the Alaska Highway is located in Dawson Creek, British Columbia. All national distances from Santiago originate at the Km. 0 plaque, located at the Plaza de Armas main square in downtown Santiago. Chile's Autopista Central – Eje Norte-Sur has its Kilometre Zero at the intersection with the Alameda del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, the capital's main avenue. China Railway's 0 km is located at the entrance to the Fengtai Yard on the Jingguang Line just outside Beijing; this point was the start of the line. There is no ceremonial plaque; the kilometre zero point for highways is located at Tiananmen Square, just outside the Zhengyangmen Gate. It is marked with a plaque in the ground, with the four cardinal points, four animals, "Zero Point of Highways, China" in English and Chinese. Cuba's Kilometre Zero is located in its capital Havana in El Capitolio.
Embedded in the floor in the centre of the main hall is a replica 25 carat diamond, which marks Kilometre Zero for Cuba. The original diamond, said to have belonged to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and have been sold to the Cuban state by a Turkish merchant, was stolen on 25 March 1946 and mysteriously returned to the President, Ramón Grau San Martín, on 2 June 1946, it was replaced in El Capitolio by a replica in 1973. Copenhagen Town hall square is the zero point. DR-1, DR-2, DR-3 all depart from Kilometre Zero from Santo Domingo's Parque de Independencia. Kilometre Zero in Egypt is located at the Attaba Square Post Office in 1st of Abdel Khaliq Sarwat Pasha Street, Cairo. Kilometre Zero in Ethiopia is in Addis Ababa, in front of St. George's Cathedral; the point was designated by Emperor Haile Selassie in 1930. Kilometre Zero of Finland is located at the Erottaja square in central Helsinki. Kilometre Zero of French national highways located in Paris on the square facing the main entrance of Notre-Dame is considered the official centre of Paris.
48.8534°N 2.3488°E / 48.8534. 52.510788°N 13.398964°E / 52.510788. Distances from London to most parts of the country are measured in miles from the original site of Charing Cross, on the southern side of Trafalgar Square. In Scotland, distances from Edinburgh are measured from the GPO building in Princes Street. See also: London Stone, Hicks Hall, St Mary-le-Bow, a church from which the distance of the original London to Lewes road is measured. In ancient Greece, distances were measured from the altar of twelve gods, located in the ancient agora of Athens. So, that altar can be considered the first kilometre zero in human history. Nowadays, the kilometre zero for Greek high
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Aulnay-sous-Bois is a commune in the Seine-Saint-Denis department in the Île-de-France region in the north-eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 13.9 km from the Kilometre zero. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aulnaysiennes; the commune has been awarded four flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Aulnay-sous-Bois is located in the Paris area and is 19 km north-east of Notre-Dame Cathedral, 1 km east of Le Bourget Airport, 5 km south-west of Charles de Gaulle Airport; the commune stretches over a length of 6.5 km from north to south and a width ranging from 1.4 to 4.3 km from east to west and covers an area of 1,620 hectares. The town is surrounded by the A3 autoroute in the west. Route nationale 2 passes through the heart of the commune from west to east with the N370 coming from the south-east along the eastern border to join the N2; the D44 passes through from north-west to south-east and the D115 from Bobigny in the south-west passes through the centre and continues to Villepinte in the east.
The Ourcq Canal passes through the south-eastern end, adjacent to Livry-Gargan. Distribution of urban zones is: Residential: 44% Industrial: 30% Housing Estates: 11% Natural areas: 15% The north of Aulnay-sous-Bois consists of large housing estates, industrial areas, parks: The Rose des Vents The Etangs The Merisier The City of Emmaus Balagny La Garenne Ambourget Savigny The Gros Saule The central area, called the district of Vieux Pays, is older with its Church of Saint-Sulpice built in the 12th century and its farm, it includes La Roseraie, Maximilien Robespierre, Le Vieux Pays, Tour Eiffel, Hotel de Ville. The south, across the railway line, is residential in nature, it is bordered by the Canal de l'Ourcq. It includes Chanteloup, Central Station, Pont de l'Union, Nonneville; when the construction of Clos Saint-Lazare at Stains ended, urbanization of the northern districts of Aulnay-sous-Bois began. The idea was to create an area of factories, it was on this basis that the area of Rose des Vents was built in 1969 in the northern part of Aulnay-sous-Bois.
This "Great Housing Estate" was built on former agricultural land. Its mission was to provide shelter for workers and managers for a new Citroën plant to be located a few hundred metres away. Beyond the Rose des Vents, known as the City of 3000, all of the housing estates in the northern districts total 6,500 housing units including 745 detached houses. 24,000 people, or 30% of the population of Aulnay-sous-Bois, are housed on 4% of the territory. The city is served by: Autoroutes: A1, A3, A104 National Roads: N2 and N370 Departmental Routes: D115, D44, D40, D401 The commune is traversed by the main railway line from Paris to Soissons and Hirson which serves the Aulnay-sous-Bois railway station where all buses and semi-direct services of and the Transilien Paris to Crépy-en-Valois stop and it is the terminus of the line; the station has a ride with a parking fee. Since November 2006, the classic commuter train the Ligne des Coquetiers between Aulnay-sous-Bois to Bondy has been replaced by a Tram-train that takes the same route and allows connection to the and.
Two branches are planned: the first to Clichy-sous-Bois and Montfermeil on the Gargan heights. Between September 2009 to January 2011, the Aulnay-sous-Bois station has had work done to allow access to all platforms for disabled persons including: the development of four lifts, the rehabilitation of the railway station and underpasses, the installation of new lighting. Aulnay-sous-Bois station is served by bus routes: RATP 251 TRA 605 607a 613 614 615 616a 616b 617 618 627 637 680 Autobus du Fort 702 CIF 15 RATP N140Villepinte Station is located halfway between Aulnay-sous-Bois and Villepinte and it provides access to the district of Rose des Vents. Villepinte station is served by buses: TRA 609 615 617 642 683 In 2023 a station on line 16 in the Grand Paris Express project is planned north of the commune on the embankment of the former N2 road, its platforms will be at a depth of 15 metres. The city is served by various bus networks: RATP 148 251 350 TRA 605 607a 607b 609 610 613 614 615 616a 616b 617 618 627 634 637 680 683 684 686 Autobus du Fort 702 CIF 1 15 32A 43 44 45 93 100 RATP N42 N140In the medium term, it is proposed the creation of a "transverse" line by merging TRA 614 627 637 lines.
In addition, it is planned to create a circular line to connect different parts of the city to avoid "reloading" for trips between all economic areas of the city and its public facilities. There is a taxi rank at Aulnay-sous-Bois station. Aulnay-sous-Bois is located 5 km from Charles de Gaulle Airport; the airport can be reached by the A1 and A3 autoroutes. "Aulnay" is a common French toponym and may derive from the Medieval Latin alnetum meaning "alder grove" after the alder trees which covered Aulnay-sous-Bois in ancient times. An alternative derivation is th
Courbevoie is a commune located 8.2 km from the center of Paris, France. The centre of Courbevoie is situated 2 kilometres from the outer limits of central Paris, it is one of the most densely populated municipalities in Europe, ranks as the third-best place to live in the Île-de-France region, after the neighbouring communes of Levallois-Perret and Neuilly-sur-Seine. La Défense, Paris's business district hosting the tallest buildings in the metropolitan area, spreads over the southern part of Courbevoie; the name Courbevoie comes from Latin Curva Via and means "curved highway" in reference to a Roman road from Paris to Normandy which made a sharp turn to climb the hill over which Courbevoie was built. Courbevoie is divided into two cantons: Canton of Courbevoie-1 and Canton of Courbevoie-2. A wooden bridge was built crossing the Seine at Courbevoie by order of King Henry IV when in 1606 his royal coach fell into the river while being transported by ferry. Rebuilt in stone during the eighteenth century, this was replaced by a metal bridge in 1946.
The Convent of the Penitents founded in 1658 by Jean-Baptiste Forne was located in Courbevoie until the Revolution of 1789. Located in the town was the barracks of the Swiss Guard of the monarchy. Courbevoie is served by two stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line: Courbevoie and Bécon-les-Bruyères. Courbevoie is served by Esplanade de La Défense station on Paris Métro Line 1, in the business district of La Défense. There are a large number of city buses that come through the bustling La Défense station; when it comes to air transportation, Courbevoie can be served by Paris's Charles de Gaulle Airport as well as Paris-Orly to the south and Beauvais Airport to the north. Courbevoie has elementary schools. Junior high schools include: Collège Alfred de Vigny Collège Georges Pompidou Collège Georges Seurat Collège Les Bruyères Collège Les Renardières Collège Sainte GenevièveSenior high schools include: Lycée Paul Lapie de Courbevoie Lycée Paul Painlevé Courbevoie Collège Les renardières et Lycée Lucie Aubrac Groupe scolaire Montalembert Arletty and singer Henri Betti, composer Michel Delpech, singer Louis de Funès, comedy actor Colomba Fofana, athlete Albert Gleizes, cubist artist, theorist Lamine Kante, basketball player Massire Kante, footballer Henri Letocart and composer Marie-Bernadette Mbuyamba, basketball player William Remy, footballer Franck Tchiloemba, basketball player Michel Blanc, actor Louis-Ferdinand Céline, writer Hélène de Krzyżanowska-Dyhrn and relative of Chopin Jean-Pierre Worms, representative to the French Parliament Stephane Coquin, footballer Roy Benson, stage magician Courbevoie is twinned with: Forest-Vorst, Belgium Enfield Town, United Kingdom Freudenstadt, Germany Beit Mery, Lebanon Total S.
A. has its head office in Courbevoie. Areva has its head office in the Tour Areva in Courbevoie. Saint-Gobain has its head office in Courbevoie; the headquarters of INPI, the French government office for patents and trademarks, is in Courbevoie. La Défense business district. List of tallest structures in Paris Phare Tower, a 300-meter skyscraper now under construction Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department INSEE Courbevoie official website Courbevoie Community portal blog about Courbevoie
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent