Auriculotherapy is a form of alternative medicine based on the idea that the ear is a micro system, which reflects the entire body, represented on the auricle, the outer portion of the ear. Conditions affecting the physical, mental or emotional health of the patient are assumed to be treatable by stimulation of the surface of the ear exclusively. Similar mappings are used in many areas of the body, including the practices of reflexology and iridology; these mappings are not based on or supported by any medical or scientific evidence, are therefore considered to be pseudoscience. Auriculotherapy was proposed in the “Treatise of Auriculotherapy”, by the neurologist Paul Nogier; the developments were made by clinical trials based upon a phrenological method of projection of a fetal Homunculus on the ear, for reference of physical complaints and points for medical treatment. Nogier soon presented his discovery to the public, where members of the Chinese Army picked up the map and took it to the barefoot doctors of China, farmers with minimal training in basic medical and in paramedical skills, so provide medical services in rural China.
Moreover, Nogier published what he called the “Vascular Autonomic Signal”, a distinct change in the amplitude of the pulse felt with the tip of the thumb at the radial artery. That mechanism would only produce a signal upon the introduction of new information to the electromagnetic field of the patient. Nogier was working with the principle of matching resonance, said that he could use the vascular autonomic signal to detect the active points of the auricular microsystem
Black salve known by the brand name Cansema, is a dangerous and controversial alternative cancer treatment. The product is classified as an escharotic—a topical paste which burns and destroys skin tissue and leaves behind a thick, black scar called an eschar. Escharotics were used to treat skin lesions in the early 1900s, but have since been replaced by safer and more effective treatments. Escharotics, such as black salves, are advertised by some alternative medicine marketers as treatments for skin cancer with unsubstantiated testimonials and unproven claims of effectiveness; the U. S. Food and Drug Administration has listed Cansema as a "fake cancer cure" and warns consumers to avoid it. Cancer salves were first documented as a form of quackery in a 1955 Time article: "A 37-year-old housewife had a skin condition that proved not to be a cancer. Convinced that it was, she had gone to a backwoods healer. Soon a quarter-sized hole disfigured her nose, opened up the nasal cavity. Duke's plastic surgeons had to build her a new nose."
Although more recent reports document that some alternative medicine practitioners use the internet to market escharotics as purported "cures" for skin cancer, they are not recommended as treatments for skin lesions or skin cancer by medical authorities. The effectiveness of escharotics is unproven, while safer and more effective conventional treatments exist for skin cancers, such as: cryotherapy. Escharotics can cause serious damage to normal skin, their manufacture is unregulated, so the strength and purity of marketed products are unknown and unverified. Numerous reports in the medical literature describe serious consequences of using escharotics in place of standard treatments for skin cancer, ranging from disfigurement to preventable cancer recurrences; the website Quackwatch posted a warning against the use of escharotics in 2008, with a collection of sourced documents compiling issues of patient injury from their use. A more recent study revealed that many individuals who have used black salve were unaware of its potential dangers.
In a 2016 news release titled "Beware of black salve," the American Academy of Dermatology urged patients to consult a dermatologist before using home remedies for skin cancers. Furthermore, individuals increase their risk of further complications or death if they choose to delay conventional medical treatment to attempt treatment with black salve. In 2017, a patient with breast cancer posted photos and updates to a black salve research group as she progressed through her black salve applications. Despite her worsening condition, she believed that the black salve was going to cure her cancer. “And please no comments to see a doctor. I’ve been there; this is my path and I trust in it and my God, healing me”, she wrote. She sought conventional treatment, but died of a prolonged infection some months later, it was reported in 2018. In a similar black salve discussion group, people described the use of black salve on their cats and horses. Over the course of eight months, one member posted photos of the black salve's ongoing effects on her dog's nasal cancer, whilst another documented and questioned its use on her horse.
In 2018 in Australia black salve has been linked to the death of Helen Lawson who decided to use "natural remedies" under the direction of Dennis Wayne Jensen. Jensen advocated covering Lawson's abdomen in black salve claiming it would draw out the ovarian cancer, leaving Lawson with a mass of wounds on her abdomen: “You have never seen anything like what happened to Helen, it is so confronting,” she said. “Literally above her pubic bone, all across her abdomen up to her rib cage, she was raw, mutilated bubbling flesh.”Belinda said that within a few weeks of Helen applying the black salve the wound was so large that surgeons could not have operated if they had wanted to. Lawson died in April 2018. Subsequently, Jensen was issued an interim prohibition order, by the Health Complaints Commissioner, forbidding practicing any health services whilst the death of Lawson is being investigated; this was pursuant to section 90 of the Health Complaints Act 2016 Common ingredients of black salves include zinc chloride and bloodroot, a plant used in herbal medicine.
The extract of bloodroot is called sanguinarine, a quaternary alkaloid which attacks and destroys living tissue and is classified as an escharotic. Other formulations include the four ingredients: Red Clover, Sheep Sorrel, Blood Root, crushed into a paste using mortar and pestle; this is applied sparingly to the affected area, kept covered for 2-3 days. The Therapeutic Goods Administration of Australia is advising consumers against purchasing or using black salve, red salve or cansema products; the TGA has found the Australian Vaccination-Skeptics Network in breach of advertising regulations, in a separate finding the AVN's former president Meryl Dorey together with Leon Pittard of Fair Dinkum Radio were found to be in breach. Cansema is listed by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration as one of 187 fake cancer cures. Cansema continues to be marketed by numerous individuals, as evidenced by recent FDA Warning Letters; the FDA has taken enforcement action against illegal marketing of Cansema as a cancer cure, as in the 2004 arrest and conviction of Greg Caton.
The FDA has taken an active role in the banning of these chemicals for
Quackery synonymous with health fraud, is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices. A quack is a "fraudulent or ignorant pretender to medical skill" or "a person who pretends, professionally or publicly, to have skill, qualification or credentials they do not possess; the term quack is a clipped form of the archaic term quacksalver, from Dutch: kwakzalver a "hawker of salve". In the Middle Ages the term quack meant "shouting"; the quacksalvers sold their wares on the market shouting in a loud voice. Common elements of general quackery include questionable diagnoses using questionable diagnostic tests, as well as untested or refuted treatments for serious diseases such as cancer. Quackery is described as "health fraud" with the salient characteristic of aggressive promotion. Since it is difficult to distinguish between those who knowingly promote unproven medical therapies and those who are mistaken as to their effectiveness, United States courts have ruled in defamation cases that accusing someone of quackery or calling a practitioner a quack is not equivalent to accusing that person of committing medical fraud.
To be both quackery and fraud, the quack must know they are misrepresenting the benefits and risks of the medical services offered. In addition to the ethical problems of promising benefits that can not reasonably be expected to occur, quackery includes the risk that patients may choose to forego treatments that are more to help them, in favor of ineffective treatments given by the "quack". Stephen Barrett of Quackwatch defines quackery "as the promotion of unsubstantiated methods that lack a scientifically plausible rationale" and more broadly as: "anything involving overpromotion in the field of health." This definition would include questionable ideas as well as questionable products and services, regardless of the sincerity of their promoters. In line with this definition, the word "fraud" would be reserved only for situations in which deliberate deception is involved. Paul Offit has proposed four ways in which alternative medicine "becomes quackery": "...by recommending against conventional therapies that are helpful."
"...by promoting harmful therapies without adequate warning." "...by draining patients' bank accounts..." "...by promoting magical thinking..." Unproven ineffective, sometimes dangerous medicines and treatments have been peddled throughout human history. Theatrical performances were sometimes given to enhance the credibility of purported medicines. Grandiose claims were made for what could be humble materials indeed: for example, in the mid-19th century revalenta arabica was advertised as having extraordinary restorative virtues as an empirical diet for invalids. Where no fraud was intended, quack remedies contained no effective ingredients whatsoever; some remedies contained substances such as opium and honey, which would have given symptomatic relief but had no curative properties. Some would have addictive qualities to entice the buyer to return; the few effective remedies sold by quacks included emetics and diuretics. Some ingredients did have medicinal effects: mercury and arsenic compounds may have helped some infections and infestations.
However, knowledge of appropriate uses and dosages was limited. The science-based medicine community has criticized the infiltration of alternative medicine into mainstream academic medicine and publications, accusing institutions of "diverting research time and other resources from more fruitful lines of investigation in order to pursue a theory that has no basis in biology." R. W. Donnell coined the phrase "quackademic medicine" to describe this attention given to alternative medicine by academia. Referring to the Flexner Report, he said that medical education "needs a good Flexnerian housecleaning."For example, David Gorski criticized Brian M. Berman, founder of the University of Maryland Center for Integrative Medicine, for writing that "There evidence that both real acupuncture and sham acupuncture more effective than no treatment and that acupuncture can be a useful supplement to other forms of conventional therapy for low back pain." He castigated editors and peer reviewers at the New England Journal of Medicine for allowing it to be published, since it recommended deliberately misleading patients in order to achieve a known placebo effect.
With little understanding of the causes and mechanisms of illnesses marketed "cures" referred to as patent medicines, first came to prominence during the 17th and 18th centuries in Britain and the British colonies, including those in North America. Daffy's Elixir and Turlington's Balsam were among the first products that used branding and mass marketing to create and maintain markets. A similar process occurred in other countries of Europe around the same time, for example with the marketing of Eau de Cologne as a cure-all medicine by Johann Maria Farina and his imitators. Patent medicines contained alcohol or opium, while not curing the diseases for which they were sold as a remedy, did make the imbibers feel better and confusedly appreciative of the product; the number of internationally marketed quack medicines
History of medicine
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present. Early medical traditions include those of Babylon, China and India; the Indians introduced the concepts of medical diagnosis and advanced medical ethics. The Hippocratic Oath was written in ancient Greece in the 5th century BCE, is a direct inspiration for oaths of office that physicians swear upon entry into the profession today. In the Middle Ages, surgical practices inherited from the ancient masters were improved and systematized in Rogerius's The Practice of Surgery. Universities began systematic training of physicians around 1220 CE in Italy. Invention of the microscope was a consequence of improved understanding, during the Renaissance. Prior to the 19th century, humorism was thought to explain the cause of disease but it was replaced by the germ theory of disease, leading to effective treatments and cures for many infectious diseases. Military doctors advanced the methods of trauma surgery.
Public health measures were developed in the 19th century as the rapid growth of cities required systematic sanitary measures. Advanced research centers opened in the early 20th century connected with major hospitals; the mid-20th century was characterized by new biological treatments, such as antibiotics. These advancements, along with developments in chemistry and radiography led to modern medicine. Medicine was professionalized in the 20th century, new careers opened to women as nurses and as physicians. Although there is little record to establish when plants were first used for medicinal purposes, the use of plants as healing agents, as well as clays and soils is ancient. Over time, through emulation of the behavior of fauna, a medicinal knowledge base developed and passed between generations. Earlier, Neanderthals may have engaged in medical practices; as tribal culture specialized specific castes and apothecaries fulfilled the role of healer. The first known dentistry dates to c. 7000 BC in Baluchistan where Neolithic dentists used flint-tipped drills and bowstrings.
The first known trepanning operation was carried out c. 5000 BC in France. A possible amputation was carried out c. 4,900 BC in France. The ancient Mesopotamians had no distinction between magic; when a person became ill, doctors would prescribe both magical formulas to be recited as well as medicinal treatments. The earliest medical prescriptions appear in Sumerian during the Third Dynasty of Ur; the oldest Babylonian texts on medicine date back to the Old Babylonian period in the first half of the 2nd millennium BCE. The most extensive Babylonian medical text, however, is the Diagnostic Handbook written by the ummânū, or chief scholar, Esagil-kin-apli of Borsippa, during the reign of the Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina. Along with the Egyptians, the Babylonians introduced the practice of diagnosis, physical examination, remedies. In addition, the Diagnostic Handbook introduced the methods of cause; the text contains a list of medical symptoms and detailed empirical observations along with logical rules used in combining observed symptoms on the body of a patient with its diagnosis and prognosis.
The Diagnostic Handbook was based on a logical set of axioms and assumptions, including the modern view that through the examination and inspection of the symptoms of a patient, it is possible to determine the patient's disease, its cause and future development, the chances of the patient's recovery. The symptoms and diseases of a patient were treated through therapeutic means such as bandages and creams. In East Semitic cultures, the main medicinal authority was a kind of exorcist-healer known as an āšipu; the profession was passed down from father to son and was held in high regard. Of less frequent recourse was another kind of healer known as an asu, who corresponds more to a modern physician and treated physical symptoms using folk remedies composed of various herbs, animal products, minerals, as well as potions and ointments or poultices; these physicians, who could be either male or female dressed wounds, set limbs, performed simple surgeries. The ancient Mesopotamians practiced prophylaxis and took measures to prevent the spread of disease.
Mental illnesses were well known in ancient Mesopotamia, where diseases and mental disorders were believed to be caused by specific deities. Because hands symbolized control over a person, mental illnesses were known as "hands" of certain deities. One psychological illness was known as Qāt Ištar, meaning "Hand of Ishtar". Others were known as "Hand of Shamash", "Hand of the Ghost", "Hand of the God". Descriptions of these illnesses, are so vague that it is impossible to determine which illnesses they correspond to in modern terminology. Mesopotamian doctors kept detailed record of their patients' hallucinations and assigned spiritual meanings to them. A patient who hallucinated that he was seeing a dog was predicted to die; the royal family of Elam was notorious for its members suffering from insanity. Erectile dysfunction was recognized as being rooted in psychological problems. Ancient Egypt developed a large and fruitful medical tradition. Herodotus described the Egyptians as "the healthiest of all men, next to the Libyans", because of the dry climate and the notable public health system that they possessed.
According to him, "the practice of medicine is so specialized among
The skeptical movement is a modern social movement based on the idea of scientific skepticism. Scientific skepticism involves the application of skeptical philosophy, critical-thinking skills, knowledge of science and its methods to empirical claims, while remaining agnostic or neutral to non-empirical claims; the movement has the goal of investigating claims made on fringe topics and determining whether they are supported by empirical research and are reproducible, as part of a methodological norm pursuing "the extension of certified knowledge". The process followed is sometimes referred to as skeptical inquiry. Roots of the movement date at least from the 19th century, when people started publicly raising questions regarding the unquestioned acceptance of claims about spiritism, of various widely-held superstitions, of pseudoscience. Publications such as those of the Dutch Vereniging tegen de Kwakzalverij targeted medical quackery. Using as a template the Belgian organization founded in 1949, Comité Para, Americans Paul Kurtz and Marcello Truzzi founded the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, in Amherst, New York in 1976.
Now known as the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, this organization has inspired others to form similar groups worldwide. Scientific skepticism or rational skepticism, sometimes referred to as skeptical inquiry, is an epistemological position in which one questions the veracity of claims lacking empirical evidence. In practice, the term is most applied to the examination of claims and theories that appear to be beyond mainstream science, rather than to the routine discussions and challenges among scientists. Scientific skepticism is different from philosophical skepticism, which questions humans' ability to claim any knowledge about the nature of the world and how they perceive it. Methodological skepticism, a systematic process of being skeptical about the truth of one's beliefs, is similar but distinct; the New Skepticism described by Paul Kurtz is scientific skepticism. For example, Robert K. Merton asserts that all ideas must be tested and are subject to rigorous, structured community scrutiny.
An important difference to classical skepticism, according to religious history professor Olav Hammer, is that it is not directly aligned with classical pyrrhonian scepticism, which would question all sort of orthodox wisdom, as well as the one established by modern science. According to Hammer, "the intellectual forebears of the modern skeptical movement are rather to be found among the many writers throughout history who have argued against beliefs they did not share."The following are quotations related to scientific skepticism: Briefly stated, a skeptic is one, willing to question any claim to truth, asking for clarity in definition, consistency in logic, adequacy of evidence. The use of skepticism is thus an essential part of objective scientific inquiry and the search for reliable knowledge. What skeptical thinking boils down to is the means to construct, to understand, a reasoned argument and important, to recognize a fallacious or fraudulent argument; the question is not whether we like the conclusion that emerges out of a train of reasoning, but whether the conclusion follows from the premises or starting point and whether that premise is true.
Science is a way of skeptically interrogating the universe with a fine understanding of human fallibility. If we are not able to ask skeptical questions, to interrogate those who tell us that something is true, to be skeptical of those in authority we’re up for grabs for the next charlatan, political or religious, who comes ambling along. Scientific skepticism the practice or project of studying paranormal and pseudoscientific claims through the lens of science and critical scholarship, sharing the results with the public. A skeptic is one who prefers beliefs and conclusions that are reliable and valid to ones that are comforting or convenient, therefore rigorously and applies the methods of science and reason to all empirical claims their own. A skeptic provisionally proportions acceptance of any claim to valid logic and a fair and thorough assessment of available evidence, studies the pitfalls of human reason and the mechanisms of deception so as to avoid being deceived by others or themselves.
Skepticism values method over any particular conclusion. "Skepticism is a provisional approach to claims. It is the application of reason to any and all ideas—no sacred cows allowed. In other words, skepticism is a method, not a position." The true meaning of the word skepticism has nothing to do with disbelief, or negativity. Skepticism is the process of applying reason and critical thinking to determine validity. It's the process of finding a supported conclusion, not the justification of a preconceived conclusion. With regard to the skeptical social movement, Loxton refers to other movements promoting "humanism, rationalism, science education and critical thinking" before, he saw the demand for the new movement—a movement of people called "skeptics" — being based on a lack of interest by the scientific community to address paranormal and fringe science claims. In line with Kendrick Frazier, he describes the movement as a surrogate in that area for institutional science; the movement set up a distinct field of study, provided an organizational structure, while long-standing genre of individual skeptical activities lacked such a community and background.
Skeptical organizations tend to have science education and promotion among
Craniosacral therapy is a form of bodywork or alternative therapy using gentle touch to palpate the synarthrodial joints of the cranium. A practitioner of cranial-sacral therapy may apply light touches to a patient's spine and pelvic bones. Practitioners say that this palpation regulates the flow of cerebrospinal fluid and aids in "primary respiration". CST has been characterized as pseudoscience, its practice called quackery. According to the American Cancer Society, although CST may relieve the symptoms of stress or tension, "available scientific evidence does not support claims that craniosacral therapy helps in treating cancer or any other disease". Cranial osteopathy has no scientific basis for any claimed benefit. Craniosacral therapy was developed by John Upledger, D. O. in the 1970s, as an offshoot osteopathy in the cranial field, or cranial osteopathy, developed in the 1930s by William Garner Sutherland. According to the American Cancer Society, although CST may relieve the symptoms of stress or tension, "available scientific evidence does not support claims that craniosacral therapy helps in treating cancer or any other disease".
Cranial osteopathy has received a similar assessment, with one 1990 paper finding there was no scientific basis for any of the practitioners' claims the paper examined. In October 2012 Edzard Ernst conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials of craniosacral therapy, he concluded that "the notion that CST is associated with more than non-specific effects is not based on evidence from rigorous randomised clinical trials." Commenting on this conclusion, Ernst commented on his blog that he had chosen the wording as "a polite and scientific way of saying that CST is bogus." Ernst commented that the quality of five of the six trials he had reviewed was "deplorably poor", a sentiment that echoed an August 2012 review that noted the "moderate methodological quality of the included studies."Ernst criticized a 2011 systematic review performed by Jakel and von Hauenschild for inclusion of observational studies and including studies with healthy volunteers. This review concluded that the evidence base surrounding craniosacral therapy and its efficacy was sparse and composed of studies with heterogeneous design.
The authors of this review stated that available evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. The evidence base for CST lacks a demonstrated biologically plausible mechanism. In the absence of rigorous, well-designed randomized controlled trials, it has been characterized as pseudoscience, its practice called quackery; the therapist palpates the patient's body, focuses intently on the communicated movements. A practitioner's feeling of being in tune with a patient is described as entrainment. Patients report feelings of deep relaxation during and after the treatment session, may feel light-headed. While sometimes thought to be caused by an increase in endorphins, research shows the effects may be brought about by the endocannabinoid system. There are few reports of adverse events from CST treatment. In one study of craniosacral manipulation in patients with traumatic brain syndrome, the incidence of adverse effects from treatment was 5%. Cranial osteopathy, a forerunner of CST, was originated by osteopath William Sutherland in 1898–1900.
While looking at a disarticulated skull, Sutherland was struck by the idea that the cranial sutures of the temporal bones where they meet the parietal bones were "beveled, like the gills of a fish, indicating articular mobility for a respiratory mechanism."John Upledger devised CST. Comparing it to cranial osteopathy he wrote: "Dr. Sutherland's discovery regarding the flexibility of skull sutures led to the early research behind CranioSacral Therapy – and both approaches affect the cranium and coccyx – the similarities end there." However, modern day cranial osteopaths consider the two practices to be the same, but that cranial osteopathy has "been taught to non-osteopaths under the name CranialSacro therapy."Practitioners of both cranial osteopathy and craniosacral therapy assert that there are small, rhythmic motions of the cranial bones attributed to cerebrospinal fluid pressure or arterial pressure. The premise of CST is that palpation of the cranium can be used to detect this rhythmic movement of the cranial bones and selective pressures may be used to manipulate the cranial bones to achieve a therapeutic result.
However, the degree of mobility and compliance of the cranial bones is considered controversial and is a critically important concept in craniosacral therapy. From 1975 to 1983, Upledger and neurophysiologist and histologist Ernest W. Retzlaff worked at Michigan State University as clinical researchers and professors, they assembled a research team to investigate the purported pulse and further study Sutherland's theory of cranial bone movement. Upledger and Retzlaff went on to publish their results, which they interpreted as support for both the concept of cranial bone movement, the concept of a cranial rhythm. Reviews of these studies have concluded that their research did not meet enduring standards to offer conclusive proof for the effectiveness of craniosacral therapy and the existence of cranial bone movement
Facilitated communication, supported typing or hand over hand, is a discredited technique that attempts to facilitate communication by people with severe educational and communication disabilities. The facilitator holds or touches the disabled person's arm or hand during this process and attempts to help them move to type on a special keyboard. In addition to providing physical support needed for typing or pointing, the facilitator provides verbal prompts and moral support. There is widespread agreement within the scientific community and multiple disability advocacy organizations that FC does not work, that the facilitator is in fact the source of most or all messages obtained through FC, by guiding the arm of the patient towards answers they expect to see or that form intelligible language. Alternatively, the facilitator may hold the alphabet board and move it to the disabled person's finger. Studies asking about things the facilitator cannot know have confirmed this, showing that a facilitator is unable to ‘help’ the patient sign out the answer to a question where they do not know what the answer should be.
In addition, numerous cases have been reported by investigators in which disabled persons were assumed by facilitators to be signing a coherent message while their eyes were closed, or they were looking away from or showing no particular interest in the letter board. Some promoters of the technique have countered that FC cannot be disproven by testing, since a testing environment might feel confrontational and alienating to the subject; because the scientific consensus is that FC is a pseudoscience which causes great risk and emotional distress to people with communication disabilities, their families, their caregivers, the technique is now rejected outside a few fringe groups and organizations, including Syracuse University in the United States. In 2015 Sweden banned the use of FC in special needs schools. Facilitated communication is promoted as a means to assist people with severe communication disabilities in pointing to letters on an alphabet board, keyboard or other device so that they can communicate independently.
It appears in the literature as "supported typing", "progressive kinesthetic feedback", "written output communication enhancement". It is somewhat related to the Rapid Prompting Method known as "informative pointing", which has no evidence of efficacy; the person with disabilities, not able to rely on speech to communicate, is referred to as the communication partner. The caregiver, educator or other provider offering physical support to the person with disabilities is called the facilitator; the facilitator holds or touches the communication partner's elbow, hand, sleeve or other parts of the body while the communication partner points to letters of the alphabet printed on a piece of paper or laminated cardboard, letters on an alphabet board, keyboard or mobile communication device such as an iPad. The Canon Communicator, a small, lightweight device that printed a tape of letters when activated, was popular with early FC users. However, two companies, Crestwood Co. of Glendale and Abovo Co. of Chicopee, would be charged by the Federal Trade Commission for making "false and unsubstantiated claims" that the device could enable people with autism and other disabilities to communicate using FC.
The companies stopped mentioning FC in their advertising campaigns. Proponents of FC claim. Although this claim is unsubstantiated, proponents argue that physical support and touch are necessary components of communicating through FC. Candidates for FC "lack confidence in their abilities" and physical support, helps them overcome this obstacle to communication; the role of the facilitator is depicted by proponents as integral to helping the person with disabilities point to letters, reducing or eliminating uncontrollable arm movements, avoiding mistakes in typing, controlling the initiation of movement, speaking words aloud. As well as physical support in typing, the facilitator provides moral support. Along with human touch, the facilitator's belief in their communication partner's ability to communicate is seen to be a key component of the technique. Former facilitator Janyce Boynton, who came to reject the technique after taking part in double-blind trials reported that she received training from University of Maine that took for granted that the process worked, that the complexity of facilitation made it hard to realise that messages were coming from her expectations and not from her patients: "When you're facilitating, you're so distracted by other things.
You're carrying on conversations, you're asking and answering questions, you're trying to look at the person to see if they're looking at the keyboard... Your brain is so engaged that you lose sight of what's happening with your hand...that's what makes it feel like it's working because the more you practice it, the more the movements feel fluid.”. The FC movement may be traced back to the 1960s in Denmark where it failed to take hold because of lack of scientific evidence. FC experienced a period of rapid growth and popularity in Australia in the 1970—1980s due to the efforts of special educator Rosemary Crossley. Arthur Schawlow, a Nobel laureate whose son was autistic, Douglas Biklen