Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body. They are one of the building blocks of body tissue and can serve as a fuel source; as a fuel, proteins provide as much energy density as carbohydrates: 4 kcal per gram. The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions; this is crucial for the absorption of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein-energy malnutrition and resulting death, they are phenylalanine, threonine, methionine, isoleucine and histidine. There has been debate as to whether there are 9 essential amino acids; the consensus seems to lean towards 9. There are five amino acids.
These five are alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine. There are six conditionally essential amino acids whose synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions, such as prematurity in the infant or individuals in severe catabolic distress; these six are arginine, glycine, glutamine and tyrosine. Dietary sources of protein include both animals and plants: meats, dairy products and eggs, as well as grains and nuts. Vegans can get enough essential amino acids by eating plant proteins. Protein is a nutrient needed by the human body for maintenance. Aside from water, proteins are the most abundant kind of molecules in the body. Protein can be found in all cells of the body and is the major structural component of all cells in the body muscle; this includes body organs and skin. Proteins are used in membranes, such as glycoproteins; when broken down into amino acids, they are used as precursors to nucleic acid, co-enzymes, immune response, cellular repair, other molecules essential for life.
Additionally, protein is needed to form blood cells. Protein can be found in a wide range of food; the best combination of protein sources depends on the region of the world, cost, amino acid types and nutrition balance, as well as acquired tastes. Some foods are high in certain amino acids, but their digestibility and the anti-nutritional factors present in these foods make them of limited value in human nutrition. Therefore, one must consider digestibility and secondary nutrition profile such as calories, cholesterol and essential mineral density of the protein source. On a worldwide basis, plant protein foods contribute over 60 percent of the per capita supply of protein, on average. In North America, animal-derived foods contribute about 70 percent of protein sources. Meat, products from milk, eggs and fish are sources of complete protein. Whole grains and cereals are another source of proteins. However, these tend to be limiting in the amino acid lysine or threonine, which are available in other vegetarian sources and meats.
Examples of food staples and cereal sources of protein, each with a concentration greater than 7.0%, are buckwheat, rye, maize, wheat, sorghum and quinoa. Vegetarian sources of proteins include legumes, nuts and fruits. Legumes, some of which are called pulses in certain parts of the world, have higher concentrations of amino acids and are more complete sources of protein than whole grains and cereals. Examples of vegetarian foods with protein concentrations greater than 7 percent include soybeans, kidney beans, white beans, mung beans, cowpeas, lima beans, pigeon peas, wing beans, Brazil nuts, pecans, cotton seeds, pumpkin seeds, hemp seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds. Food staples that are poor sources of protein include roots and tubers such as yams and sweet potato. Plantains, another major staple, are a poor source of essential amino acids. Fruits, while rich in other essential nutrients, are another poor source of amino acids; the protein content in roots and fruits is between 0 and 2 percent.
Food staples with low protein content must be complemented with foods with complete, quality protein content for a healthy life in children for proper development. A good source of protein is a combination of various foods, because different foods are rich in different amino acids. A good source of dietary protein meets two requirements: The requirement for the nutritionally indispensable amino acids under all conditions and for conditionally indispensable amino acids under specific physiological and pathological conditions The requirement for nonspecific nitrogen for the synthesis of the nutritionally dispensable amino acids and other physiologically important nitrogen-containing compounds such as nucleic acids and porphyrins. Healthy people eating a balanced diet need protein supplements; the table below presents the most important food groups as protein sources, from a worldwide perspective. It lists their respective performance as source of the limiting amino acids, in milligrams of limiting amino acid per gram of total protein in the food source.
The table reiterates the need for a balanced mix of
Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, known as a peppercorn, dried and used as a spice and seasoning. When fresh and mature, it is about 5 mm in diameter and dark red, contains a single seed, like all drupes. Peppercorns and the ground pepper derived from them may be described as pepper, or more as black pepper, green pepper, or white pepper. Black pepper is native to present-day Kerala in Southwestern India, is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper, producing 34% of the world's crop, as of 2013. Ground dried and cooked peppercorns have been used since antiquity, both for flavour and as a traditional medicine. Black pepper is the world's most traded spice, is one of the most common spices added to cuisines around the world, its spiciness is due to the chemical compound piperine, a different kind of spicy from the capsaicin characteristic of chili peppers. It is ubiquitous in the modern world as a seasoning, is paired with salt and available on dining tables in shakers.
The word pepper has roots in the Sanskrit word pippali for long pepper. Ancient Greek and Latin turned pippali into the Greek πέπερι peperi and into the Latin piper, which the Romans used for both black pepper and long pepper, erroneously believing that both came from the same plant. From its Sanskrit roots, today's "pepper" is derived from the Old English pipor and from Latin, the source of Romanian piper, Italian pepe, Dutch peper, German Pfeffer, French poivre, other similar forms. In the 16th century, people began using pepper to mean the unrelated New World chili pepper. People have used pepper in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. In the early 20th century, this shortened to "pep". Black pepper is produced from the unripe drupes of the pepper plant; the drupes are cooked in hot water, both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper; the drupes dry in the sun or by machine for several days, during which the pepper skin around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin, wrinkled black layer.
Once dry, the spice is called black peppercorn. On some estates, the berries are separated from the stem by hand and sun-dried without the boiling process. Once the peppercorns are dried, pepper spirit and oil can be extracted from the berries by crushing them. Pepper spirit is used in many beauty products. Pepper oil is used as an ayurvedic massage oil and in certain beauty and herbal treatments. White pepper consists of the seed of the ripe fruit of the pepper plant, with the thin darker-coloured skin of the fruit removed; this is accomplished by a process known as retting, where ripe red pepper berries are soaked in water for about a week so the flesh of the peppercorn softens and decomposes. Sometimes alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed, including removing the outer layer through mechanical, chemical, or biological methods. Ground white pepper is used in Chinese and Thai cuisine, but in salads, cream sauces, light-coloured sauces, mashed potatoes. However, white pepper has a different flavour from black pepper.
Green pepper, like black pepper, is made from unripe drupes. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a way that retains the green colour, such as with sulphur dioxide, canning, or freeze-drying. Pickled peppercorns green, are unripe drupes preserved in brine or vinegar. Fresh, unpreserved green pepper drupes unknown in the West, are used in some Asian cuisines Thai cuisine, their flavour has been described as "spicy and fresh", with a "bright aroma". They decay if not dried or preserved, making them unsuitable for international shipping. Wild pepper grows in the Western Ghats region of India. Into the 19th century, the forests contained expansive wild pepper vines, as recorded by the Scottish physician Francis Buchanan in his book A journey from Madras through the countries of Mysore and Malabar. However, deforestation resulted in wild pepper growing in more limited forest patches from Goa to Kerala, with the wild source decreasing as the quality and yield of the cultivated variety improved. No successful grafting of commercial pepper on wild pepper has been achieved to date.
Orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper drupes preserved in brine and vinegar. Ripe red peppercorns can be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. Pink peppercorns are the fruits of the Peruvian pepper tree, Schinus molle, or its relative, the Brazilian pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolius, plants from a different family; as they are members of the cashew family, they may cause allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, for persons with a tree nut allergy. The bark of Drimys winteri is used as a substitute for pepper in cold and temperate regions of Chile and Argentina, where it is found and available. In New Zealand, the seeds of kawakawa, a relative of black pepper, are sometimes used as pepper.
Henderson's Relish, known locally in Sheffield UK as "Hendo's" or "reli", is a spicy and fruity condiment, similar in appearance to Worcestershire sauce, but which contains no anchovies. It is made of water and spirit vinegar with a selection of spices and colouring, it is suitable for vegans. Henry Henderson began manufacturing sauce in the latter part of the 19th century. Manufactured at 35 Broad Lane in Sheffield, Henderson’s Relish is still being made and was in uninterrupted production within half a mile of the site from which the first bottle was filled until the move to a new food production factory in 2013; the company was bought by Shaws of Huddersfield in 1910. In 1940 Charles Hinksman formed the present company of Hendersons Ltd. the control of which has remained with the family. It is produced in South Yorkshire; the product's slogan is, "Made in Sheffield for over 100 years". Like many similar sauces, Henderson's has a base of spirit vinegar, coloured with caramel and sweetened with sugar and saccharin.
Its flavour is derived from garlic oil. A spice that distinguishes Henderson's from other English sauces is its use of cloves. According to Hendersons, famous fans of the condiment include Sheffield-born celebrities Sean Bean, Def Leppard's Rick Savage and the late Peter Stringfellow. Politician David Blunkett a Sheffield native, used it when he cooked shepherd's pie on chef Gordon Ramsay's The F Word TV cookery programme. In 1993, two special-edition labels were produced to celebrate the FA Cup semi-final. Sheffield's two league clubs, Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday, both in the Premier League, contested the match at Wembley; the bottles were produced with labels in blue and white stripes. These labels are still available in the respective clubs' shops; the singer/songwriter Richard Hawley used specially-labelled bottles of Henderson's Relish to promote his 2005 album'Coles Corner', on his 2007 autumn tour, special bottles of the relish were available to promote his then-current album Lady's Bridge.
The bottles of relish cost £1.50, with fans purchasing them after the show, owing to glass bottles being banned from most auditoriums. The comedian Tom Wrigglesworth said of Henderson's Relish that while outsiders think the condiment is Sheffield's answer to Worcestershire sauce, Sheffielders think it is the answer to everything. Henderson's Relish has been an inspiration to several artists from Sheffield, such as Rick Savage, who have produced pieces about the product. Pete McKee, Kid Acne and Jim Connolly have all released prints offering their own unique take on the relish, it featured in the plotline of the second episode of Series 4 of BBC Radio 4's comedy series Tom Wrigglesworth's Hang-Ups in September 2016. A Sheffield-based women’s traditional rapper dance team, who perform a type of traditional northern sword dance with long Sheffield rapper knives wanted to name themselves after Henderson’s Relish, but their approach to the company was rejected. Inspired by the condiment, they dance in costumes of black and orange, but adopted the name ‘Sheffield Steel Rapper’.
A gold-label version was produced to commemorate Jessica Ennis winning the Heptathlon at the 2012 Olympics. It can be found in local fish and chip shops and every supermarket and grocers in the city, yet is unavailable anywhere outside Yorkshire and nearby Lincolnshire, although it can be ordered online; the company has made little effort to market outside Yorkshire, instead preferring to encourage a loyal following nationally through this sense of exclusivity. Knowledge of Henderson's is so limited outside Yorkshire that Lewisham MP Jim Dowd misunderstood it as a copy of the anchovy-based Lea and Perrins and described it as "parasitic packaging" in an attempt to pass off one sauce as another, during a parliamentary debate on the Intellectual Property Bill, he had encountered the sauce at a pub in Blackheath, the Hare and Billet far outside the usual Henderson's region. He was corrected by comments from Sheffield MPs Paul Blomfield and Nick Clegg. Dowd toured the Henderson's factory in a peace-making gesture.
After starting in Sheffield over one hundred years ago, until 2013 the relish was in uninterrupted production within half a mile of the original site on Broad Lane from which the first bottle was filled. The Henderson's factory was located opposite what was once Jessop's Hospital for Women, now part of the University of Sheffield; the building is adjacent to the University of Sheffield Supertram stop, on Leavygreave Road. In September 2008, the sign that had adorned the side of the historic Henderson's Relish building was stolen, shortly afterwards was placed for sale on a local Sheffield blog. In 2013, the manufacturer moved to J. F. Finnegan's 58 acre Sheffield Parkway Business Park. Sheffield University plans to redevelop the original building as part of its campus. Worcestershire sauce Official website
Vinaigrette is made by mixing an oil with something acidic such as vinegar or lemon juice. The mixture herbs and/or spices, it is used most as a salad dressing, but can be used as a marinade. Traditionally, a vinaigrette consists of 3 parts oil and 1 part vinegar mixed into a stable emulsion, but the term is applied to mixtures with different proportions and to unstable emulsions which last only a short time before separating into layered oil and vinegar phases. "Vinaigrette" is the diminutive form of the French word "vinaigre". It was known as "french dressing" in the 19th century. In general, vinaigrette consists of 3 parts of oil to 1 part of vinegar whisked into an emulsion. Salt and pepper are added. Herbs and shallots are added when it is used for cooked vegetables or grains. Sometimes mustard is used as an emulsifier; some vinaigrettes use a small amount such as maple syrup. Vinaigrette may be made with a variety of vinegars. Olive oil and neutral vegetable oils such as soybean oil, canola oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, peanut oil, or grape seed oil are all common.
In northern France, it may be made with walnut oil and cider vinegar and used for Belgian endive salad. In the United States, vinaigrettes may include a wide range of additions such as lemon, raspberries, sugar and cherries. Cheese, parmesan or blue cheese being the most common, may be added. Commercially bottled versions may include emulsifiers such as lecithin. In Southeast Asia, rice bran oil and white vinegar are used as a foundation with fresh herbs, chili peppers and lime juice. In China and Japan, a similar salad dressing is made with sesame oil/sesame rice vinegar. In north China, sometimes mustard is added to enhance the texture of the sauce. Different vinegars, such as raspberry, create different flavors, lemon juice or alcohol, such as sherry, may be used instead of vinegar. Balsamic vinaigrette is made by adding a small amount of balsamic vinegar to a simple vinaigrette of olive oil and wine vinegar. In Brazil, a mix between olive oil, alcohol vinegar, tomatoes and sometimes bell peppers is called vinagrete.
It is served on Brazilian churrasco on Sundays. In classical French cuisine, a vinaigrette is used as a salad dressing and, as a cold sauce, accompanies cold artichokes and leek. Vinaigrette gave its name to a salad in Russian cuisine called vinegret. Italian dressing
Marination is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned acidic, liquid before cooking. The origin of the word alludes to the use of brine in the pickling process, which led to the technique of adding flavor by immersion in liquid; the liquid in question, the ` marinade', can be either enzymatic. In addition to these ingredients, a marinade contains oils and spices to further flavor the food items, it is used to flavor foods and to tenderize tougher cuts of meat. The process may last days. Different marinades are used in different cuisines. For example, in Indian cuisine the marinade is prepared with a mixture of spices. Marination is similar to brining, except that brining does not involve significant amount of acid, it is similar to pickling, except that pickling is done for much longer periods of time as a means of food preservation, whereas marination is only performed for a few hours to a day. In meats, the acid causes the tissue to break down, which allows more moisture to be absorbed and results in a juicier end product.
A good marinade has a balance of acid and spice. If raw marinated meat is frozen, the marinade can break down the surface and turn the outer layer mushy. Confused with marinating, macerating is a similar form of food preparation. Raw pork, seafood and poultry may contain harmful bacteria which may contaminate the marinade. Marinating should be done in the refrigerator to inhibit bacterial growth. Used marinade should not be made into a sauce; the container used for marinating should be food safe plastic. Metal, including pottery glazes which can contain lead, reacts with the acid in the marinade and should be avoided. Barbecue sauce – Flavoring sauce used as a marinade, basting or topping for barbecued meat Ceviche – Dish of marinated raw fish Saikyoyaki – a method of preparing fish in traditional Japanese cuisine by first marinating fish slices overnight in a white miso paste from Kyoto called saikyo shiro miso Vinaigrette – Sauce made from oil and vinegar and used as a salad dressing
Worcestershire sauce is a fermented liquid condiment created in the city of Worcester in Worcestershire, England, in the first half of the 19th century. The creators were the chemists John Wheeley Lea and William Henry Perrins, who went on to form the company Lea & Perrins. Worcestershire sauce has been considered a generic term since 1876, when the High Court of the United Kingdom ruled that Lea & Perrins did not own the trademark to "Worcestershire". Worcestershire sauce is used to enhance food and drink recipes, including Welsh rarebit, Caesar salad, Oysters Kirkpatrick, deviled eggs; as both a background flavour and a source of umami, it is now added to dishes which did not contain it, such as chili con carne and beef stew. It is used directly as a condiment on steaks and other finished dishes, to flavour cocktails such as the Bloody Mary and Caesar. A fermented fish sauce called garum was a staple of Greco-Roman cuisine and of the Mediterranean economy of the Roman Empire, as the first-century encyclopaedist Pliny the Elder writes in his Historia Naturalis and the fourth/fifth-century Roman culinary text Apicius includes garum in its recipes.
The use of similar fermented anchovy sauces in Europe can be traced back to the 17th century. The Lea & Perrins brand was commercialised in 1837 and was the first type of sauce to bear the Worcestershire name; the origin of the Lea & Perrins recipe is unclear. The packaging stated that the sauce came "from the recipe of a nobleman in the county"; the company has claimed that "Lord Marcus Sandys, ex-Governor of Bengal" encountered it while in India with the East India Company in the 1830s, commissioned the local apothecaries to recreate it. According to company tradition, when the recipe was first mixed there the resulting product was so strong that it was considered inedible and the barrel was abandoned in the basement. Looking to make space in the storage area a few years the chemists decided to try it again, discovered that the long fermented sauce had mellowed and was now palatable. In 1838 the first bottles of "Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce" were released to the general public. In 2009, Lea & Perrins accountant Brian Keogh found notes from the 1800s dumped in a skip.
The documents were to be placed on display at the Worcester City Art Museum. The Lea & Perrins brand was commercialised in 1837 and has continued to be the leading global brand of Worcestershire sauce. On 16 October 1897, Lea & Perrins relocated manufacturing of the sauce from their pharmacy to a factory in the city of Worcester on Midland Road, where it is still made; the factory produces ready-mixed bottles for domestic distribution and a concentrate for bottling abroad. In 1930, the Lea & Perrins operation was purchased by HP Foods, in turn acquired by the Imperial Tobacco Company in 1967. HP was sold to Danone in 1988 and to Heinz in 2005. Due to a shortage during World War II, Lea and Perrins switched from using soy sauce to hydrolyzed vegetable protein; the US version is packaged differently from the British version, coming in a dark bottle with a beige label and wrapped in paper. Lea & Perrins USA claims this practice is a vestige of shipping practices from the 19th century, when the product was imported from England, as a measure of protection for the bottles.
The producer claims that its Worcestershire sauce is the oldest commercially bottled condiment in the US. The original ingredients in a bottle of Worcestershire sauce sold were: Barley malt vinegar Spirit vinegar Molasses Sugar Salt Anchovies Tamarind extract Onions Garlic Spice FlavouringsThe "spice" and "flavourings" are believed to include cloves, soy sauce, lemons and peppers. Anchovies in many Worcestershire sauces is a concern to people allergic to fish, other vegetarians and others who avoid eating fish; the Codex Alimentarius recommends that prepared food containing Worcestershire sauce with anchovies include a label warning of fish content although this is not required in most jurisdictions. The US Department of Agriculture has forced the recall of some products with undeclared Worcestershire sauce. Several brands sell anchovy-free varieties of Worcestershire sauce labelled as vegetarian or vegan. Orthodox Jews refrain from eating fish and meat in the same dish, so cannot use traditional Worcestershire sauce to flavour meat.
However, certain brands are certified to contain less than 1/60th of the fish product and can be used with meat. Worcestershire sauce is variously known as "spicy soy sauce" in the mainland, "Worcester sauce" in Taiwan, "gip-sauce" in Hong Kong and neighboring southern regions, it sees use in Cantonese dim sum as well as Haipai cuisine, with dishes including steamed meatball, spring rolls, Shanghai-style pork chops and borscht served with the sauce. In Denmark, Worcestershire sauce is known as Engelsk sauce, meaning'English sauce'. Worcestershire Sauce, known colloquially as salsa inglesa or salsa Perrins, is popular in El Salvador, where many restaurants provide a bottle on each table. Over 120,000 gallons or 2.5 ounces per person is consumed annually, the highest per-capita consumption in the world as of 1996. In Japan, Worcestershire sauce is labelled Worcester in katakana. Many sauces are more of a vegetarian variety, with the base being water, vinegar, puree of apple and tomato puree, the flavor less spicy and sweeter.
Japanese Agricultural Standard defines types of the sauces by viscosity, with Worcester sauce proper having a viscosity of less than 0.2
A skip is a large open-topped waste container designed for loading onto a special type of lorry. Instead of being emptied into a bin lorry on site, as a wheelie bin is, a skip is removed, or replaced by an empty skip, tipped at a landfill site or transfer station. Skip bins have a distinctive shape: the longitudinal cross-section of the skip bin is either a trapezoid or two stacked trapezoids; the lower trapezoid has the smaller edge at the bottom of the skip bin, a longer edge at the top. Where there is an upper trapezoid, it has the smaller edge at the top. At either end of the skip bin there is wall. There are two lugs at the ends of the bin onto which chains can be attached, permitting the heavy skip bin to be lifted onto and off a lorry. A special skip-carrying lorry or crane is used. One end of the skip sometimes has a large door that hinges down to allow manual loading and unloading. Skips are durable and tough, made to withstand rough use by tradespeople and labourers; the size of skip bins can vary depending on their use, with sizes ranging from small 2 yard mini skips to the large 40 yard roll-on roll-off skips.
Though these large bins can store many tonnes of waste, most lorries are limited to carrying around 8 tonnes of material in the container. A typical small skip, when empty, weighs about 250 kilograms. There are several types of skip containers: Open skips allow easier loading of waste materials and are found on construction sites. Closed skips prevent unauthorized use, they ensure. Roll-on and roll-off skips are similar to open skips, but instead of being lifted onto a skip loader wagon by chains, they are rolled onto a wagon with a hook, they are not suitable for domestic use. Mobile skip bins are set on trailer with four wheels. A lifting mechanism is used to unload the skip from the trailer. Normal sizes used in Australia are 3m3, 4m3 and 6m3. However, sizes ranging from 8m3, 10m3, 12m3 are available for larger waste management jobs. Skips are used to hold open-topped loads of construction and demolition waste, garden waste or other waste and litter types; the construction debris may originate from renovation, or demolition site.
Skips are used for various cleaning-out jobs that need much material to be taken away, at factories producing large quantities of scrap metal. The material in the skip may be taken to a landfill, recycled or recovered/disposed of in some other way. There are wide range of uses of skip bins including construction building, home renovations, handyman maintenance or repair projects, garden or green clean up. Skip hire companies print'level fill' on the sides of skips to instruct users that the contents should not fill or have contents showing above the height of the sides of the skip; this is in part for safety so that contents do not fall out posing a risk to passers-by, is aimed at maximising revenue for the skip hire company. Many tradesmen and builders will make use of what are termed'greedy boards', old doors and other scrap sheet based material, to artificially heighten the sides of the skip and thus get more value for money for tradesmen or builders. If they do that, the skip bin hire provider will charge them an extra fee as the skip will be overloaded.
The origins of calling a rubbish cart a skip come from the word'skep', used to refer to a basket.'Skep' itself comes from the Late Old English sceppe, from the Old Norse skeppa'basket'.. While the first recorded use of a rubbish skip dates back to 1922, the practice of using skips to dispose of residential and commercial waste became mainstream over the following century, culminating in the modern skip waste disposal system, used today