Edna St. Vincent Millay
Edna St. Vincent Millay was an American poet and playwright, she received the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1923, the third woman to win the award for poetry, was known for her feminist activism. She used the pseudonym Nancy Boyd for her prose work; the poet Richard Wilbur asserted, "She wrote some of the best sonnets of the century." Millay was born in Rockland, Maine, to Cora Lounella Buzelle, a nurse, Henry Tolman Millay, a schoolteacher who would become a superintendent of schools. Her middle name derives from St. Vincent's Hospital in New York, where her uncle's life had been saved just before her birth; the family's house was "between the mountains and the sea where baskets of apples and drying herbs on the porch mingled their scents with those of the neighboring pine woods." In 1904, Cora divorced Millay's father for financial irresponsibility, but they had been separated for some years. Cora and her three daughters, Norma Lounella, Kathleen Kalloch, moved from town to town, living in poverty.
Cora travelled with a trunk full of classic literature, including Shakespeare and Milton, which she read to her children. The family settled in a small house on the property of Cora's aunt in Camden, where Millay would write the first of the poems that would bring her literary fame; the three sisters were independent and spoke their minds, which did not always sit well with the authority figures in their lives. Millay's grade school principal, offended by her frank attitudes, refused to call her Vincent. Instead, he called her by any woman's name that started with a V. At Camden High School, Millay began developing her literary talents, starting at the school's literary magazine, The Megunticook. At 14 she won the St. Nicholas Gold Badge for poetry, by 15, she had published her poetry in the popular children's magazine St. Nicholas, the Camden Herald, the high-profile anthology Current Literature. While at school, she had several relationships with women, including Edith Wynne Matthison, who would go on to become an actress in silent films.
Millay entered Vassar College in 1913 when she was 21 years old than usual. She had relationships with several fellow students during her time there and kept scrapbooks including drafts of plays written during the period. After her graduation from Vassar in 1917, Millay moved to New York City, she lived in a number of places in Greenwich Village, including a house owned by the Cherry Lane Theatre and 75½ Bedford Street, renowned for being the narrowest in New York City. The critic Floyd Dell wrote that the red-haired and beautiful Millay was "a frivolous young woman, with a brand-new pair of dancing slippers and a mouth like a valentine." Millay described her life in New York as "very poor and very merry." While establishing her career as a poet, Millay worked with the Provincetown Players on Macdougal Street and the Theatre Guild. In 1924 Millay and others founded the Cherry Lane Theater "to continue the staging of experimental drama." Magazine articles under a pseudonym helped support her early days in the village.
Counted among Millay's close friends were the writers Witter Bynner, Arthur Davison Ficke, Susan Glaspell, as well as Floyd Dell and the critic Edmund Wilson, both of whom proposed marriage to her and were refused. Millay's fame began in 1912 when she entered her poem "Renascence" in a poetry contest in The Lyric Year; the poem was considered the best submission, when it was awarded fourth place, it created a scandal which brought Millay publicity. The first-place winner Orrick Johns was among those who felt that "Renascence" was the best poem, stated that "the award was as much an embarrassment to me as a triumph." A second-prize winner offered Millay his $250 prize money. In the immediate aftermath of the Lyric Year controversy, wealthy arts patron Caroline B. Dow heard Millay reciting her poetry and playing the piano at the Whitehall Inn in Camden and was so impressed that she offered to pay for Millay's education at Vassar College. After graduating from Vassar, Millay moved to Greenwich Village.
A friend remembered seeing her red hair flying as she ran down MacDougal Street, “flushed and laughing like a nymph.” She would soon fall out of love, bluntly answering a marriage proposal: "Never ask a girl poet to marry you." Holed up in a small, unheated apartment, she began to write shorter, pithier poems. Millay’s 1920 collection A Few Figs From Thistles drew controversy for its exploration of female sexuality and feminism. In 1919, she wrote the anti-war play Aria da Capo, which starred her sister Norma Millay at the Provincetown Playhouse in New York City. Millay won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1923 for "The Ballad of the Harp-Weaver". In January 1921, she went to Paris, where she befriended the sculptor Thelma Wood. In 1923, she married 43-year-old Eugen Jan Boissevain, the widower of the labor lawyer and war correspondent Inez Milholland, a political icon Millay had met during her time at Vassar. A self-proclaimed feminist, Boissevain supported her career and took primary care of domestic responsibilities.
Both Millay and Boissevain had other lovers throughout their twenty-six-year marriage. For Millay, a significant such relationship was with the poet George Dillon, she met Dillon at one of her readings at the University of Chicago in 1928. He was fourteen years her junior, the relationship inspired the sonnets in the collection Fatal Interview. In 1925, Boissevain and Millay bought Steepletop near Austerlitz, New York, a 6
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Town Hall (New York City)
The Town Hall is a performance space, located at 123 West 43rd Street, between Sixth Avenue and Broadway, in midtown Manhattan New York City. It opened on January 12, 1921, seats 1,500 people. In the 1930s, the first public-affairs media programming originated there with the America's Town Meeting of the Air radio programs. In recognition of this the National Park Service placed the building on the National Register of Historic Places in 2012, designated it a National Historic Landmark in 2013; the Town Hall was built by the League for Political Education, whose fight for passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution led them to commission the building of a meeting space where people of every rank and station could be educated on the important issues of the day. The space, which became The Town Hall, was designed by the renowned architectural firm of McKim, Mead & White, to reflect the democratic principles of the League. To this end, box seats were not included in the theater's design, every effort was made to ensure that there were no seats with an obstructed view.
This design principle gave birth to The Town Hall's long-standing mantra: "Not a bad seat in the house." It has not only become a meeting place for educational programs, gatherings of activists, host for controversial speakers, but as one of New York City's premiere performance spaces for music and other performing arts. While the lecture series and courses on political and non-political subjects sponsored by the League continued to be held there, The Town Hall established a reputation as an arts center during the first fifteen years of its existence, it has had a long association with the promotion of poetry in the United States, which predates Edna St. Vincent Millay's public poetry reading debut at the Hall in 1928; the Hall has retained a close association with poets and poetry. America's Town Meeting of the Air was a radio program produced at the Hall for over twenty years, from 1935 to 1956. Town Meeting was the brain-child of George V. Denny, Jr. the associate director of the Hall. Envisioned as a means of expanding the audience — first nationally internationally — for the programs held at the Hall which promoted the free exchange of ideas, the format of Town Meeting was a conversation among four speakers on a predetermined question.
The series was launched on the NBC Blue Network on Memorial Day 1935. Although it began broadcasting on a single station with 500,000 listeners, within three years, Town Meeting was carried by 78 stations and boasted 2.5 million listeners. Town Meeting toured the United States and twelve cities on three continents, it won numerous awards. Recordings of America's Town Meeting of the Air, from 1935 to 1952, are preserved at the United States' National Archives' Donated Historical Materials collection, the catalog number of, "DM.13". The organizational records of Town Hall, Inc. and America's Town Meeting of the Air, 1895–1955, are held by the Manuscripts and Archives Division of The New York Public Library. The Town Hall was owned by New York University for twenty years beginning in 1958; the outstanding acoustic properties of Town Hall for musical performance — which some performers claim rival those of Carnegie Hall — were discovered during the first musical event held at the venue: a recital by Spanish violinist Juan Manén on February 12, 1921.
In 1921, German composer Richard Strauss gave a series of concerts that cemented the Hall's reputation as an ideal space for musical performances. Aside from the acoustics, the sight lines and remarkable intimacy of the auditorium has made it a popular venue for both new and experienced artists, whatever the instrument, repertoire, or style of the performer. During the 1920s and 1930s, The Town Hall gained a reputation amongst performers and audiences as "the place" for a performer to make a New York debut. In 1928, The Hall began producing regular musical concert series, over the next few seasons, The Town Hall Endowment Series featured artists including Sergei Rachmaninoff, Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Lily Pons, Feodor Chaliapin, Yehudi Menuhin, many more legends of the classical Western repertoire. Marian Anderson, considered one of the greatest contraltos born in the United States, made her New York debut at the Hall on December 30, 1935, after she had been denied an opportunity at an operatic career elsewhere due to discrimination against African-Americans.
A notable world premiere in chamber music took place at the Town Hall on January 20, 1941, when the Kolisch Quartet gave the first performance of Béla Bartók's String Quartet No. 6. Eddie Condon led a series of nationally broadcast radio shows from New York's Town Hall during 1944–45. Other important jazz concert appearances at The Town Hall include the June 22, 1945 concert — featuring Dizzy Gillespie, on trumpet; this concert illustrates how progressive The Town Hall's jazz programming has been since the venue's inception.
Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections. Beginning in the late 1800s, women worked for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, sought to change voting laws in order to allow them to vote. National and international organizations formed to coordinate efforts to gain voting rights the International Woman Suffrage Alliance, worked for equal civil rights for women. Women who owned property gained the right to vote in the Isle of Man in 1881, in 1893, the British colony of New Zealand granted all women the right to vote. Most independent countries enacted women's suffrage in the interwar era, including Canada in 1917. Leslie Hume argues that the First World War changed the popular mood: The women's contribution to the war effort challenged the notion of women's physical and mental inferiority and made it more difficult to maintain that women were, both by constitution and temperament, unfit to vote. If women could work in munitions factories, it seemed both ungrateful and illogical to deny them a place in the polling booth.
But the vote was much more than a reward for war work. Extended political campaigns by women and their supporters have been necessary to gain legislation or constitutional amendments for women's suffrage. In many countries, limited suffrage for women was granted before universal suffrage for men; the United Nations encouraged women's suffrage in the years following World War II, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women identifies it as a basic right with 189 countries being parties to this Convention. In ancient Athens cited as the birthplace of democracy, only adult, male citizens who owned land were permitted to vote. Through subsequent centuries, Europe was ruled by monarchs, though various forms of parliament arose at different times; the high rank ascribed to abbesses within the Catholic Church permitted some women the right to sit and vote at national assemblies – as with various high-ranking abbesses in Medieval Germany, who were ranked among the independent princes of the empire.
Their Protestant successors enjoyed the same privilege into modern times. Marie Guyart, a French nun who worked with the First Nations peoples of Canada during the seventeenth century, wrote in 1654 regarding the suffrage practices of Iroquois women, "These female chieftains are women of standing amongst the savages, they have a deciding vote in the councils, they make decisions there like the men, it is they who delegated the first ambassadors to discuss peace." The Iroquois, like many First Nations peoples in North America, had a matrilineal kinship system. Property and descent were passed through the female line. Women elders could depose them; the emergence of modern democracy began with male citizens obtaining the right to vote in advance of female citizens, except in the Kingdom of Hawai'i, where universal manhood and women's suffrage was introduced in 1840. In Sweden, conditional women's suffrage was in effect during the Age of Liberty. Other possible contenders for first "country" to grant women suffrage include the Corsican Republic, the Pitcairn Islands, the Isle of Man, Franceville, but some of these operated only as independent states and others were not independent.
In 1756, Lydia Taft became the first legal woman voter in colonial America. This occurred under British rule in the Massachusetts Colony. In a New England town meeting in Uxbridge, she voted on at least three occasions. Unmarried white women who owned property could vote in New Jersey from 1776 to 1807. In the 1792 elections in Sierra Leone a new British colony, all heads of household could vote and one-third were ethnic African women; the female descendants of the Bounty mutineers who lived on Pitcairn Islands could vote from 1838. This right was transferred; the seed for the first Woman's Rights Convention in the United States in Seneca Falls, New York was planted in 1840, when Elizabeth Cady Stanton met Lucretia Mott at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London. The conference refused to seat Mott and other women delegates from the U. S. because of their sex. In 1851, Stanton met temperance worker Susan B. Anthony, shortly the two would be joined in the long struggle to secure the vote for women in the U.
S. In 1868 Anthony encouraged working women from the printing and sewing trades in New York, who were excluded from men's trade unions, to form Working Women's Associations; as a delegate to the National Labor Congress in 1868, Anthony persuaded the committee on female labor to call for votes for women and equal pay for equal work. The men at the conference deleted the reference to the vote. In the U. S. women in the Wyoming Territory could vote as of 1869. Subsequent American suffrage groups disagreed on tactics, with the National American Woman Suffrage Association arguing for a state-by-state campaign and the National Woman's Party focusing on an amendment to the U. S. Constitution. In 1881 the Isle of Man, an internally self-governing dependent territory of the British Crown, enfranchised women property owners. With this it provide
Margaret Higgins Sanger was an American birth control activist, sex educator and nurse. Sanger popularized the term "birth control", opened the first birth control clinic in the United States, established organizations that evolved into the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Sanger used her writings and speeches to promote her way of thinking, she was prosecuted for her book Family Limitation under the Comstock Act in 1914. She was afraid of what would happen, so she fled to Britain until she knew it was safe to return to the US. Sanger's efforts contributed to several judicial cases that helped legalize contraception in the United States. Due to her connection with Planned Parenthood, Sanger is a frequent target of criticism by opponents of abortion. However, Sanger drew a sharp distinction between birth control and abortion and was opposed to abortion through the bulk of her career. Sanger remains an admired figure in the American reproductive rights movement, she has been criticized for supporting eugenics.
In 1916, Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the United States, which led to her arrest for distributing information on contraception, after an undercover policewoman bought a copy of her pamphlet on family planning. Her subsequent trial and appeal generated controversy. Sanger felt that in order for women to have a more equal footing in society and to lead healthier lives, they needed to be able to determine when to bear children, she wanted to prevent so-called back-alley abortions, which were common at the time because abortions were illegal in the United States. She believed that while abortion was sometimes justified it should be avoided, she considered contraception the only practical way to avoid them. In 1921, Sanger founded the American Birth Control League, which became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. In New York City, she organized the first birth control clinic staffed by all-female doctors, as well as a clinic in Harlem with an all African-American advisory council, where African-American staff were added.
In 1929, she formed the National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control, which served as the focal point of her lobbying efforts to legalize contraception in the United States. From 1952 to 1959, Sanger served as president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, she died in 1966, is regarded as a founder of the modern birth control movement. Sanger was born Margaret Louise Higgins in 1879 in Corning, New York, to Michael Hennessey Higgins, an Irish-born stonemason and free-thinker, Anne Purcell Higgins, a Catholic Irish-American. Michael Hennessey Higgins had emigrated to the United States at age 14 and joined the Army as a drummer at age 15, during the Civil War. After leaving the army, Michael studied medicine and phrenology, but became a stonecutter, making stone angels and tombstones. Michael H. Higgins was a Catholic who became an atheist and an activist for women's suffrage and free public education. Anne was born in Ireland, her parents brought the family to Canada during the Potato Famine.
She married Michael in 1869. Anne Higgins went through 18 pregnancies in 22 years before dying at the age of 49. Sanger was the sixth of eleven surviving children, spent much of her youth assisting with household chores and caring for her younger siblings. Supported by her two older sisters, Margaret Higgins attended Claverack College and Hudson River Institute, before enrolling in 1900 at White Plains Hospital as a nurse probationer. In 1902, she gave up her education. Though she was plagued by a recurring active tubercular condition, Margaret Sanger bore three children, the couple settled down to a quiet life in Westchester, New York. In 1911, after a fire destroyed their home in Hastings-on-Hudson, the Sangers abandoned the suburbs for a new life in New York City. Margaret Sanger worked as a visiting nurse in the slums of the East Side, while her husband worked as an architect and a house painter. Imbued with her husband's leftist politics, Margaret Sanger threw herself into the radical politics and modernist values of pre-World War I Greenwich Village bohemia.
She joined the Women's Committee of the New York Socialist party, took part in the labor actions of the Industrial Workers of the World and became involved with local intellectuals, left-wing artists and social activists, including John Reed, Upton Sinclair, Mabel Dodge and Emma Goldman. Sanger's political interests, emerging feminism and nursing experience led her to write two series of columns on sex education entitled "What Every Mother Should Know" and "What Every Girl Should Know" for the socialist magazine New York Call. By the standards of the day, Sanger's articles were frank in their discussion of sexuality, many New York Call readers were outraged by them. Other readers, praised the series for its candor. One stated that the series contained "a purer morality than whole libraries full of hypocritical cant about modesty". Both were published in book form in 1916. During her work among working-class immigrant women, Sanger met women who underwent frequent childbirth and self-induced abortions for lack of information on how to avoid unwanted pregnancy.
Access to contraceptive information was prohibited on grounds of obscenity by the 1873 federal Comstock law and a host of state laws. Seeking to help these women, Sanger visited public libraries, but was unable to find information on contraception; these problems were epitomized i
The Hudson Theatre is a Broadway theater located at 139–141 West 44th Street, between Times Square and 6th Avenue, New York City. Opened in 1903, it became a leading theatrical venue before serving in years as a network radio and television studio, a night club, a movie theater, a corporate event space; the Hudson Theatre reopened as a Broadway theater on February 11, 2017. The UK-based Ambassador Theatre Group signed a long term lease on the theater in 2015 and invested in a complete refurbishment of the venue, bringing it back into full-time use as a Broadway playhouse; the theater is owned by Copthorne Hotels. In 2016, the Hudson Theatre was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the architectural firm of J. B. McElfatrick & Son made initial drawings for the Hudson Theatre in 1902, but the firm of Israels & Harder took the project over by 1903; when the Hudson opened, on October 19 of that year with Ethel Barrymore starring in Cousin Kate, it had a number of distinctive architectural features, including an unusually large foyer, a triple-domed ceiling, a system of diffused lighting.
Built by theatrical producer Henry B. Harris, the theatre was managed by his wife Renee Harris following his death on the RMS Titanic. From the 1930s through the 1940s the theater served as a CBS Radio studio in between theatrical engagements. In 1950, NBC converted it for permanent use as a television studio. Broadway Open House and The Kate Smith Hour were among the shows. In 1954, the Hudson became home to The Tonight Show which remained there, first with host Steve Allen and Jack Paar, until 1959. Developer Abraham Hirschfeld purchased the structure in 1956, returned it to use as a legitimate theater from 1960 to 1968, it became a movie house for adult films in 1974. In 1980 it became the Savoy rock club. In 1987, the building was granted landmark status by the City of New York; when owner Henry Macklowe developed the surrounding lots into a new luxury hotel, the Macklowe Hotel, he incorporated the landmarked theater, using it as a conference center and auditorium. Millennium & Copthorne Hotels bought the hotel and the Hudson in 1995, renaming the hotel the Millennium Broadway.
During its time as a conference center for the hotel. The Hudson Theatre was the site of stand-up comedy shows which were taped for broadcast on the Comedy Central cable network. In 2015 it was announced that the British-based Ambassador Theatre Group would assume management of the Hudson from the hotel and convert it back into a legitimate Broadway theater. Upon reopening in 2017, the Hudson became the 41st theater operating on Broadway and the oldest, having opened earlier in 1903 than the Lyceum and New Amsterdam Theatres; the Tony Awards Administration Committee ruled in October 2016 that the Hudson Theatre is deemed to be a Tony-eligible theatre, with "970 seats without the use of the orchestra pit and 948 seats when the orchestra pit is utilized by a production."The Hudson reopened as a Broadway theater in 2017 with a revival of the Stephen Sondheim musical Sunday in the Park with George. The limited 10-week run featured Jake Gyllenhaal and opened February 11 for previews with an official opening on February 23, 2017.
Gyllenhaal and his co-star Annaleigh Ashford participated in a ribbon-cutting ceremony for the theater on February 8, 2017. Hudson Theatre 1903: Cousin Kate 1905: Man and Superman 1907: The Lion and the Mouse 1908: Love's Comedy 1914: The Taming of the Shrew 1922: So This is London 1926: The Noose 1929: Hot Chocolate 1938: Who's Who 1941: Arsenic and Old Lace 1945: State of the Union 1947: The Voice of the Turtle 1949: Detective Story 1960: Toys in the Attic 1961: BecketThe Savoy 1981: Genesis 1983: King Sunny Adé and his African BeatsReopened Hudson Theatre 2017: Sunday in the Park with George. Scotty Moore website. Retrieved June 22, 2014
The Blue Network was the on-air name of the now defunct American radio network, which ran from 1927 to 1945. Beginning as one of the two radio networks owned by the National Broadcasting Company, the independent Blue Network was born of a divestiture in 1942, arising from anti-trust litigation, is the direct predecessor of the American Broadcasting Company —organized 1943–1945 as a separate independent radio network and TV broadcaster; the Blue Network dates to 1923, when the Radio Corporation of America acquired WJZ Newark from Westinghouse and moved it to New York City in May of that year. When RCA commenced operations of WRC, Washington on August 1, 1923, the root of a network was born, though it did not operate under the name by which it would become known. Radio historian Elizabeth McLeod states that it would not be until 1924 that the "Radio Group" formally began network operations; the core stations of the "Radio Group" were RCA's stations WJZ and WRC. RCA's principal rival prior to 1926 was the radio broadcasting department of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company.
AT&T, starting in 1921, had been using this department as a test-bed for equipment being designed and manufactured by its Western Electric subsidiary. The RCA stations operated at a significant disadvantage to their rival chain; the WJZ network sought to compete toe-to-toe with the AT&T network, built around WEAF. For example, both stations sent announcer teams to cover the 1924 Democratic National Convention, held in Madison Square Garden in New York City. Promotional material produced in 1943 claimed certain "firsts" in broadcasting by WJZ, such as the first educational music program in April 1922, the first World Series broadcasts in 1922, the first complete opera broadcast, The Flying Dutchman, from the Manhattan Opera House. RCA were to receive a break in 1926, when AT&T made a corporate decision to exit the broadcasting business and focus on its telecommunications business; the first step by AT&T was to create the Broadcasting Company of America on May 15, 1926, to hold its broadcasting assets, which included WEAF and WCAP in Washington.
As reported in the press, this move was due to the growth in the radio broadcasting activities of AT&T and the special issues related thereto, though it would appear that subsequent activities in disposing of the assets of BCA may have played a role in the decision. AT&T did in fact subsequently sell WEAF to RCA for $1 million in July 1926, a price that newspaper reports indicated was a substantial premium over what other stations were commanding in the marketplace, represented a recognition of the status of WEAF in broadcasting, as well as its access to AT&T's lines. Indeed, the negotiations for the sale may have taken place shortly after the creation of BCA, as Folder 129 in the NBC History Files at the Library of Congress contains a contract of sale for WEAF dated July 1, 1926; the Oakland Tribune stated that 4/5ths of the purchase price of WEAF could be attributed to good-will and the line access. On July 28, 1926, the Washington Post reported in a front-page story that RCA had acquired WCAP.
The Oakland Tribune reported the same day that WCAP had departed the field, WRC would be operating on the frequency that they had shared, 640 AM. As part of the reorganization of the broadcasting assets in the wake of the acquisitions, on September 13, 1926, the formation of the National Broadcasting Company was announced via newspaper advertisements, on November 15, 1926 NBC's first broadcast was made; this first broadcast on November 15, 1926 marked NBC's de facto formation of the NBC Red Network from the WEAF network assets, using WEAF as the "key station". RCA merged its former radio operations into NBC, on January 1, 1927, WJZ became the "key station" of the Blue Network when its network switch operations began; the Decatur Review for Sunday, December 12, 1926 reported the following in an article describing a broadcast to be sponsored by the Victor Talking Machine Company and aired the following New Year's Day, January 1, 1927, a description of this first Blue Network broadcast—note that it makes it clear that January 1, 1927 marked the debut of the Blue Network: "TWO BIG NETWORKS: The network to be used for the first concert will consist of a combination of chains of stations affiliated with WEAF and WJZ, New York.
It is announced that this opening Victor program inaugurates a new chain system to be operated by the National Broadcasting Company, with WJZ as the "key" station. This new chain, which will be known as the "blue" network, will allow simultaneous broadcasting from WJZ through WBZ, Springfield and Boston, KDKA, KYW, Chicago. For broadcasting of the first program, the "blue" network will be joined with the "red" network, as the WEAF chain is designated, as well as other stations in various cities. Following the New Year's night program, the concerts will be given bi-monthly, through the "blue" network" Allegedly, the color design