Seram is the largest and main island of Maluku province of Indonesia, despite Ambon Island's historical importance. It is located just north of smaller Ambon Island and a few other surrounding islands, such as Haruku, Nusalaut and Saparua. Seram is traversed by a central mountain range, the highest point of which, Mount Binaiya, is covered with dense rain forests, its remarkably complex geology is because of its location at the meeting of several tectonic microplates, described as "one of the most tectonically complex areas on Earth". Seram falls on its own microplate, twisted around by 80° in the last 8 million years by the faster movement of the Papua microplate. Meanwhile, along with the northward push of the Australian Plate, this has resulted in the uplift that gives north-central Seram peaks of over 3000 m. On the island are important karst areas. In the mountains near Sawai is the cave Hatu Saka the deepest cave in Indonesia. In Taniwell district, on the north coast, is the underground river Sapalewa, one of the largest underground rivers on the planet.
The population of the island in the 2010 Census was 434,113 people, administered among 3 regencies, Maluku Tengah Regency had 170,392 people on Seram Island itself and 191,306 on the lesser islands, the entirety of Seram Bagian Barat Regency and Seram Bagian Timur Regency. Seram Island is remarkable for its high degree of localised bird endemism. From the 117 species of birds on the island, 14 are endemic, including the eclectus parrot, purple-naped lory, salmon-crested cockatoo, Seram masked owl, lazuli kingfisher, sacred kingfisher, grey-necked friarbird and Moluccan king parrot; the mammals found on Seram include Asian species as well as Australasian marsupials. The montane area of Seram supports the greatest number of endemic mammals of any island in the region, it harbors 38 mammal species and includes nine species that are endemic or near endemic, several of which are limited to montane habitats. These include the Seram bandicoot, Moluccan flying fox, Seram flying-fox, Manusela mosaic-tailed rat, spiny Ceram rat and the Ceram rat, all considered threatened.
Saltwater crocodiles exist within some including the Salawai River. In the eastern part of the island, Manusela National Park has been established in 1997, covering an area of 1,890 km². Most central Moluccans consider Seram to be their original ancestral home and it is still known colloquially as Nusa Ina. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Seram was within the sphere of influence of Ternate, although it was ruled more directly by the Ternaten vassal state of Buru; the expedition of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão sighted and explored the entire southern coast of Seram in early 1512, for the first time for Europeans. Portuguese missionaries were active there in the 16th century. Dutch trading posts were opened in the early 17th century, the island came under nominal Dutch control c. 1650. In the 1780s, Seram provided a key base of support for Prince Nuku of Tidore's long-running rebellion against Dutch rule. From 1954 until 1962 the island's mountain terrain was the scene of an armed guerilla struggle against Indonesian rule by the counter revolutionary Republic of South Moluccas movement led by Soumokil.
Seram includes three of the regencies within the province of Maluku. West Seram, capital at Dataran Hunipopu, had a population of 140,657; the Central Maluku Regency, with its capital at Masohi, includes the middle part of Ceram, as well as some other smaller islands. Seram has been traditionally associated with the animism of the indigenous Alfur, a West Melanesian people who reputedly retained a custom of headhunting until the 1940s. Today, most of the population of Seram today is either Muslim or Christian due to both conversion and immigration. Seram was affected by the violent inter-religious conflict that swept Maluku province starting in late 1998, resulting in tens of thousands of displaced persons across the province but after the Malino II Accord agreement tempers cooled. Seram has been peaceful for many years but towns like Masohi remain informally divided into de facto Christian and Muslim sections. Around 7,000 people belonging to the Manusela tribe follow Hinduism. Copra, resin and fish are important products.
Oil is produced in the northeast near Bula by CITIC Seram Energy who took over from KUFPEC Limited in 2006. The Oseil oil field is located onshore in the northeast of the island in the Seram Non-Bula Production Sharing Contract area; the discovery well was drilled in 1993. As of end 2010 the Seram Non-Bula Block had estimated proven oil reserves of 9.7 million barrels. Most production comes from the Jurassic Manusela carbonate formation. Islands of Indonesia Alfur Manusela Wemale Alune 1899 Ceram earthquake Seacology Seram Island Health Clinic Project Seacology Alifuru Consciousness Video
Haruku Island is an island in Central Maluku Regency, Maluku Province, Indonesia - lying east of Ambon Island, off the southern coast of Seram and just west of Saparua. It is administered as a single district, Kecamatan Pulau Haruku, with a 2010 census population of 24,170; the inhabitants on Haruku speak the Haruku language, as well as Ambonese Malay. There are six Christian and five Muslim villages on the island; as on most of the islands of the Moluccas, spices such as nutmeg, cloves and ginger are grown as cash crops.. In 1527, the Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach the island; the Dutch followed in 1590 and established Fort New Zealand, whose ruins are now a tourist attraction. During World War II, the Japanese established a Prisoner-of-war camp for captive Australians and British forces on the island, who were used as forced labor to build an airstrip. Media related to Haruku at Wikimedia Commons Old map of Manipa, Haruku and Nusalaut
Maluku is a province of Indonesia. It comprises the southern regions of the Maluku Islands; the main city and capital of Maluku province is Ambon on the small Ambon Island. The total population of this province in 2010 in the census results amounted to 1,533,506 people. Maluku is located in Eastern Indonesia, it is directly adjacent to North Maluku and West Papua in the north, Central Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi in the west, Banda Sea, East Timor and East Nusa Tenggara in the south and Arafura Sea and Papua in the east. Maluku has two main religions, namely Islam, adhered to by 49.61% of the population of Maluku and Christianity, embraced by 49.16% of the population of Maluku. Maluku is recorded in the history of the world due to conflict or tragedy of humanitarian crisis and sectarian conflict between Islam and Christianity is better known as the Ambon Tragedy. After 2002, Maluku changed its face to become a friendly and peaceful province in Indonesia, for which the world gave a sign of appreciation in the form of World Peace Gong placed at Ambon City Center.
All the Maluku Islands were part of a single province from 1950 until 1999. In 1999, the northern part of Maluku were split off to form a separate province of North Maluku. According to one theory, the term "Maluku" comes from the Arabic word, Al-Mulk, which means land or island of kings; this is true because the Moluccas still consist of small kingdoms which are quite large with their own kings. According to another theory, the term comes from the Ternatean word Moloku or Moloko, the two words are Moloku or Moloko which both mean as homeland; this is reflected in the words of the people of Ternate in the past that mention the northern hemisphere Maluku earth as Moloku Kie Raha which means the homeland with four mountains. The four mountains in question are 4 kingdoms or large sultanates from North Maluku namely the Sultanate of Ternate, Sultanate of Tidore and the Sultanate of Bacan. In the 9th century, Arab traders managed to find Maluku after crossing the Indian Ocean; these traders took control of the European market through port cities like Constantinople.
The 14th century was a period of Middle Eastern spice trade that brought Islam into the Maluku Islands through the ports of Aceh and Gresik, between 1300 and 1400. In the 12th century the territory of the Srivijaya Kingdom included the Maluku Islands. At the beginning of the 14th century the Majapahit Kingdom ruled the entire sea area of Southeast Asia. At that time, traders from Java monopolized the spice trade in Maluku. In the Ming Dynasty, spices from Maluku were introduced in various works of history. In a painting by W. P. Groeneveldt, titled Gunung Dupa, Maluku, is described as a green mountainous region filled with cloves – an oasis in the middle of the southeastern sea. Marco Polo described the clove trade in Maluku during his visit to Sumatra; the first Europeans to find Maluku were the Portuguese, in 1512. At that time two Portuguese fleets, each under the leadership of António de Abreu and Francisco Serau, landed in the Banda Islands and the Penyu Islands. After they established friendships with local residents and kings – such as with the Sultanate of Ternate on the island of Ternate, the Portuguese were given permission to build fortifications in Pikaoli, as well as the old Hitu State, Mamala on Ambon Island.
Because the Portuguese adopted a monopoly system while at the same time carrying out the spread of Catholicism. One of the famous missionaries was Francis Xavier. Arrived in Ambon on February 14, 1546 traveled to Ternate, arriving in 1547, tirelessly visited islands in the Maluku Islands to spread Catholicism; the relationship between the Portuguese and Ternatean broke down in 1570, resulting of a war with Sultan Babullah that lasted for 5 years, causing the Portuguese to be expelled from Ternate and were driven to Tidore and Ambon. The resistance of the Moluccas to the Portuguese was used by the Dutch to set foot in Maluku. In 1605, the Dutch managed to force the Portuguese to surrender their defenses in Ambon to Steven van der Hagen and at Tidore to the Sebastiansz Cornelisz; the English fortress in Kambelo, Seram Island, was destroyed by the Dutch. Since the Dutch have succeeded in controlling most of the Maluku region; the Dutch position in Maluku grew stronger with the establishment of the Dutch East India Company in 1602, since the Netherlands has become the sole ruler in Maluku.
Under the leadership of Jan Pieterszoon Coen, Chief of Operations of the VOC, the clove trade in Maluku was under VOC control for 350 years. For this purpose, the VOC did not hesitate to expel its competitors. Tens of thousands of Moluccas were victims of VOC brutality. During the Napoleonic Wars, British forces captured Maluku as the Netherlands were under French occupation. After the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, the British returned Maluku to the Dutch; the Dutch returned in 1817. The return of the Dutch in 1817 received strong resistance from the Moluccans; this is due to political and social relations conditions that have been bad for two centuries. The Moluccan people rose to take up arms under the leadership of Thomas Matulessy, given the title Kapitan Pattimura, a former major sergeant of the British army. On May 15, 1817 an attack was launched against the Fort Duurstede on Saparua island, resulting the death of Resident Johannes Rudolph van den Berg and his family. Pattimura was assisted by his friends.
The news of this Pattimura's victory aroused the spirit of po
Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. The island has an area of 775 km2 and is mountainous, well watered, fertile. Ambon Island consists of two territories - the city of Ambon to the south and various districts of the Central Maluku Regency to the north; the main city and seaport is Ambon, the capital of Maluku province, while those districts of Maluku Tengah Regency situated on Ambon Island had a 2014 population of 132,377. Ambon has an airport and is home to the Pattimura University and Open University, state universities, a few private universities, which include Darussalam University and Universitas Kristen Indonesia Maluku. Ambon Island lies off the southwest coast of the much larger Seram island, it is on the north side of part of a chain of volcanic islands that encircle the sea. It is 51 kilometres long and is of irregular shape, being divided in two; the southeastern and smaller portion, a peninsula is united to the northern by a narrow neck of land. The bay thus formed cuts about 20km into the island with the airport on the northern shore and the city of Ambon on the southern side.
The city of Ambon covers the entirety of Leitimor, with its centre on the northwest coast of Leitimor, facing Hitoe, has a safe harbor on Amboina Bay. The highest mountains, Wawani at 1,100 metres and Salahutu at 1,225 metres, have hot springs and solfataras, they are volcanoes, the mountains of the neighboring Lease Islands are extinct volcanoes. Granite and serpentine rocks predominate, but the shores of Amboina Bay are of chalk and contain stalactite caves. Wild areas of Ambon Island are covered by tropical rainforest, part of the Seram rain forests ecoregion, together with neighboring Seram. Seram and most of Maluku are part of Wallacea, the group of Indonesian islands that are separated by deep water from both the Asian and Australian continents and have never been linked to the continents by land; as a result of this isolation, Ambon has few indigenous mammals. The insect diversity of the island, however, is rich in butterflies. Seashells are obtained in great numbers and variety. Tortoise shell is exported.
The population of the island, including a tiny sparsely populated island to the north, is just below 441,000 in the 2010 Census. The average temperature is 27 °C falling below 22 °C. Rainfall can be heavy after the eastern monsoons, the island is vulnerable to violent typhoons; the wet season coincides with the period of the west monsoon. Cassava and sago are the chief crops, which include breadfruit, coffee, cocoa and cotton. In addition to these and fishing supplement the local diet. Nutmeg and cloves were once the dominant export crops. Copra is exported. Amboina wood, obtained from the angsana tree and valued for ornamental woodwork, is now grown on Seram; the main employers in Ambon Island are the Gubernatorial Office, the Mayoral Office, Raiders 733, Ambon City Center. The whole economy of Ambon Island is starting to shift out of the "Old Towne" toward Passo, the newly appointed central business district of the island region; the economy of Ambon Island was boosted by the investment made by Ciputra Group in creating a whole new satellite city in Lateri, Kotamadya Ambon, Maluku: Citraland Bay View City.
Furthermore, the new international standard shopping center, Ambon City Center, opened in 2012. The Ambonese are of mixed Malay-Papuan origin, they are Christians or Muslims. The predominant language of the island is Ambonese Malay called Ambonese, it developed as the trade language of central Maluku and is spoken elsewhere in Maluku as a second language. The old creole trade language called. Bilingualism in Indonesian is high around Ambon City. There have been strong religious tensions on the island between Muslims and Christians and ethnic tensions between indigenous Ambonese and migrants from Sulawesi Butonese and Makassarese migrants. In 1512, the Portuguese were the first Europeans to land in Ambon, it became the new centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku following their expulsion from Ternate; the Portuguese, were attacked by native Muslims on the island's northern coast, in particular Hitu, which had trading and religious links with major port cities on Java's north coast. They established a factory in 1521 but did not obtain peaceable possession of it until 1580.
Indeed, the Portuguese never managed to control the local trade in spices and failed in attempts to establish their authority over the Banda Islands, the nearby centre of nutmeg production. The creole trade language Portugis, was spoken well into the 19th century, many families still have Portuguese names and claim Portuguese ancestry, for example Muskita and De Fretes; the Portuguese were dispossessed by the Dutch in 1605, when Steven van der Hagen took over the fort without a single shot. Ambon was the headquarters of the Dutch East India Company from 1610 to 1619 until the founding of Batavia by the Dutch. About 1615 the English formed a settlement on the island at Cambello, which they retained until 1623, when the Dutch destroyed it. Frightful tortures inflicted on its unfortunate inhabitants were connected with its destruction. In 1654
Saparua is an island east of Ambon Island in the Indonesian province of Maluku. The main port is in the south at Kota Saparua; the island of Maolana is located near Nusa Laut off its southeastern tip. Saparua was administered as a single eponymous district of Central Maluku Regency, but in 2012 an additional district of East Saparua was formed from the eastern peninsula of the original district. Kota Saparua is the administrative centre of the residual district, while Tuhaha is the administrative centre of the new district; the island covers a land area of 168.1 sq.km, had a population of 32,312 as of the 2010 census. The inhabitants of Saparua speak the Saparua language, as well as Ambonese Malay. Saparua was the location of Indonesian national hero, Pattimura's rebellion against Dutch forces in 1817, it was the birthplace of G. A. Siwabessy, a prominent politician, Indonesia's Minister of Health during the 1960s and 1970s. There are 17 administrative villages, listed below with their populations at the 2010 Census.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago in eastern Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, north and east of Timor; the islands were known as the Spice Islands due to the nutmeg and cloves that were exclusively found there, the presence of which sparked colonial interest from Europe in the sixteenth century. The Maluku Islands formed a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999, when it was split into two provinces. A new province, North Maluku, incorporates the area between Morotai and Sula, with the arc of islands from Buru and Seram to Wetar remaining within the existing Maluku Province. North Maluku is predominantly Muslim, its capital is Sofifi on Halmahera island. Maluku province has a larger Christian population, its capital is Ambon. Though Melanesian, many island populations in the Banda Islands, were massacred in the seventeenth century during the spice wars.
A second influx of immigrants from Java began in the early twentieth century under the Dutch and continues in the Indonesian era. Between 1999 and 2002, conflict between Muslims and Christians killed thousands and displaced half a million people; the name Maluku is thought to have been derived from the term used by Arab traders for the region, Jazirat al-Moluk, from the word malik. However, since the name itself has been mentioned in a fourteenth-century Majapahit eulogy, that predates the arrival of Islam in Maluku at the late fifteenth century, other sources claim that the name comes from a local language with the meaning "the head of a bull" or "the head of something large"; the Maluku Islands were a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999 when they were split into North Maluku and Maluku. North Maluku province includes Ternate, Tidore and Halmahera. Arab merchants began bringing Islam. Peaceful conversion to Islam occurred in many islands in the centres of trade, while aboriginal animism persisted in the hinterlands and more isolated islands.
Archaeological evidence here relies on the occurrence of pigs' teeth, as evidence of pork eating or abstinence therefrom. The most significant lasting effects of the Portuguese presence was the disruption and reorganization of the Southeast Asian trade, in eastern Indonesia—including Maluku—the introduction of Christianity; the Portuguese had conquered the city-state of Malacca in the early sixteenth century and their influence was most felt in Maluku and other parts of eastern Indonesia. After the Portuguese annexed Malacca in August 1511, one Portuguese diary noted'it is thirty years since they became Moors'. Afonso de Albuquerque learned of the route to the Banda Islands and other'Spice Islands', sent an exploratory expedition of three vessels under the command of António de Abreu, Simão Afonso Bisigudo and Francisco Serrão. On the return trip, Francisco Serrão was shipwrecked at Hitu island in 1512. There he established ties with the local ruler, impressed with his martial skills; the rulers of the competing island states of Ternate and Tidore sought Portuguese assistance and the newcomers were welcomed in the area as buyers of supplies and spices during a lull in the regional trade due to the temporary disruption of Javanese and Malay sailings to the area following the 1511 conflict in Malacca.
The spice trade soon revived but the Portuguese would not be able to monopolize nor disrupt this trade. Allying himself with Ternate's ruler, Serrão constructed a fortress on that tiny island and served as the head of a mercenary band of Portuguese seamen under the service of one of the two local feuding sultans who controlled most of the spice trade. Both Serrão and Ferdinand Magellan, perished before they could meet one another; the Portuguese first landed in Ambon in 1513, but it only became the new centre for their activities in Maluku following the expulsion from Ternate. European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-European state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah and his son Sultan Said. Following Portuguese missionary work, there have been large Christian communities in eastern Indonesia through to contemporary times, which has contributed to a sense of shared interest with Europeans among the Ambonese; the Dutch competed with the Portuguese in the area for trade.
With the declaration of a single republic of Indonesia in 1950 to replace the federal state, a Republic of South Maluku was declared and attempted to secede. And led by Chris Soumokil and supported by the Moluccan members of the Netherlands special troops; this movement was defeated by the Indonesian army and by special agreement with the Netherlands the troops were transferred to the Netherlands. Maluku is one of the first provinces of Indonesia, proclaimed in 1945 until 1999, when the Maluku Utara and Halmahera Tengah Regencies were split off as a separate province of North Maluku, its capital used to be Ternate, on a small island to the west of the large island of Halmahera, but has been moved to Sofifi on Halmahera itself. The capital of the remaining part of Maluku province remains at Ambon. Religious conflict erupted across the islands in January 1999; the subsequent 18 months were characterized by fighting between local groups of Muslims and Christians, the destruction of thousands of houses, the displacement of approximately