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Leasehold estate

A leasehold estate is an ownership of a temporary right to hold land or property in which a lessee or a tenant holds rights of real property by some form of title from a lessor or landlord. Although a tenant does hold rights to real property, a leasehold estate is considered personal property. Leasehold is a form of land tenure or property tenure where one party buys the right to occupy land or a building for a given length of time; as lease is a legal estate, leasehold estate can be sold on the open market. A leasehold thus differs from a freehold or fee simple where the ownership of a property is purchased outright and thereafter held for an indeterminate length of time, differs from a tenancy where a property is let on a periodic basis such as weekly or monthly; until the end of the lease period the leaseholder has the right to remain in occupation as an assured tenant paying an agreed rent to the owner. Terms of the agreement are contained in a lease, which has elements of contract and property law intertwined.

The term estate for years may be used. This refers to a leasehold estate for any specific period of time An estate for years is not automatically renewed. Colloquially, "lease" and "leasing" are a formalization of a longer, specific period as compared with a "rental" that created a tenancy at will, terminable or renewable at the end of the lease period. Laws governing landlord-tenant relationships can be found as far back as the Code of Hammurabi. However, the common law of the landlord-tenant relation evolved in England during the Middle Ages; that law still retains many archaic terms and principles pertinent to a feudal social order and an agrarian economy, where land was the primary economic asset and ownership of land was the primary source of rank and status. See Lord of the Manor. Modern leasehold estates can take one of four forms—the fixed-term tenancy or tenancy for years, the periodic tenancy, the tenancy at will, the tenancy at sufferance. Forms no longer used include burgage; when a landowner allows one or more persons, called "tenants", to use the land in some way for some fixed period of time, the land becomes a leasehold, the resident- landowner relation is called a "tenancy".

A tenant pays rent to the landowner. The leasehold can include other improvements to the land; the tenant can live on it, or practice a trade on it. Leasehold estates are held by tenants for a specific period of time, such as 99 years. Tenancy was essential to the feudal hierarchy. Leasehold estates can still be Crown land today. For example, in the Australian Capital Territory, all private land "ownerships" are leaseholds of Crown land. In the US, there are food co-ops. Rural tenancy is a common practice. Under a rural tenancy, a person buys a large amount of land and the rural community uses it agriculturally as a source of income. A fixed-term tenancy or tenancy for years lasts for some fixed period of time. Despite the name, such a tenancy can last for any period of time – a tenancy for one week would be called a tenancy for years. At common law the duration did not need to be certain, but could be conditioned upon the happening of some event. In many jurisdictions that possibility has been or abolished.

The tenancy will come to an end automatically when the fixed term runs out, or, in the case of a tenancy that ends on the happening of an event, when the event occurs. It is possible for a tenant, either expressly or impliedly, to give up the tenancy to the landlord; this process is known as a surrender of the lease. A tenancy may come to an end when and if the tenant accepts a buyout agreement from their landlord; the landlord is able to offer to buy the property back from their tenant for a negotiated price as long as the deal is agreed upon by both parties. A periodic tenancy known as a tenancy from year to year, month to month, or week to week, is an estate that exists for some period of time determined by the term of the payment of rent. An oral lease for a tenancy of years that violates the statute of frauds may create a periodic tenancy, the construed term being dependent on the laws of the jurisdiction where the leased premises are located. In many jurisdictions the "default" tenancy, where the parties have not explicitly specified a different arrangement, where none is presumed under local or business custom, is the month-to-month tenancy.

A tenancy at will or estate at will is a leasehold such that either the landlord or the tenant may terminate the tenancy at any time by giving reasonable notice. It occurs in the absence of a lease, or where the tenancy is not for consideration. Under the modern common law, tenancy at will can arise under the following circumstances: the parties expressly agree that the tenancy is at will and not for rent. A family member is allowed to live at home without formal arrangement. A nominal consideration may be required. A tenant wishes to occupy the property urgently, but there was insufficient time to negotiate and execute a lease; the tenancy at will terminates in this case as soon as a written lease is completed. If a lease fails to be realized, the tenant must vacate the property. In a residential lease for consideration, a tenant ma

Trafficking in Persons Report

The Trafficking in Persons Report, or the TIP Report, is an annual report issued by the U. S. State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, it ranks governments based on their perceived efforts to combat human trafficking. The report divides nations into tiers based on their compliance with standards outlined in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000; these tiers are: Tier 1 countries whose governments comply with the TVPA's minimum standards. Tier 2 countries whose governments do not comply with an TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards. Tier 2 watchlist countries whose governments do not comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards and: The absolute number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is significant or is increasing. Tier 3 countries whose governments do not comply with the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so.

There a few special cases such as Yemen, where the civil conflict and humanitarian crisis make gaining information difficult. Some critics of the Trafficking in Persons Report focus on. For example, one recent academic paper suggests how the rankings could better incorporate risk factors of trafficking in order to focus more on prevention. Another critic argues that the Report should better incorporate "international rules that states have collectively developed and accepted," rather than focusing on criteria drawn up by U. S. politicians. Other critics more fundamentally question its methodology and sources, such as anthropologist Laura Agustín, who writes that the Report "relies on CIA, police and embassy guesstimates of situations that are not understood the same way across all cultures and social classes." As part of the report the Department of State announces the awarding of the Hero Acting to End Modern Slavery Awards to a number of individuals. The first such awards were made in 2004.

Awards are made for actions taken to protect victims, bring offenders to justice or to raise awareness of modern slavery. More than 110 individuals from more than 60 countries have been honoured so far. Award winners are invited to a large reception in the United States followed by a tour of several American cities. State Department's Trafficking in Persons Report website

William Dowell (Royal Navy officer)

Admiral Sir William Montagu Dowell was a Royal Navy officer who served as Commander-in-Chief, Devonport. Dowell joined the Royal Navy in 1839, he served in the Black Sea during the Crimean War. He was given command of HMS Hornet and HMS Barrosa and, in the latter ship, took part in the Bombardment of Shimonoseki in 1863, he commanded HMS Euryalus, HMS Topaze and HMS Leander. He was made Commander-in-Chief, Cape of Good Hope and West Coast of Africa Station in 1867 before taking command of HMS Hercules in 1871, he became Second-in-Command of the Channel Squadron in 1877, Senior Officer, Coast of Ireland Station in 1878, Commander-in-Chief, Channel Squadron in 1882, Commander-in-Chief, China Station in 1884 and Commander-in-Chief, Devonport in 1888. He retired in 1890. In retirement he became President of the Royal British Female Orphan Asylum in Plymouth. In 1855 he married Caroline Johnna Pike

Osmani GarcĂ­a

Osmani "La Voz" García González is a Cuban reggaeton rapper and singer. García participated in the National Festival of Cuba and at 19, he received several awards in various categories at which point he began to sing professionally, he co-founded El Duo de Cristal in 2001, who wrote their own songs, combined Cuban styles with international pop. They played three domestic Cuban tours, reached #1 in the Cuban charts and appeared on youth music programs such as A Moverse, Super 12, De mi pa ti and Mezcla. Hits included Mujer quien eres tú, as well as Mujer, used for public service messages on Cuban television promoting International Women's Day and Mother's Day. In early 2006 he joined the group Paulo FG and Elite and performed in the Festival Internacional de Cali in Colombia, sharing the stage with Maelo Ruíz, he has shared the stage with Chucho Valdés, Los Van Van, Tata Güines, Charanga Habanera, Gente de Zona, José Luis Cortes and NG La Banda, Manolito Simonet. In 2008, García set out on his own writing and producing his own material under the production of DJ Nando Pro.

In this project he collaborated with vocalist José "El Pillo", guitarist Armando Peláez and DJ and background vocalist Roly Stereo. In March 2012 García arrived in Miami to do a 14-city tour of the United States, his song Chupi Chupi, an "unabashed ode to oral sex", was denounced in November 2011 by Cuban Minister of Culture Abel Prieto, Cuban Institute of Music President Orlando Vistelas, as degenerate. García made headlines by writing a letter of complaint back to the Minister. Dr. María Córdova, Professor of Music and Art criticized the song in the Cuban Communist Party daily Granma, in the article "Vulgarity in our music: the choice of the'Cuban people'?", arguing that such songs are offensive because of their machismo as well as "reducing sexual relations to the level at which a prostitute would have them. Vulgarity has never been the essence of Cuban music. Music is not always art, not everything that sounds like music is valid from an artistic point of view". A few days prior to that the Cuban state criticized reggaeton music in general, recommended a "low" level of broadcasting of songs of the genre.

The song's video was nominated in several categories for the November 2011 Premios Lucas. As of March 2012 the song was still banned from the Cuban airwaves by the Cuban Institute of Radio and Television. Intro La malcria Acaríciame Hacer el amor No me enamoro Deja la locura Tú me hieres Loca Gira que te veo fija Nada contigo No es culpa tuya Mujer Chupi chupi El pudín Se me va la musa Fue suyo el error Ella es mía La putería Mi amiguito el pipi Pegua la vuelta El taxi The Osmani Garcia's web site The Osmani Garcia's suenacubano.com profile The Osmani Garcia's facebook profile Musica Nueva de Osmani Garcia

Georges Moreau de Tours

Georges Moreau de Tours was a French history painter and illustrator. His father was the psychiatrist Jacques-Joseph Moreau, who first suggested hemp as a treatment of mental illness, his brother Paul Moreau de Tours became a psychiatrist and criminologist. In 1865 he entered the École des Beaux-Arts, he was a regular exhibitor at the Salon from that time until 1896. In addition to his canvas paintings, he produced three scenes for the wedding chamber at the Town Hall in the Second Arrondissement; the works he illustrated include Marie Tudor. He was awarded the Légion d'honneur in 1892. A street in Bois-le-Roi is named after him, his wife Thérèse was a painter of some note. Bois-le-Roi website: Moreau de Tours family ArtNet: More works by Moreau de Tours

Giuseppe Sorge

Giuseppe Sorge was an Italian historian and director of the public security. He was born in Sicily, he came from a distinguished family of Mussomeli. Son of Carmelo Sorce, administrator of the goods of Lanza Branciforte of Trabia, of Maria Crocifissa Nola. In 1884 he married Maria Carolina Crima, nephew of Paolo Paternostro, Red Cross nurse who died during the First World War to fatal disease he contracted in the hospital in Brescia where he lavished, he graduated in law at the College of Palermo. Admitted in service in May 12, 1880, in 1887 he was appointed Regio delegato straordinario of Bronte, during the epidemic of cholera. In 1892 appointed as regio delegato of Acireale and shortly after, he was appointed as sub-prefect of Termini Imerese and in that period, he was involved in the bloody repression of the Fasci Siciliani, he was appointed Prefect of Girgenti and subsequently in Lecce where founded a consortium for health supervision security in the province of Terra d'Otranto. In 1909 he was appointed Prefect of Brescia and Naples where he was appointed Prefect of first class.

Relocated to Brescia. Assigned to Venice where it was placed at the disposal of the Ministry of Interior who appointed him Director General of Public Security under the Ministry Orlando, he ceased office in February 25, 1919. He died in Palermo February 13, 1937, he was buried in the cemetery of St. Ursula Palermo, next to his wife Maria Carolina Crima, he was promoted to Grand Officer of the Order of the Crown of Italy. "Mussomeli dall'origine all'abolizione della feudalità, 1910–1916" "Il cantore di Rosa fresca: divagazioni d'un dilettante" "I Teatri di Palermo nei secoli XVI-XVII-XVIII, Saggio Storico" "Mussomeli nel secolo XIX, Cronache dal 1812 al 1900" "Relazione al Consiglio comunale di Bronte" relation red on November 26, 1887 from regio delegato straordinario avv. Giuseppe Sorge. Letter to G. Lodi "Sull'azione spiegata dal Ministero dell'Interno e dalle Prefetture per l'applicazione della Legge 19 giugno 1913 n. 632 contro l'alcoolismo" relation presented to the "Commissione di Statistica e Legislazione" at Ministry of Justice in April–May 1918 "Sulle dimostrazioni antiaustriache del 1914 – Lettera aperta a S.

E. Antonio Calandra" "Testimonianza resa al tribunale di Palermo da Giuseppe Sorge quale direttore generale di P. S. il 1º ottobre 1917 in relazione al magazzino dei generi requisiti a navi nemiche " Letter to Luigi Sturzo