Wine is an alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine; these variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define qualities of wine; these restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, pomegranate and elderberry. Wine has been produced for thousands of years; the earliest known traces of wine are from Georgia and Sicily although there is evidence of a similar alcoholic drink being consumed earlier in China. The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery in Armenia. Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece and Rome.
Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects. Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; the earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 6000–5800 BC was found on the territory of modern Georgia. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was later having taken place in the Southern Caucasus, or the West Asian region between Eastern Turkey, northern Iran; the earliest evidence of a grape-based fermented drink was found in China, Georgia from 6000 BC, Iran from 5000 BC, Sicily from 4000 BC. The earliest evidence of a wine production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented drinks in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC.
Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these drinks, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, introduced there 6000 years later; the spread of wine culture westwards was most due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Mediterranean coast of what are today Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact; as the first great traders in wine, the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to retsina.
Although the nuragic Sardinians consumed wine before the arrival of the Phoenicians The earliest remains of Apadana Palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 BC include carvings depicting soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC; the first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu.
The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production; the Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine; the English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or " vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o-. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo, meaning "in" or " of the new wine", wo-no-wa-ti-si, meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions. Linear B includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine
National Register of Historic Places listings in El Dorado County, California
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in El Dorado County, California. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in El Dorado County, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 19 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 1 National Historic Landmark; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in California National Register of Historic Places listings in California California Historical Landmarks in El Dorado County, California
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
National Register of Historic Places listings in Colusa County, California
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Colusa County, California. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Colusa County, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 6 districts listed on the National Register in the county; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in California National Register of Historic Places listings in California California Historical Landmarks in Colusa County, California
A window shutter is a solid and stable window covering consisting of a frame of vertical stiles and horizontal rails. Set within this frame can be louvers, solid panels, fabric and any other item that can be mounted within a frame. Shutters may be employed for a variety of reasons, including controlling the amount of sunlight that enters a room, to provide privacy, security, to protect against weather or unwanted intrusion or damage and to enhance the aesthetics of a building. Depending on the application, the construction of the window frame, shutters can be mounted to fit within the opening or to overlap the opening; the term window shutter includes both interior shutters, used on the inside of a house or building, exterior shutters, used on the outside of a structure. On some styles of buildings it is common to have shutters to cover the doors as well as the windows. Interior shutters are divided into narrow units hinged accordion-style so that two or more units cover each side of a window opening when closed.
Operable louvered shutters have louvers, or slats, controlled by a tilt bar or rod to adjust the louver position and keep them in a uniform position, to control light and airflow. Shutters with operable louvers are described variously as traditional shutters, California shutters, or plantation shutters. Plantation shutters, typical of warmer climates like Florida, South Africa, the Mediterranean or Australia have only two shutters per window and wide louver blades. Other interior shutters use stationary louvers. Shutters can be configured in a single tier unit that has one shutter top to bottom of a window opening as well as multiple tiers. Multiple tier units feature separate shutters on each tier which allows the top shutters to be opened independently from the bottom shutters. Café-type shutters refer to shutters. Full height shutters can be made with a horizontal divider rail which separates the upper and lower portions of the shutter. With operable louvered shutters this gives greater control as the louvers above the divider rail can be operated independently from the louvers below the divider rail.
Interior shutters can be constructed from numerous woods, which can be painted or stained, a variety of synthetic materials. Interior shutters that are made to close tolerances are preferable for the best possible fit; when louvers or tilt bar become damaged, replacement kits for these damaged parts may be ordered online and are easy to install. When buildings have sufficiently thick walls, elegant interior shutter installations place the open, folded shutters into pockets in a recess on each side of the window, where they are secured behind a fitted long, narrow cabinet-style door that conceals the open shutters; when the shutters are wanted, the door is opened, the shutters are unfolded, the cabinet door is closed. There are many variations of. In the UK, most interior shutters were paneled. Exterior shutters were constructed for light control, privacy and protection from the elements. Functional shutters hinge on each side of a window or at the top and swing closed when necessary and can be mounted on tracks applied to the face of the building.
Fixed and operable louvers shed rain, allow air transfer, filter direct sunlight, protect from small flying debris, provide privacy. Operable louvered shutters allow for greater control of ventilation. Solid panels and board-and-batten shutters are used for security or protection during severe weather. Non-functional shutters are used to enhance the appearance of a building. Functional shutters have traditionally been constructed from solid woods that have proven to endure outside elements but have been mass-produced in woods less suitable to the outdoors like pine. Finishing wood shutters is recommended for extended life. Composite shutters offer advantages over wood shutters such as resistance to twisting and rotting. However, PVC shutters are hinged with three or more hinges and painted with vinyl-safe paint to keep from bowing in the sun and can require additional hardware. Fiberglass shutters are more dimensionally stable than PVC. Certain hardwoods used for exterior shutters Spanish cedar, Honduran mahogany and teak, are resistant to rot and decay, far more durable than a softer wood like untreated pine.
Because of the tannin in these woods they are not prone to problems from insects. Pressure treatment with wood preservative makes pine and other types of wood suitable for exterior shutters. Non-functional exterior shutters can be constructed from wood, fiberglass or other synthetic materials. Non-functional shutters can be screwed or bolted directly to the building, with spacers or other hardware to prevent water accumulating against the wall. Fiberglass, a material used for boat hulls, is not prone to rotting or twisting, is dimensionally stable and has low expansion and contraction, it is a reinforced plastic, unlike vinyl or PVC, so fiberglass shutters do not have a tendency to warp or sag. Its strength is comparable to aluminum. Exterior shutters in France, notably in Paris, are made of steel and are configured in multiple narrow full-length panels, allowing them to fold open and fit inconspicuously against the recesses at the sides of the window; some exterior shutters in Italy, such as in towns along the Adr
National Register of Historic Places listings in Calaveras County, California
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Calaveras County, California. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Calaveras County, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 16 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in California National Register of Historic Places listings in California California Historical Landmarks in Calaveras County, California
The sleeping car or sleeper is a railway passenger car that can accommodate all its passengers in beds of one kind or another for the purpose of making nighttime travel more restful. George Pullman was the American inventor of the sleeper car; the first such cars saw sporadic use on American railroads in the 1830s. Some of the more luxurious types have private rooms; the earliest example of a sleeping car was on the London & Birmingham and Grand junction Railways between London and Lancashire, England. This was made available to first class passengers in 1838; the Cumberland Valley Railroad pioneered sleeping car service in the spring of 1839, with a car named "Chambersburg", between Chambersburg and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. A couple of years a second car, the "Carlisle", was introduced into service. In 1857, the Wason Manufacturing Company of Springfield, Massachusetts – one of the United States' first makers of railway passenger coach equipment – produced America's first designed sleeping car.
The man who made the sleeping car business profitable in the United States was George Pullman, who began by building a luxurious sleeping car in 1865. The Pullman Company, founded as the Pullman Palace Car Company in 1867, owned and operated most sleeping cars in the United States until the mid-20th century, attaching them to passenger trains run by the various railroads. During the peak years of American passenger railroading, several all-Pullman trains existed, including the 20th Century Limited on the New York Central Railroad, the Broadway Limited on the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Panama Limited on the Illinois Central Railroad, the Super Chief on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. Pullman cars were a dark "Pullman green", although some were painted in the host railroad's colors; the cars carried individual names, but did not carry visible numbers. In the 1920s, the Pullman Company went through a series of restructuring steps, which in the end resulted in a parent company, Pullman Incorporated, controlling the Pullman Company and the Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing Company.
Due to an antitrust verdict in 1947, a consortium of railroads bought the Pullman Company from Pullman Incorporated, subsequently railroads owned and operated Pullman-made sleeping cars themselves. Pullman-Standard continued manufacturing sleeping cars and other passenger and freight railroad cars until 1980. One unanticipated consequence of the rise of Pullman cars in the US in the 19th and early 20th centuries was their effect on civil rights and African-American culture; each Pullman car was staffed by a uniformed porter. The majority of Pullman Porters were African Americans. While still a menial job in many respects, Pullman offered better pay and security than most jobs open to African Americans at the time, in addition to a chance for travel, it was a well regarded job in the African-American community of the time; the pullman attendants, regardless of their true name, were traditionally referred to as "George" by the travelers, the name of the company's founder, George Pullman. The Pullman company was the largest employer of African Americans in the United States.
Subsequently, railway porters fought for political recognition and were unionized. Their union, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, became an important source of strength for the burgeoning Civil Rights Movement in the early 20th century, notably under the leadership of A. Philip Randolph; because they moved about the country, Pullman porters became an important means of communication for news and cultural information of all kinds. The African-American newspaper, the Chicago Defender, gained a national circulation in this way. Porters used to re-sell phonograph records bought in the great metropolitan centres adding to the distribution of jazz and blues and the popularity of the artists. From the 19th to the mid-20th century, the most common and more economical type of sleeping car accommodation on North American trains was the "open section". Open-section accommodations consist of pairs of seats, one seat facing forward and the other backward, situated on either side of a center aisle; the seat pairs can be converted into the combination of an upper and a lower "berth", each berth consisting of a bed screened from the aisle by a curtain.
A famous example of open sections can be seen in the movie. As the 20th century progressed, an increasing variety of private rooms was offered. Most of these rooms provided more space than open-section accommodations could offer. Open-sections, in the 1950s were phased out, in favor of roomettes; some of them, such as the rooms of the "slumbercoach" cars manufactured by the Budd Company and first put into service in 1956, were triumphs of miniaturization. These allowed a single car to increase the number of sleepers over a conventional sleeping car of private rooms. A Roomette, in the correct sense of the word, is a private room for a single passenger, containing a single seat, a folding bed, a toilet, a washbasin; when a traditional Roomette is in night mode, the bed blocks access to the toilet. Like open sections, Roomettes are placed with a corridor down the center. Duplex Roomettes, a Pullman-produced precursor to the slumbercoach, are staggered vertically, with every second accommodation rais