Poços de Caldas
Poços de Caldas is a municipality in southwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in the microregion of the same name. Its estimated population in 2009 was 151,449 inhabitants; the city has hot springs. Poços was founded in 1872; the region had been inhabited by the Cataguases Indians, who were expelled from their lands by the Bandeiras Unidas Paulistas during their quest for gold. The place was first called Freguesia de Nossa Senhora da Saúde das Águas de Caldas. In 1874 it became a district in 1875 it was elevated to the category of city, it became famous after the discovery of the hot springs, many important people began to visit the spa in search of cures provided by the water. The name comes from a spa town in central Portugal, it lies on the boundary of the state of São Paulo at 1186 meters elevation and is the main socio-economic nucleus of its region, having an area of 544 km² in the municipality. The physical area is made up for the most part of a high plateau formed by mountains and valleys with an area of 750 km².
The average elevation is 1200 m, with the highest point, at 1686 m. The topography is suggestive of a volcanic crater and, given that the region's rocks are indeed igneous and there are hot springs, this gave rise to a common misconception that Poços de Caldas would be located inside the crater of a large extinct volcano. In reality, Poços de Caldas is inside a caldera, formed by the collapse of a central portion of terrain amid elevated areas, while the latter have volcanic origin, the process that formed the supposed "crater" had nothing to do with volcanic activity. Poços de Caldas occupies a strategic geographical location, due to its proximity to São Paulo, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro, whose connections are made with good highways, due to its integration into the routes of the hydro-mineral spas of Serra Negra, Águas de Lindóia, Monte Alegre do Sul, Águas da Prata, Cambuquira, Caxambu and São Lourenço. Poços de Caldas is close to the most developed regions of the interior of the state of São Paulo, such as Ribeirão Preto, Campinas and São José dos Campos.
The climate is characterized by mild summers. The winter is from April to September and has an average temperature of 15 °C and rainfall of 315 mm; the summer is from October to March and has an average temperature of 21 °C with rainfall of 1,430 mm. The annual rainfall is 1,745 mm; the average annual temperature is 17 °C with minima of -6 °C and maxima of 31.7 °C. Known principally for its thermal baths, there are several resorts in the city. Due to its wealth in hydro-mineral resources, Poços de Caldas is known for the quality of the soap that it produces. There are four factories in the city: Raízes, Antares and Terra Brasil. Poços is famous for its glass, known internationally; the founders of the factories were descendants of the artistic glassmakers who lived on the Island of Murano, near Venice, in Italy. In the city there are four glass factories: Ca'D'oro, São Marcos and Bonora; the local soils are rich in minerals that yield zirconium. One rare zirconium ore, was named for the area; the city has Brazil's first uranium-ore concentration plant, for use in the Angra Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis.
Poços is the home of one of the largest bauxite mines in the world, owned by Alcoa. Bauxite is an ore that contains at least 45% alumina, extracted to make aluminum; the smelting operations at Poços de Caldas have an annual capacity of 90,000 tons/year of primary aluminum. The facility is the largest aluminum-powder production facility in Latin America, the second largest in the world; the plant has a capacity of 14,000 tonnes/year of aluminum powder and meets the market demand for ferroalloys, pigments, chemicals and solid fuel for rockets. The facility began production of hydrated aluminas and hard-burned calcined aluminas in 1985; the city gets most of its electricity from hydroelectric power plants and administrated with local resources, leading to independence from the state's power system. The city is well taken care of, with several green areas, among parks, gardens and São Domingos mountain, which has trails for walking; the sulphurous water is the main attraction and can be consumed in several fountains and at the Thermas Antônio Carlos.
There is an aerial tram to get to the Statue of Christ the Redeemer. At the top of the mountain there is a great view of the nearby mountains; the city offers options such as a Japanese tea garden, a theme park, museums and other cultural events, including the yearly Music in the Mountains Festival. The city is served by Emb. Walther Moreira Salles Airport. Caldas da Rainha, Portugal Mount Vernon, New York, United States Official city government site Music in the Mountains Festival
Bom Despacho, Minas Gerais
Bom Despacho is a Brazilian municipality located in the west of the state of Minas Gerais. The population is 49,236 in an area of 1213.55 km². The city belongs to the micro-region of Bom Despacho, it became a municipality in 1912. Bom Despacho is a statistical micro-region which includes 12 municipalities: Araújos, Bom Despacho, Dores do Indaiá, Estrela do Indaiá, Japaraíba, Lagoa da Prata, Leandro Ferreira, Martinho Campos, Quartel Geral, Serra da Saudade. In 2000 the area of this region was 7,515.50 km² and the population was 146,156 inhabitants. The city center of Bom Despahco is located at an elevation of 768 meters just off the major federal highway BR-262, which links Belo Horizonte to Uberaba. State highway MG-164 leads to Martinho Campos in the north; the São Francisco River forms the western municipal boundary. Neighboring municipalities are: Martinho Campos, Leandro Ferreira, Araújos and Luz, Dores do Indaiá. Distances to other cities Belo Horizonte/MG - 141 km Brasília/DF - 730 km Rio de Janeiro/RJ - 576 km São Paulo/SP - 580 km Martinho Campos/MG - 50 km Araújos/MG - 19 km Luz/MG - 49 km Moema/MG - 23 km Services, light industry, agriculture are the most important economic activities.
The GDP in 2005 was R$393 million, R$41 million from taxes, 223 million reais from services, 77 million reais from industry, 51 million reais from agriculture. There were 560 rural producers on 63,000 hectares of land. 179 farms had tractors. 2,000 persons were involved in agriculture. The main crops are watermelon, rice and corn. There were 78,000 head of cattle. Poultry raising was substantial with over one million head in 2006. There were 5 banks; the motor vehicle fleet had 8,354 automobiles, 1,049 pickup trucks, 2,520 motorcycles. The ratio of inhabitant per motor vehicle was 2/1. Working population by sector Transformation industries: 1,929 workers Commerce: 3,430 workers Lodging and restaurants: 302 workers Transport, communications: 450 workers Public administration: 1,000 workers Health and social services: 332 workers In the health sector there were 12 public health clinics and 2 private hospitals with 96 beds. Patients with more serious health conditions are transported to Belo Horizonte.
Educational needs of 9,700 students were met by 20 primary schools, 6 middle schools, 18 pre-primary schools. Municipal Human Development Index: 0.799 State ranking: 42 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000 National ranking: 584 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000 Literacy rate: 90% Life expectancy: 72 In 2000 the per capita monthly income of R$307.00 was above the state and national average of R$276.00 and R$297.00 respectively. Poços de Caldas had the highest per capita monthly income in 2000 with R$435.00. The lowest was Setubinha with R$73.00. The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568. Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha. In more recent statistics Manari in the state of Pernambuco has the lowest rating in the country—0,467—putting it in last place; the city of Bom Despacho has seen a significant influx of German settlers in the 1920s, their tradition has vanished and their history is forgotten.
Due to the efforts of the Brazilian politician Faustino Assunção the city of Bom Despacho was chosen to participate in the settlement program initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture during the Bernardes government. The aim of this program was to attract European settlers to cultivate the soil surrounding Bom Despacho. For this purpose, the city provided two large areas of farmland in the direct vicinity of Bom Despacho which were named after Brazilian politicians, Colônia David Campista and Colônia Álvaro da Silveira. At the beginning of the 1920s settlers from various European countries arrived in several waves. Most of them were from Germany as the country was in political and economical turmoil after the defeat in World War 1; the new settlers received agricultural plots, houses and seeds on a credit basis which they had to pay off from the proceeds of their crop. The German embassy established and operated a German school on Colonia David Campista; the school served the families of a known total of at least 54 families.
However, the German immigrants on these two settlements dispersed within the next two decades. Unfrugal soil and tropical diseases let many settlers to abandon their lot and seek work in the big cities, such as Belo Horzionte; some German families returned to Germany. When Brazil joined World War 2 on the side of the Allies in 1942, the German school was closed and it was forbidden to speak German; as a result, many more settlers left their plots. Today, there are only few descendants of the original German settlers still living on Colonia David Campista and on Colonia Alvaro Da Silveira. However, some of them still speak German; the cemetery belonging to the two farmlands is called German cemetery by the locals. Its official inscription on the gate reads Imigrantes da Colonia. List of municipalities in Minas Gerais Colônia Álvaro da Silveira Colônia David Campista 5. Information pertaining German immigration to Bom Despacho, in Portuguese http://www.bomdespachomg.com.br/colonia_alemaes.php
Divinópolis is a municipality in the centre-west of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The estimated population in 2007 was 201,921 inhabitants; the total area of the municipality is 709 km² and the elevation is 712 metres. It is 120 km from state capital Belo Horizonte. Divinópolis is the seat of the Regional Administration of the Upper São Francisco River. Divinópolis is a statistical micro-region including 11 municipalities: Carmo do Cajuru, Cláudio, Conceição do Pará, Divinópolis, Itaúna, Nova Serrana, Perdigão, Santo Antônio do Monte, São Gonçalo do Pará, São Sebastião do Oeste. In 2000, the population was 379,122 inhabitants living in an area of 5,105.50 km². The characteristic vegetation of the municipality is cerrado, but there are still some gallery forests along the rivers; the climate is classified as subtropical mesothermic, characterised by wet summers. The average temperature in winter is 16 °C and the average of the hottest month is about 25 °C; the period between December and February is the rainiest.
The driest months are from April to September. The lowest temperature set was in 1997 with 0.7 °C. Divinópolis is watered by the Itapecerica rivers; the basin of the Pará is one of the most important of the São Francisco River and crosses 16 municipalities. Divinópolis is the seat of a diocese that covers over 600,000 people; the city centre of Divinópolis is at an elevation of 712 meters 120 km southwest of Belo Horizonte. Neighbouring municipalities are Nova Serrana, São Gonçalo do Pará and Carmo do Cajuru, Cláudio and São Sebastião do Oeste, Santo Antônio do Monte and Perdigão. Bom Despacho: 102 km Uberaba: 423 km Formiga: 76 km southwest on MG-050 Divinópolis was founded in 1767 by 50 families who lived in the lands near the Itapecerica and Pará rivers; the first settlement took root near the waterfalls on the Itapecerica and was called Paragem da Itapecerica in reference to the river. In 1770 it became Espírito Santo da Itapecerica and was a district of Tamanduá. In 1912 it became a city with the name Divinópolis in homage to the older name of Espírito Santo.
The arrival of the Estrada de Ferro Oeste de Minas in 1890 offered the city opportunities for the installation of industries of iron and steel, providing a reasonable standard of living, as well as a high level of social development. The main economic activities are services and agriculture; the GDP in 2005 was 2 billion reais, with 244 million reais coming from taxes, 1,215,000 reais from services, 603,000 reais from industry, 45,000 reais from agriculture. In 2005 there were 1,947 transformation industries employing 16,687 people and 4,526 retail units employing 16,559 people. Public administration employed 3,972 people and health services employed 2,434 people. In the rural area there were 942 farms on 31,000 hectares. 1,200 people were engaged in the agricultural sector. The main crops were citrus fruits, rice and corn. There were 43,000 head of cattle. At the end of the 1970s the economic problems of the steel industry caused factories to close and many workers to be laid off; the difficulties forced the appearance of clothing factories, which were an important economic alternative.
In addition to clothing, the city produces beverages, dairy products, meat products. Divinópolis has the Brigadeiro Cabral Airport. In the health sector there were 94 establishments, of which 36 were public and 56 were private. There were 36 specialized health clinics and 4 hospitals with 593 beds.. Patients with more serious health conditions are transported to Belo Horizonte. Education needs of 44,000 students were met by 93 primary schools, 32 middle schools, 92 pre-primary schools. There are five institutions that provide higher education: Instituto Superior de Educação de Divinópolis, Faculdade de Arte e Design, Faculdade de Ciências Econômicas e Administrativas de Divinópolis, Instituto de Ensino Superior e Pesquisa, Faculdades Integradas do Oeste de Minas. There is a satellite campus of the Federal University of São João del-Rei, which goes by the name of "Dona Lindu", in homage to president Lula's mother. Municipal Human Development Index: 0.831 State ranking: 5 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000 National ranking: 132 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000 Literacy rate: 94% Life expectancy: 75 In 2000 the per capita monthly income of R$327.00 was above the state average of R$276.00 and the national average of R$297.00.
Poços de Caldas had the highest per capita monthly income in 2000 with R$435.00. The lowest was Setubinha with R$73.00. The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568. Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha. In more recent statistics Manari in the state of Pernambuco has the lowest rating in the country—0,467—putting it in last place; the poet Adélia Prado was born in Divinópolis on December 13, 1935. The footballer Emerson Aparecido Vivas Vergílio, or Emerson was born in Divinópolis on May 28, 1982 List of municipalities in Minas Gerais City government EncontraDivinópolis - Find everything about Divinópolis city
São Caetano do Sul
São Caetano do Sul is a city in São Paulo state in Brazil. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo; the population is 158,024 in an area of 15.33 km². It is the city with the highest per capita income in Brazil and it has the highest Human Development Index, it is intensely conurbated with São Paulo, Santo André and São Bernardo do Campo, causing the physical limits between cities to be lost. São Caetano do Sul, together with Ferraz de Vasconcelos, is one of two cities in the state of São Paulo that are not crossed by any state or federal highway; the region in which the municipality of São Caetano do Sul is today is occupied since the 16th century when it was known as Tijucuçu. It was an area of estates of residents of the former settlement villa, of Santo André da Borda do Campo, extinguished by order of the governor-general Mem de Sá. In the seventeenth century a group of Benedictine monks formed in the region, donated by a farmer, the Monastery of Saint Benedict and the Tijucuçu Farm, used by the monks to raise cattle.
In 1717, the monks began to erect the chapel dedicated to Saint Cajetan di Thiène, the patron saint of bread and work, in the place where the Old Matrix of St. Caetano is today, they passed the farm to be called Farm of São Caetano do Tijucuçu São Caetano Farm. Around the farm was developed the district of São Caetano, in the same territory of the city of São Paulo, it was first enumerated in 1765, when the Morgado de Mateus determined that a census of the population of the Captaincy of São Paulo was made. Its inhabitants were farmers and tropeiros and they received the sacraments in the Chapel of São Caetano. In 1871, on the day after the Free Womb Law, the Order of Saint Benedict decided, in its General Chapter of Bahia, to free all of its slaves, in Brazil, more than four thousand, without any compensation. Deprived of labor, Farm São Caetano was expropriated by the Imperial Government to install the Colonial Nucleus of São Caetano on 28 July 1877; the lands of the farm were divided into lots and sold to Italian settlers between 1877 and 1892, when the last family of immigrants entered the Nucleus.
The first group of families settled in the nucleus had embarked in the port of Genoa and arrived in Brazil on the Italian ship Europa. All the families were from the commune of Cappella Maggiore and its surroundings, in the province of Treviso, in the region of Veneto, northern Italy. In 1883 the São Paulo Railway inaugurated the station of São Caetano and in 1889 the government of the province reformed the Way of the Sea and the Old Way of Santo André da Borda do Campo, that from 16th century crossed the region, the tributary of the railway. Shortly before the Republican coup d'état was created the municipality of São Bernardo, dismembered of the one of São Paulo, the greater part of the Colonial Nucleus and of the old district of São Caetano was attached to it. In 1905, São Caetano was elevated to Fiscal District. In 1924 the village became a city. In 1947, in a movement led by the Jornal de São Caetano, a list of 5,197 signatures was made and sent to the State Legislative Assembly, requesting a plebiscite.
The popular consultation was held on 24 October 1948. On 24 December 1948, the governor of the state of São Paulo, Ademar de Barros, ratified the decision and created the "municipality of São Caetano do Sul", through State Law n. 233, dated 12/24/1948, adding the qualifier of the South, to distinguish it from Pernambuco's homonym. On 30 December 1953, the County of São Caetano do Sul was created São Caetano do Sul is located on a plateau, part of the Serra do Mar, part of the vast region known as the Brazilian Highlands, with an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level – though at a distance of only about 70 kilometers from the Atlantic Ocean. Neighbouring municipalities are Santo André, São Bernardo do São Paulo. São Caetano do Sul presents the best social indicators of the whole country, a city considered exemplary in several aspects of the so-called HDI of the UN, ranking first in the list of Brazilian municipalities by HDI. Although there are no favelas, the municipality with all the development achieved, still has part of its population living precariously, in slums scattered throughout the city.
The literacy rate is high: 99.6%. Main nationalities of origin of immigrants living in São Caetano: Italian, Arabic, Japanese, German, Ukrainian and Hungarian. According to the Köppen climate classification São Caetano do. Little hot and rainy summer. Winter subservient; the average annual temperature is around 18 °C, the coldest month in July and the warmest in February. The annual rainfall index is around 1 360 mm. São Caetano do Sul belongs to the region of ABC Paulista, marked by industrial and automobile development; some examples are the industries located on the border with São Paulo, the General Motors headquarters in Brazil, on Goiás Avenue, the main financial center of the city. Nowadays, in the avenue and branches of several companies are installed. People from various regions of the metropolis go to the city on the job, coming from the region of ABC itself and from the districts of the south and east of São Paulo that border the city. Commerce is a strong economic target for the city, which houses the headquarters of the Casas Bahia store chain, founded in 1952 by the Jewish immigrant Samuel Klein.
With the real estate growth in the region, a number of developments were created, a
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, the GNI per capita is higher, it was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report Office. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development", "the HDI can be viewed as an index of'potential' human development"; the index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, healthy; the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry is quite different from someone, hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme; these were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.
Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but improvements in human well-being. Published on 4 November 2010, the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling A decent standard of living: GNI per capita In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI; the following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index = LE − 20 85 − 20 LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.2. Education Index = MYSI + EYSI 2 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index = MYS 15 Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index = EYS 18 Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.3.
Income Index = ln − ln ln − ln II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100. The HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices: HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II 3. LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling EYS: Expected years of schooling GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio. Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; this methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme. In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allo
Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. The state of Pernambuco includes the archipelago Fernando de Noronha. With an estimated population of 9.2 million people in 2013, it is the seventh most populous state of Brazil, is the sixth most densely populated and the 19th most extensive among the states and territories of the country. Its capital and largest city, Recife, is one of the most important economic and urban hubs in the country; as of 2013 estimates, Recife's metropolitan area is the fifth most populous in the country, the largest urban agglomeration in Northeast Brazil. In 1982, the city of Olinda, the second oldest city in Brazil, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Recife, the state capital and Olinda have one of the most traditional Brazilian Carnivals. Both have architecture of Portugal, with centuries-old casarões and churches, kilometers of beaches and much culture; the proximity of the equator guarantees sunshine throughout the year, with average temperatures of 26 °C.
Pernambuco comprises a comparatively narrow coastal zone, a high inland plateau, an intermediate zone formed by the terraces and slopes between the two. Its surface is much broken by the remains of the ancient plateau, worn down by erosion, leaving escarpments and ranges of flat-topped mountains, called chapadas, capped in places by horizontal layers of sandstone. Ranges of these chapadas form the boundary lines with three states–the Serra dos Irmãos and Serra Vermelha with Piauí, the Serra do Araripe with Ceará, the Serra dos Cariris Velhos with Paraíba; the coastal area is fertile, was covered by the humid Pernambuco coastal forests, the northern extension of the Atlantic Forests of eastern Brazil. It is now placed to extensive sugar cane plantations, it has a humid climate, relieved to some extent by the south-east trade winds. The middle zone, called the agreste region, has a drier climate and lighter vegetation, including the semi-deciduous Pernambuco interior forests, where many trees lose their leaves in the dry season.
The inland region, called the sertão is high and dry, devastated by prolonged droughts. The climate is characterized by cool nights. There are two defined seasons, a rainy season from March to June, a dry season for the remaining months; the interior of the state is covered by the dry thorny scrub vegetation called caatinga. The Rio São Francisco is the main water source for this area; the climate is more mild in the countryside of the state because of the Borborema Plateau. Some towns are located more than 1000 meters above sea level, temperatures there can descend to 10 °C and 5 °C in some cities during the winter; the island of Fernando de Noronha in the Atlantic Ocean, 535 km northeast of Recife, has been part of Pernambuco since 1988. The rivers of the state include a number of small plateau streams flowing southward to the São Francisco River, several large streams in the eastern part flowing eastward to the Atlantic; the former are the Moxotó, Pajeú, Terra Nova, Boa Vista and Pontai, are dry channels the greater part of the year.
The largest of the coastal rivers are the Goiana River, formed by the confluence of the Tracunhaem and Capibaribe-mirim, drains a rich agricultural region in the north-east part of the state. A large tributary of the Uná, the Rio Jacuhipe, forms part of the boundary line with Alagoas. Inhabited by numerous tribes of Tupi-Guarani speaking indigenous peoples, Pernambuco was first settled by the Portuguese in the 16th century; the French under Bertrand d'Ornesan tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco in 1531. Shortly after King John III of Portugal created the Hereditary Captaincies in 1534, Pernambuco was granted to Duarte Coelho, who arrived in Nova Lusitânia in 1535. Duarte directed military actions against the French-allied Caetés Indians and upon their defeat in 1537 established a settlement at the site of a former Marin Indian village, henceforth known as Olinda, as well as another village at Igarassu. Due to the cultivation of sugar and cotton, Pernambuco was one of the few prosperous captaincies.
With the support of the Dutch West India Company, sugar mills were built and a sugar-based economy developed. In 1612, Pernambuco produced 14,000 tons of sugar. While the sugar industry relied at first on the labor of indigenous peoples the Tupis and Tapuyas, high mortality and economic growth led to the importation of enslaved Africans from the late 17th century; some of these slaves escaped the sugar-producing coastal regions and formed independent inland communities called mocambos, including Palmares. In 1630, Pernambuco, as well as many Portuguese possessions in Brazil, was occupied by the Dutch until 1654; the occupation was resisted and the Dutch conquest was only successful, it was repelled by the Spaniards. In the interim, thousands of the enslaved Africans had fled to Palmares, soon the mocambos there had grown into two significant states; the Dutch Republic, who allowed sugar production to remain in Portuguese hands, regarded suppression of Palmares impor
Manari is a city established in 1997 in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The population in 2009, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, was 18093 and the area is 406.64 km². In 2000, Manari had the lowest HDI of any municipality in the state. State - Pernambuco Region - Sertão Pernambucano Boundaries - Ibimirim. Economy by sector http://www.contasnacional.com.br/pe/pmmanari http://www.ferias.tur.br/informacoes/5337/manari-pe.html