Gatineau is a city in western Quebec, Canada. It is the fourth-largest city in the province after Montreal, Quebec City, Laval, it is located on the northern bank of the Ottawa River across from Ottawa, together with which it forms Canada's National Capital Region. As of 2016, Gatineau had a population of 276,245, a metropolitan population of 332,057; the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan area had a population of 1,323,783. Gatineau is coextensive with a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division of the same name, whose geographical code is 81, it is the seat of the judicial district of Hull. The current city of Gatineau is centred on an area called Hull, the oldest European colonial settlement in the National Capital Region; this area was not developed until after the American Revolutionary War, when the Crown made land grants to Loyalists for resettlement in Upper Canada. Hull was founded on the north shore of the Ottawa River in 1800 by Philemon Wright at the portage around the Chaudière Falls just upstream from where the Gatineau and Rideau rivers flow into the Ottawa.
Wright brought his family, five other families, twenty-five labourers to establish an agricultural community. They considered the area a mosquito-infested wilderness, but soon after and his family took advantage of the large lumber stands and became involved in the timber trade. The original settlement was called Wrightstown, was renamed as Hull. In 2002, after amalgamation, it was part of a larger jurisdiction named the City of Gatineau. In 1820, before immigrants from Ireland and other parts of Great Britain arrived in great numbers, Hull Township had a population of 707, including 365 men, 113 women, 229 children; the high number of men were related to workers in the lumber trade. In 1824, there were 803 persons. During the rest of the 1820s, the population of Hull doubled, owing to the arrival of Ulster Protestants. By 1851, the population of the County of Ottawa was 11,104. By comparison, Bytown had a population of 7,760 in 1851. By 1861, Ottawa County had a population of 15,671. French Canadians migrated to the Township.
The Gatineau River, like the Ottawa River, was a basic transportation resource for the draveurs, workers who transport logs via the rivers from lumber camps until they arrived downriver. The log-filled Ottawa River, as viewed from Hull, was featured on the back of the Canadian one-dollar bill; the last of the dwindling activity of the draveurs on these rivers ended a few years later. Ottawa was founded as the terminus of the Rideau Canal; this was built under the command of Col. John By as part of fortifications and defences constructed after the War of 1812 against the United States. Named Bytown, Ottawa was not designated as the Canadian capital until the mid-19th century, after the original parliament in Montreal was torched by a rioting mob of Anglo-Canadians on 25 April 1849, its greater distance from the Canada–US border made the new parliament less vulnerable to foreign attack. Nothing remains of the original 1800 settlement of Hull; the downtown Vieux-Hull sector was destroyed by a terrible fire in 1900.
The bridge was rebuilt to join Ottawa to Hull at Victoria Island. In the 1940s, during World War II, along with various other regions within Canada, such as the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, Île Sainte-Hélène, was the site of prisoner-of-war camps. Hull's prison was identified only by a number; the prisoners of war were organized by status: civilian or military status. In the Hull camp, POWs were Italian and German nationals detained by the government as potential threats to the nation during the war; as a result of the Conscription Crisis of 1944, Canadians who had refused conscription were interned in the camp. The prisoners were required to perform hard labour, which included lumbering the land. During the 1970s and early 1980s, the decaying old downtown core of Hull was redeveloped. Old buildings were replaced by a series of large office complexes. In addition some 4,000 residents were displaced, many businesses uprooted along what was once the town's main commercial area. On 11 November 1992, Ghislaine Chénier, Mayoress by interim for the city of Hull, unveiled War Never Again, a marble stele monument that commemorates the cost of war for the men and children of the city of Hull.
As part of the 2000–06 municipal reorganization in Quebec, the five municipalities that constituted the Communauté urbaine de l'Outaouais were merged on 1 January 2002 to constitute the new city of Gatineau. They were: Aylmer Buckingham Hull Gatineau Masson-AngersAlthough Hull was the oldest and most central of the merged cities, the name Gatineau was chosen for the new city; the main reasons given were that Gatineau had more residents, this name was associated with the area: it was the name of the former county, the valley, the hills, the park and the main river within the new city limits. Some argued that the French name of Gatineau was more appealing to the majority French-speaking residents. Since the former city of Hull represents a large area distinct from what was known as Gatineau, some people refer to "Vieux Hull"; the name "Hull" was informally use
Casino du Lac-Leamy
The Casino du Lac-Leamy is a government-run casino in Gatineau, Canada. The casino was opened on March 24, 1996, the third of a group of casinos built by the provincial government to raise funds. Ottawa, the larger city across the river, was planning to build a casino in the early 1990s, but these plans were blocked by the provincial government; the Gatineau casino thus serves Ottawa and Eastern Ontario. It is operated by Société des casinos du Québec a subsidiary of Loto-Québec. In 2016 the casino provided the government with some $244,679,000 in profit, employed more than 1,400 people and attracted more than two and a half million visitors; the casino is built on a rocky precipice over what was once International Portland Cement Company quarry but is today Lac de la Carrière. This lake is home to a large fountain, whose jet is visible through much of the old Hull sector during the summer. To the east of the casino is Lac Leamy, from which it gets its name. Attached to the casino is a 349-room Hilton hotel.
The casino has an 1100-seat theatre that has become one of the region's main music venues. The casino is home to several bars and restaurants. In the casino itself there are more than 1,800 slot machines and more than 65 tables including roulette, baccarat and Texas hold'em poker, it is open 24/7. List of casinos in Canada Shahin, Mike. "Plans for $120M Hull casino unveiled. The Ottawa Citizen. P. B1. Prentice, Michael. "Hull's casino gamble pays off across the board: Roll the dice: Glitzy house of chance outdraws Parliament, Corel Centre". The Ottawa Citizen. P. C1. Official website
Hull is the central district and oldest neighborhood of the city of Gatineau, Canada. It is located on the west bank of the Gatineau River and the north shore of the Ottawa River, directly opposite Ottawa; as part of the Canadian National Capital Region, it contains offices for over 20,000 civil servants. It is named after Kingston upon Hull in the United Kingdom. Hull is a former municipality in the Province of Quebec and the location of the oldest non-native settlement in the National Capital Region, it was founded on the north shore of the Ottawa River in 1800 by Philemon Wright at the portage around the Chaudière Falls just upstream from where the Gatineau and Rideau Rivers flow into the Ottawa. Wright brought his family, five other families and twenty-five labourers and a plan to establish an agriculturally based community to what was a mosquito-infested wilderness, but soon after and his family took advantage of the large lumber stands and became involved in the timber trade. The place was named Wright's Town, the name Wrightville survives as the name of a neighborhood in Hull.
The Gatineau River, like the Ottawa River, was much the preserve of the draveurs, people who would use the river to transport logs from lumber camps until they arrived downriver. The log-filled Ottawa River, as viewed from Hull, appeared on the back of the Canadian one-dollar bill until it was replaced by a dollar coin in 1987, the last of the dwindling activity of the draveurs on these rivers ended a few years later. Ottawa was founded as the terminus of the Rideau Canal built under the command of LCol. John By as part of fortifications and defences constructed after the War of 1812. Named Bytown, Ottawa did not become the Canadian capital until the mid-19th century after the original parliament in Montreal was torched by a rioting mob of English-speaking citizens on April 25, 1849, its greater distance from the Canada–US border left the new parliament less vulnerable to foreign attack. Nothing remains of the original 1800 settlement. Hull was noted for its nightlife during the years 1917 to 2000.
Prohibition on the sale of alcohol in Ontario began in 1916, continued until the repeal of the Ontario Temperance Act in 1927. Hull's proximity to Ontario made it a convenient place for people from Ottawa to consume alcohol, a sharp increase in arrests for drunk and disorderly conduct was noted in Hull in 1917; as a result, in May 1918, Hull enacted local laws prohibiting the sale of alcohol. This led to a dramatic increase in bootlegging in Hull, the town gained the nickname le Petit Chicago, because its per capita crime rates were similar to those in Chicago. In 1919, a local plebiscite repealed Hull's prohibition laws, causing Hull's drinking establishments to once again thrive as a result of the continued prohibition in neighbouring Ontario. Most of Hull's bars were conveniently located near the Alexandra Bridge to Ottawa, which a local newspaper called, "the bridge of the thousand thirsts". Hull's Chief of Police stated in 1924 that the cause of Hull's lawlessness was its proximity to Ottawa, a report published in 1925 found that visitors to Hull accounted for up to 90 percent of its bar patrons, as well as the vast majority of those arrested for drunk and disorderly conduct.
A newspaper in the 1920s stated, "these taverns, which are Hull's sole attraction, are not bar rooms, but barn-like, dim rooms in old buildings". During the early 1940s—when bars in Ontario closed at 1 am and bars in Quebec closed at 3 am—residents of Ontario continued to take advantage of Quebec's more liberal policies on alcohol control. An official inquiry in the 1940s found that gambling houses and illegal bars in Hull were receiving protection from corrupt local politicians, who encouraged police not to arrest prostitutes. During World War II, along with various other regions within Canada, such as the Saguenay, Lac Saint-Jean, Île Sainte-Hélène, had Prisoner-of-war camps. Hull's prison was labeled with a number and remained unnamed just like Canada's other war prisons; the prisoners of war were sorted and classified into categories by nationality and civilian or military status. In this camp, POWs were Italian and German nationals. During the Conscription Crisis of 1944 the prison included Canadians who had refused conscription.
Prisoners were forced into hard labour which included farming the land and lumbering. The Macdonald-Cartier Bridge was constructed in 1965. A large office complex known as Place du Portage began construction in the 1970s, uprooting many businesses along what was once the town's main commercial area, displacing some 4,000 residents; the disco era of the 1970s ushered in new prosperity for Hull's nightlife, "Viva Disco" was named in Playboy magazine's top ten in North America. In the early 1980s, Hull City Council began encouraging the expansion of bars in the downtown area. Bars in Hull continued to remain open two additional hours compared to bars in Ontario, some bars offered a shuttle service from Ottawa. By 1985, Hull had the highest crime rate in Quebec, with offences in the bar district including murder, drug dealing, violence, noise and drunkenness; the Canadian Museum of History relocated nearby in 1989, politicians in Hull expressed concern about the city's image. Official committees in Hull weighed the job creation a
Andrew Leamy was a pioneer industrialist and community leader in Wright's Town, Lower Canada, which became Hull, Quebec and is now incorporated into the City of Gatineau in the National Capital Region of Canada. Andrew Leamy was the son of Michael Leamy and Margaret Marshall, who emigrated to Bytown with Andrew, his two brothers James and Michael and his two sisters Catherine and Anne in the 1820-1830 time frame; the name Andrew Leamy is as associated with the commercial and industrial development of the City of Hull as is the name of Philemon Wright. Like most of the other illustrious names of that pioneer era - names like Nicholas Sparks and J. R. Booth - Andrew Leamy began his business life as an employee of the Old Squire Wright, in 1830, living and working on Wright's Columbia Farm and learning his future trade as a lumber baron. Andrew worked for Peter Aylen, taking his rafts to Quebec City. In 1833, his close ties with the Wright family - and Nicholas Sparks no doubt - led to his eventual marriage to Philemon Wright Jr.'s daughter, who had become Nicholas Spark's adopted daughter after Wright Jr.'s death.
In 1835, after a few years of frugality and good economy in Wright's employ, Leamy had saved enough to purchase 200 hectares of land from Philemon Wright - land that included Wright's original'Gatteno Farm'. In 1853, Leamy began his own enterprise as a lumberman by building a mill on the south shore of Columbia Pond, as it was first named, the lake became known as Leamy Lake thereafter. Leamy dug a canal to connect the lake to the Gatineau River to facilitate the transportation of logs to his sawmill; the mill, the second steam-powered mill in the region - one of only two - was destroyed when a boiler exploded, killing one of Leamy's sons. It was never rebuilt. Andrew Leamy was a devout Catholic and, in the tradition of the Wright family, gave much of his time to the social and cultural development of the small developing village of Wright's Town. According to the Drouin records of Notre-Dame Parish, he was a popular best man at weddings of his workers and godfather for many families, he worked hand-in-hand with Père Reboul to achieve the emancipation of school governance for the county.
The result was the creation of the county's first independent School Commission in 1866, of which he was elected the first President. Leamy's farm was the original'Gatteno' Farm, the first farm Philemon Wright created when he arrived in the area in 1800. Leamy's farm contained several buildings of which one, right in front of his large home, was a stable for his prized race horses; the farm, located on the north side of Leamy's lake between the lake and the Gatineau River had a long road that led from the river all the way to the intersection of Columbia Road and Brigham's Road. The road exists to this day though a good part is blocked to traffic, but it now ends at Carrière Blvd. At some unknown time, when people no longer were living on it, the Leamy Road's name became listed by the city as Chemin du Lac-Leamy and was changed, once again in 2010 to rue Atawe, despite many objections from citizens; the Leamy road was identified in all city directories up until the middle 1950s when the Leamy home itself was moved from its foundation to parts unknown in Hull.
Today the lake, the park and the popular Casino du Lac-Leamy still carry his name. The foundations of his home became buried over time and were the subject of an archaeological dig in 2006, commissioned by the National Capital Commission. What was found was a significant structure, quite remarkable in its construction because of the substantial width of the stone walls. A log building, still standing in 1884 on Leamy's farm was the first home Philemon Wright built on the banks of the Gatineau River when he first arrived in the area in 1800; the Wright family called that home "The Wigwam". It was the conclusion of another archeological dig at that site that the foundations of that house dated from the early 19th century. Leamy family oral history describes the Leamy home as occupying the spot where Philemon's home was situated Wright's 2nd home on the "Gatteno" Farm; the location was reburied for preservation and protection and the NCC has plans for future commemoration of the site. From Andrew Leamy's obituary in the Citizen, April 1868: "There were few men better known in Ottawa and the surrounding country in the sixties than Andrew Leamy of Gatineau Point, sawmill owner and lumberman.
Mr. Leamy came of the pioneer family. Andrew Leamy was a large and powerful man and was noted for his strength and aggressiveness, he was a man of the great outdoors. As a lumberman, his name was known wide, he had thousands of friends."Anson A. Gard and historian, wrote this about Andrew Leamy: "It is told of him, as showing his strength and endurance, that when repairs were needed for the mill, that he would mount a horse and carry the part – of heavy iron – to Montreal, get it mended and without stopping to rest, would ride back to Hull, making a journey of 240 miles through a wild country, under the most tiring conditions." "I met an old resident of the Township, who remembered many of the pioneers. He was one of those rare beings who seemed to remember only the good qualities of the men he had known. "Another kind hearted man" said. I've known him to be driving along the road with a load of supplies for his lumber camp, passing the hovel of a family in need, throw off a barrel of flour and pass on as though he thought nothing of it.
Andy didn't make much pretense of being a saint, but he did a whole lot
The Gatineau River is a river in western Quebec, which rises in lakes north of the Baskatong Reservoir and flows south to join the Ottawa River at the city of Gatineau, Quebec. The river is 386 km long and drains an area of 23,700 km². While it has been said that the river's name comes from Nicolas Gatineau, a fur trader, said to have drowned in the river in 1683, the original inhabitants, the Algonquin Anicinabek, assert that the name comes from their language; the name they give the river is "Te-nagàdino-zìbi", which means "The River that Stops ". The geography of the area was altered with the construction of the Baskatong Reservoir, it is still possible to travel upstream on the Gatineau and reach a point where a small portage will bring you to the headwaters of the Ottawa River; the Ottawa River flows northwest and turns south where it flows more easterly and connects with the Gatineau. The river flows through the communities of: Maniwaki Low Wakefield Chelsea Cantley GatineauA covered wooden bridge over the river at Wakefield, built in 1915, was destroyed by arson in 1984, but has been rebuilt.
This river was an important transportation corridor for native people of the region and early explorers. On June 4, 1613, Samuel de Champlain passed here while travelling on the Ottawa River to L'Isle-aux-Allumettes, he wrote: We passed near a river coming from the north, where a people called "Algoumequins" can be found, which drains into the great St-Lawrence River, three leagues downstream from the Saint-Louis Falls, makes an island of nearly forty leagues, and, not large but filled with an indefinite number of falls which are difficult to pass. Sometimes, these people use this river to avoid meeting their enemies, knowing that they will not seek them in such difficult accessible places, he did not give its name. According to the Bulletin des recherches historiques, the land-surveyor Noël Beaupré wrote an official report on the river on February 3, 1721, but without naming it, leaving it unclear if its current name was in use in the 18th century. In 1783, in a report to the governor Frederick Haldimand, lieutenant David Jones called the river by the name "River Lettinoe".
According to Lucien Brault, this would be the first written reference to the name Gatineau. On the charts of his account from 1830, but recalling events from the beginning of the 19th century, the traveller and fur trader Jean-Baptiste Perrault called the river "nàgàtinong" or "àgatinung". On a plan of the Rideau Canal, drawn by lieutenant-colonel John By in 1831, the river is called "Gatteno". "R. Gatineau" appears on the chart of William Henderson in 1831, on the one of Thomas Guesses, in 1861; this name recollects the memory of a fur trader from the 17th century, Nicolas Gatineau or Gastineau. Inhabitant of Trois-Rivières, he had traded near a river located between the Ottawa and Saint-Maurice Rivers, customarily called river of Gatineau, but according to Raymond Douville, at the end of the 17th century Louis and Jean-Baptiste, sons of Nicolas, established a trading post, or just a supply post, on a point located at the mouth of the river, site of the future Point-Gatineau. Therefore, the toponym given to the river is more a credit to the Gatineau sons than to Nicolas.
From the 19th century until 1991, the river was used to transport logs to sawmills near the mouth of the river. Philemon Wright and his descendants played an important role in the development of the lumber industry in the Gatineau valley. In more recent times, with declining quality in the forests of the region, logs were used for pulp and paper; the river is an important source of hydroelectric power. In 1925, three hydroelectric dams were constructed along the lower Gatineau River, making them one of the biggest economic and industrial projects in the region's history; these are now known today as the Paugan and Rapides-Farmers Hydroelectric Stations. The stations are located within the municipalities of Low and Gatineau; the Hull-Chelsea-Wakefield Railway, a tourist steam train, followed a route up the Gatineau valley to Wakefield. In 1915, Canadian artist and member of the Group of Seven J. E. H. MacDonald would depicted logging operations on the river is his painting, Logs on the Gatineau.
In the spring of 1974, there was extensive flooding along the Gatineau. Major tributaries of the Gatineau River in upstream order are: Chemin de fer de l'Outaouais List of Quebec rivers Ottawa-Gatineau Watershed Atlas Gatineau River Festival d'eau vive de la Haute-Gatineau - A festival dedicated to the preservation of rivers
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor