Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie
The Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie is the biggest science museum in Europe. Located in Parc de la Villette in Paris, France, it is one of the three dozen French Cultural Centers of Science and Industry, promoting science and science culture. About five million people visit the Cité each year. Attractions include a planetarium, a submarine, an IMAX theatre and special areas for children and teenagers; the Cité is classified as a public establishment of an industrial and commercial character, an establishment specialising in the fostering of scientific and technical culture. Created on the initiative of President Giscard d'Estaing, the goal of the Cité is to spread scientific and technical knowledge among the public for youth, to promote public interest in science and industry; the most notable features of the "bioclimatic facade" facing the park are Les Serres – three greenhouse spaces each 32 metres high, 32 metres wide and 8 metres deep. The facades of Les Serres were the first structural glass walls to be constructed without framing or supporting fins.
Between 30 May and 1 June 2008, the museum hosted the 3rd International Salon for Peace Initiatives. Explore The library of science and industry City of children Auditorium and things Louis Lumière theatre Planetarium Numeric crossroads City of careers City of health Meeting place Aquarium Jean bertin hall Condorcet hall Picnic area Post office Store for scientific books and toys Restaurants The building is constructed around the vast steel trusses of an abattoir sales hall on which construction had halted in 1973; the transformation, commissioned on 15 September 1980, was designed by the architect Adrien Fainsilber and engineer Peter Rice. It was opened on 13 March 1986, inaugurated by François Mitterrand upon the occasion of the encounter of the Giotto space probe with Halley's Comet, it is accessible by Métro line 7 at the Porte de la Villette station and by bus lines PC2, 139, 150, 151, 249, 75. The tramway 3b was opened in December 2012 Cité de la musique, City of Music La Géode, an IMAX domed theatre List of museums in Paris Le Zénith, a concert arena in Parc de la Villette Parc de la Villette Official website including light version 48 photos of the Cité
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A science museum is a museum devoted to science. Older science museums tended to concentrate on static displays of objects related to natural history, geology and industrial machinery, etc. Modern trends in museology have broadened the range of subject matter and introduced many interactive exhibits. Many if not most modern science museums – which refer to themselves as science centers or "discovery centers" – emphasize technology, are therefore technology museums; the mission statements of science centers and modern museums vary, but they are united in being places that make science accessible and encourage the excitement of discovery. They are an integral and dynamic part of the learning environment, promoting exploration from the first "Eureka!" Moment to today's cutting-edge research. As early as the Renaissance, many aristocrats collected curiosities for display to their family. Universities and medical schools maintained study collections of specimens for their students. Scientists and collectors displayed their finds in private cabinets of curiosities.
Such collections were the predecessors of modern natural history museums. The first purpose-built museum covering natural philosophy and open to the public from 1683 was the original Ashmolean museum in Oxford, although its scope was mixed; the first dedicated science museum was the Museo de Ciencias Naturales, in Spain. Opened in 1752, it disappeared during the Franco regime, but it recovered afterwards and today works with the CSIC; the Utrecht University Museum, among others, still displays an extensive collection of 18th-century animal and human "rarities" in its original setting. Another line in the genealogy of science museums came during the Industrial Revolution, with great national exhibits intended to showcase the triumphs of both science and industry. For example, the Great Exhibition in The Crystal Palace gave rise to London's Science Museum. In America, various Natural History Societies established collections in the early 19th century, which evolved into museums. Notable was the early New England Museum of Natural History, which opened in Boston in 1864.
The Academy of Science of Saint Louis was founded in 1856 as the first scientific organization west of the Mississippi. The modern interactive science museum appears to have been pioneered by Munich’s Deutsches Museum in the early 20th century; this museum had moving exhibits. The concept was taken to the US by Julius Rosenwald, chairman of Sears and Company, who visited the Deutsches Museum with his young son in 1911, he was so-captivated by the experience. Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry opened in phases between 1933 and 1940. In 1959 the Museum of Science and Natural History was formally created by the Academy of Science of Saint Louis, featuring many interactive science and history exhibits. In August 1969, Frank Oppenheimer dedicated his new Exploratorium in San Francisco completely to interactive science exhibits; the Exploratorium published the details of their own exhibits in "Cookbooks" that served as an inspiration to many other museums around the world. Opened in September 1969, the Ontario Science Centre continued the trend of featuring interactive exhibits rather than static displays.
In 1973, the first Omnimax theater opened as the Reuben H. Fleet Space Theater and Science Center in San Diego's Balboa Park; the tilted-dome Space Theater doubled as a planetarium. The Science Center was an Exploratorium-style museum included as a small part of the complex; this combination interactive science museum and Omnimax theater pioneered a configuration that many major science museums follow today. In 1973, the Association of Science-Technology Centers was founded as an international organization to provide a collective voice, professional support, programming opportunities for science centers and related institutions; as the flavor of interactivity spread worldwide, the massive Cite des Sciences et de l'Industrie opened in Paris in 1986, smaller but no less influential national centers soon followed in Spain and Denmark. In the UK, the first interactive centers opened in 1986 on a modest scale, but their real blossoming more than a decade was fuelled by Lottery funding for projects to celebrate the millennium.
Since the 1990s, science museums and centers, such as Thailand's National Science Museum, have been created or expanded in East Asia, South Asia, other parts of the developing word. However, in many more institutionalized organizations the improvised, experimental nature of the Oppenheimer era has been diluted in favor of a standardized view of science dominated by governmental and commercial messages. Museums that brand themselves as science centers emphasize a hands-on approach, featuring interactive exhibits that encourage visitors to experiment and explore; the first science center was Urania founded in Berlin in 1888. The Academy of Science of Saint Louis created the Saint Louis Museum of Science and Natural History in 1959, but science centers are a product of the 1960s and later. In the United Kingdom, many of them were founded as Millennium projects, with funding from the National Lotteries Fund; the first "science center" in the United States was the Science Center of Pinellas
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
Dialogue in the Dark
Dialogue in the Dark is an awareness raising exhibition and franchise, as well as a social business. In Dialogue in the Dark, blind guides lead visitors in small groups through different settings in absolute darkness. Through this visitors learn how to interact without sight by using their other senses, as well as experience what it is like to be blind; the exhibition is organized as a social franchising company, which offers the exhibition as well as business workshops, has created jobs for the blind and disadvantaged worldwide. The exhibition aims to change mindsets on disability and diversity, increase tolerance for “otherness”. More than 9 million visitors have gone through an experience in the Dark and thousands of blind guides and facilitators find employment through exhibitions and workshops. Dialogue in the Dark was founded by Andreas Heinecke in 1988.. It had its premiere in Germany. For more than 10 years it toured throughout the world as a travelling exhibition in museums or as a special event in a fair or festival.
Since the exhibition has been turned into a franchise and owned by the brand owner Dialogue Social Enterprise. The first permanent exhibition was established in Hamburg, Germany in April 2000. There have been exhibitions in more than 150 cities in over 30 countries. Dialogue in the Dark is available in 21 countries in different formats; some of these countries include China, Italy, South Korea, Greece, Russia, the USA and Singapore. The main concept of the exhibition is role reversal, as within the exhibit the blind become "sighted" and while the seeing become blind. Furthermore, the sighted get out of their social routines and blind people give them a sense of orientation and mobility. During and after the tour visitors have the opportunity to ask the guide questions. Dialogue in the Dark has two main goals; the first is to increase the public’s awareness of and tolerance for “otherness”. According to its website, Dialogue in the Dark's second goal is to create jobs for disadvantaged people by turning perceived deficits into potential assets.
Dialogue in the Dark international website
Bas-Rhin is a department in Alsace, a part of the Grand Est super-region of France. The name means "Lower Rhine", geographically speaking it belongs to the Upper Rhine region, it is the more populous and densely populated of the two departments of the traditional Alsace region, with 1,121,407 inhabitants in 2016. The prefecture and the General Council are based in Strasbourg; the INSEE and Post Code is 67. The inhabitants of the department are known as Bas-Rhinoises; the Rhine has always been of great historical and economic importance to the area, it forms the eastern border of Bas-Rhin. The area is home to some of the foothills of the Vosges Mountains. To the north of Bas-Rhin lies the Palatinate forest in the German State of Rhineland-Palatinate, the German State of Baden-Württemberg lies to the east. To the south lies the department of Haut-Rhin, the town of Colmar and southern Alsace, to the west the department of Moselle. On its south-western corner, Bas-Rhin joins the department of Vosges.
The Bas-Rhin has a continental-type climate, characterised by cold, dry winters and hot, stormy summers, due to the western protection provided by the Vosges. The average annual temperature is 7 °C on high ground; the annual maximum temperature is high. The average rainfall is 700 mm per year. Established according to data from the Infoclimat station at Strasbourg-Entzheim, over the period from 1961 to 1990; this is the last French department to have kept the term Bas meaning "Lower" in its name. Other departments using this prefix preferred to change their names - e.g.: Basses-Pyrenees in 1969 became Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Basses-Alpes in 1970 became the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence. The same phenomenon was observed for the inférieur departments such as Charente-Inférieure, Seine-Inférieure, Loire-Inférieure. Bas-Rhin is one of the original 83 departments created on 4 March 1790, during the French Revolution. On 14 January 1790 the National Constituent Assembly decreed: "- That Alsace be divided into two departments with Strasbourg and Colmar as their capitals.
In 1871 Bas-Rhin was annexed by Germany and became Bezirk Unterelsass in Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen. Strasbourg, the chef lieu of Bas-Rhin is the official seat of the European Parliament as well as of the Council of Europe; the demography of Bas-Rhin is characterized by high density and high population growth since the 1950s. In January 2014 Bas-Rhin had 1,112,815 inhabitants and was 18th by population at the national level. In fifteen years, from 1999 to 2014, its population grew by more than 86,000 people, or about 5,800 people per year, but this variation is differentiated among the 517 communes. The population density of Bas-Rhin is 234 inhabitants per square kilometre in 2014, more than twice the average in France, 112 in 2009; the first census was conducted in 1801 and this count, renewed every five years from 1821, provides precise information on the evolution of population in the department. With 540,213 inhabitants in 1831, the department represented 1.66% of the total French population, 32,569,000 inhabitants.
From 1831 to 1866, the department gained 48,757 people, an increase of 0.26% on average per year compared to the national average of 0.48% over the same period. Demographic change between the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and the First World War was higher than the national average. Over this period, the population increased by 100,532 inhabitants, an increase of 16.74%, compared to 10% nationally. The population increased by 9.23% between the two world wars from 1921 to 1936 compared to a national growth of 6.9%. Like other French departments, Bas-Rhin experienced a population boom after the Second World War, higher than the national level; the rate of population growth between 1946 and 2007 was 83.83%