The Chickasawhay River is a river, about 210 miles long, in southeastern Mississippi in the United States. It is a principal tributary of the Pascagoula River; the Chickasawhay's tributaries drain a portion of western Alabama. The name "Chickasawhay" comes from the Choctaw word chikashsha-ahi "Chickasaw potato"; the Chickasawhay river is known for its abundance of fossil deposits, placed over a period of 35 million years. Dr. Mark Puckett, Chairman of the Department of Geography and Geology at the University of Southern Mississippi, has studied the area for years. According to Pucket, many species of fossils from the river were the first of their kind to be studied anywhere on earth and some sealife fossils, now found worldwide, were first discovered in deposits along this river; some species are named for local landmarks. The Chickasawhay is formed by the confluence of the Chunky River and Okatibbee Creek at Enterprise in northwestern Clarke County and flows southward through Clarke and Greene counties into northern George County, where it meets the Leaf River to form the Pascagoula River.
The Chickasawhay flows past the towns of Stonewall, Shubuta and Leakesville. List of rivers of Mississippi "Chickasawhay River", Columbia Gazetteer of North America
Perry County, Mississippi
Perry County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,250; the county seat is New Augusta. The county is named after the War of Oliver Hazard Perry. Perry County is part of MS Metropolitan Statistical Area; until 1906, the county seat was the old town of Augusta, near the center of the county on the east bank of the Leaf River. At Old Augusta, the outlaw James Copeland was executed by hanging on October 30, 1857. Old Augusta remains a small village today. New Augusta, two miles south of Old Augusta, was made the county seat of Perry County, because it was situated on the Mobile, Jackson & Kansas City Railroad. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 650 square miles, of which 647 square miles is land and 3.0 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 98 Mississippi Highway 15 Mississippi Highway 29 Mississippi Highway 42 Wayne County Greene County George County Stone County Forrest County Jones County De Soto National Forest Black Creek Wilderness Leaf River Wildlife Management Area As of the census of 2000, there were 12,138 people, 4,420 households, 3,332 families residing in the county.
The population density was 19 people per square mile. There were 5,107 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.17% White, 22.59% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, 0.47% from two or more races. 1.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,420 households out of which 37.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.10% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.60% were non-families. 21.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.18. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.70% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 11.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years.
For every 100 females, there were 95.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,189, the median income for a family was $32,791. Males had a median income of $29,130 versus $18,632 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,837. About 19.60% of families and 22.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.60% of those under age 18 and 25.50% of those age 65 or over. Beaumont New Augusta Richton Hintonville Janice Runnelstown Swords Lee, timber owner and member of the Louisiana House of Representatives for Grant Parish, 1904-1908.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
Leaf River Wildlife Management Area
Leaf River Wildlife Management Area was established in 1940 out of land owned by the U. S. Forest Service. Located within the De Soto National Forest off Mississippi Highway 26 and east of Wiggins, Mississippi, it is composed of 42,000 acres of pine forest. In 1984, 994 acres of the Leaf River Wildlife Management Area in southwestern Greene County 31°00′58″N 88°46′51″W were designated wilderness; the entire Leaf Wilderness consists of meandering sloughs, oxbow lakes, spruce-pine forest or oak-gum-cypress river bottom. Loblolly and shortleaf pines are found in abundance, with a dense understory of dogwood, persimmon, blueberry and poison oak. Common wildlife include wild turkey. List of U. S. Wilderness Areas Wilderness Act De Soto National Forest Wilderness Areas
Jones County, Mississippi
Jones County is a county located in the southeast portion of the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 67,761, its county seats are Ellisville. Jones County is part of MS Micropolitan Statistical Area. Less than a decade after Mississippi became the country's 20th state, settlers organized this area of 700 sq mi of pine forests and swamps for a new county in 1826, they named it Jones County after John Paul Jones, the early American Naval hero who rose from humble Scottish origin to military success during the American Revolution. Ellisville, the county seat, was named for Powhatan Ellis, a member of the Mississippi Legislature who claimed to be a direct descendant of Pocahontas. During the economic hard times in the 1830s and 1840s, there was an exodus of population from Southeast Mississippi, both to western Mississippi and Louisiana in regions opened to white settlement after Indian Removal, to Texas; the slogan "GTT" became used. Jones County was in an area of yeomen farmers and lumbermen, as the pine forests and soil were not cultivated for cotton.
In 1860, the majority of white residents were not slaveholders. Slaves made up only 12% of the total population in Jones County in 1860, the smallest percentage of any county in the state. Soon after the election of Abraham Lincoln as United States president in November 1860, slave-owning planters led Mississippi to join South Carolina and secede from the Union in January 1861; these were the two states with the largest holdings of slaves. Other Southern states would follow suit; as Mississippi debated the secession question, the inhabitants of Jones County voted overwhelmingly for the anti-secessionist John Hathorne Powell, Jr. In comparison to the pro-secessionist J. M. Bayliss, who received 24 votes, Powell received 374. But, at the Secession Convention, Powell voted for secession. Legend has it that, for his vote, he was burned in effigy in the county seat; the reality is more complicated. The only choices possible at the Secession Convention were voting for immediate secession on the one hand, or for a more cautious, co-operative approach to secession among several Southern states on the other.
Powell certainly voted for the more conservative approach to secession—the only position available to him, consistent with the anti-secessionist views of his constituency. Mississippi's Declaration of Secession reflected planters' interests in its first sentence: "Our position is identified with the institution of slavery…" Jones County had yeoman farmers and cattle herders, who were not slaveholders, they had little use for a war over a "state's right" to maintain the institution of slavery. During the American Civil War, Jones County and neighboring counties Covington County to its west, became a haven for Confederate deserters. A number of factors prompted desertions; the lack of food and supplies was demoralizing, while reports of poor conditions back home made the men fear for their families' survival. Small farms deteriorated from neglect as children struggled to keep them up, their limited stores and livestock were taken by the Confederate tax-in-kind agents, who took excessive amounts of yeoman farmers' goods.
Many residents and soldiers were outraged over the Confederate government's passing of the Twenty Negro Law, allowing wealthy plantation owners to avoid military service if they owned twenty slaves or more. The Confederate government figured such planters were needed at home to keep the slaves in line and keep up cotton production, which still produced revenue for the government. On October 13, 1863, a band of deserters from Jones County and adjacent counties organized to protect the area from Confederate authorities and the crippling tax collections; the company, led by Newton Knight, formed a separate government, with Unionist leanings, known as the "Free State of Jones", fought a recorded 14 skirmishes with Confederate forces. They raided Paulding, capturing five wagonloads of corn, collected for tax from area farms, which they distributed back among the local population; the company harassed Confederate officials. Deaths believed to be at their hands were reported in 1864 among numerous tax collectors, conscript officers, other officials.
The governor was informed by the Jones County court clerk that deserters had made tax collections in the county impossible. By the spring of 1864, the Knight company had taken effective control from the Confederate government in the county; the followers of Knight raised an American flag over the courthouse in Ellisville, sent a letter to Union General William T. Sherman declaring Jones County's independence from the Confederacy. In July 1864, the Natchez Courier reported. Scholars have disputed whether the county seceded, with some concluding it did not. While there have been numerous attempts to study Knight and his followers, the lack of documentation during and after the war has made him an elusive figure; the rebellion in Jones County has been variously characterized as consisting of local skirmishes to being a full-fledged war of independence. It assumed legendary status among some county residents and Civil War historians, culminating in the release of a 2016 feature film, Free State of Jones.
The film is credited as "based on the books The Free State of Jones by Victoria E. Bynum and The State of Jones by Sally Jenkins and John Stauffer"; the economy of Jones County is still rural and based on resources – timber and agriculture. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 700 square miles, of which 695 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles
De Soto National Forest
De Soto National Forest, named for 16th-century explorer Hernando de Soto, is 518,587 acres of pine forests in southern Mississippi. It is one of the most important protected areas for the biological diversity of the Gulf Coast ecoregion of North America, it is a nationally important site for protection of longleaf pine savannas, pine flatwoods, longleaf pine forests. More than 90 percent of this ecosystem type has been lost in the United States; the wet pine savannas support rare and endangered plant and animal species, such as the orchid Calopogon multiflorus, gopher frogs, gopher tortoises. These habitats have large numbers of carnivorous plants pitcher plants; this National Forest offers year-round opportunities for outdoor activities including camping, bird-watching, hunting and more. There are two nationally significant wilderness areas within DeSoto: Black Creek Wilderness and Leaf River Wilderness. Black Creek is a popular stream for canoeing and fishing, is Mississippi's only designated National Wild and Scenic River.
Two National Recreational Trails, the Black Creek Trail and Tuxachanie Trail, offer more than 60 miles of hiking opportunities. The forest is headquartered in Jackson; the local ranger district office is in Wiggins, surrounded by the National Forest on three sides: north and south. De Soto National Forest is located between Hattiesburg and Gulfport, can be accessed by U. S. Highway 49 and U. S. Highway 98, it lies in parts of ten counties. In descending order of land area they are Perry, Harrison, Stone, Jones, Jackson and Pearl River counties. De Soto National Memorial, on the west coast of Florida List of U. S. National Forests Brooklyn, Mississippi Perry County, Mississippi Black Creek Wilderness Red Creek Red Creek Wildlife Management Area Leaf River Wildlife Management Area National Forests in Mississippi Longleaf Pine conservation savannas and carnivorous plants