Mount Osmond, South Australia
Mount Osmond is a small suburb of 2,497 people in the South Australian capital city of Adelaide. It is part of the City of Burnside local government area and located in the foothills of the Adelaide Hills, five kilometres south east of the city centre; the suburb is high on the hill of the same name, the last hill on the right when approaching Adelaide down the South Eastern Freeway before the road levels out onto the Adelaide Plains. It is bounded to the north by the suburb of Beaumont, to the north-east by Burnside, to the east by Waterfall Gully, to the south by Leawood Gardens/Eagle On The Hill, to the south-west by Urrbrae, to the west by Glen Osmond and to the north-west by St Georges; the suburb is at a high elevation in the Mount Lofty Ranges, provides views over Adelaide as well as containing a renowned golf course and country club. Mining operations in the 19th century gave the area notoriety, but it has since developed into a small and secluded suburb. Mount Osmond is within the traditional lands of the Kaurna people, forms part of the Mount Lofty Ranges and is therefore part of the Dreamtime story of the ancestor-creator Nganno.
According to the legend, Nganno was wounded in a battle and laid down to die, forming the Mount Lofty Ranges. When Adelaide was first planned and mapped out by Col. William Light, Mount Osmond received the three allotments 1070, 1277 and 1278. While much of Adelaide was quickly bought Mount Osmond did not enjoy any early buyers; the first reported activity in the area was after the mining rush of Glen Osmond due to the Wheal Watkins and Wheal Gawler mines. Lot 1277 yielded a mine in Slaughterhouse Gully but it was worked only briefly. Subsequent finds of bluestone proved fruitful and the mineral was extracted until 1900, when mining ended and the last of the mines were either filled in or cordoned off. Developers bought the lots that composed Mount Osmond but once again interest in the suburb was minor. Attempts to bring in settlers culminated in the construction of Mount Osmond Road in 1882, it wound around the hills from. Developers broke down the three large lots into two hundred 1-acre ones in the hope of sales.
A few lots were sold to quarrymen and gardeners around Mount Barker Road, but the vast remainder was leased to stockowners as pasture for their livestock. Much of Mount Osmond, along with a large portion of the surrounding area, was bought in 1907 by Ernest C. Sanders, his family made great use of the land, with his sons building houses on the vast property while raising sheep and growing hay. Considerable time was spent by the Sanders family in mapping the area; the Sanders family decided to sell much of their portion of Mount Osmond, around 1922–23 it was put on the market. Like earlier attempts at sales on Mount Osmond, little interest was received and none was sold until 1925; the land was developed into a golf course and Country Club with the assistance of the Burnside Council and its engineers. Credit to the novel idea went to H. E. S. Melbourne, Burnside's chief engineer at the time – who found support among numerous Burnside Councillors; the golf course and country club were developed on the highest part of the mount, on 85 acres of former Sanders estate.
The remaining land was sold by the country club to buyers with strict rules on the development and maintenance of the properties – specific rules applying to aesthetic features gardens, are of note. With a golf course and country club in the vicinity, as well as electricity and a water supply from Waterfall Gully's first creek the eighteen marketed lots once again sold poorly. One of the last large land purchases was that of Ross Thiem in the 1940s. A club member, C. W. Lloyd, sold 200 acres around the golf course, again used as pasture by Thiem, who ran sheep on the property – and was the last to do so; the Highways Department acquired land in 1951, buying 200 acres of land above Beaumont for future transport planning. Thiem's land was sold in the 1950s, to the Rossdale Property Co, their subsequent attempts at selling the land were just as fruitless as those before, once again the property changed hands to the Mount Osmond Heights Pty Ltd. The land was newly subdivided, it was in the late 1960s that much of Mount Osmond was sold to residential buyers.
Fifty-two out of the 116 new sites had been sold by 12 October 1968 at an average of $3,500, according to the Adelaide daily The Advertiser. Since the land sales of that era, Mount Osmond has developed because of the scarcity of land and the housing and development restrictions of the Hills Face Zone. Now the suburb is home to large, tree-filled houses and properties. With the upgrade of Mount Barker Road to become part of the South Eastern Freeway from 1997, Mount Osmond received its own freeway interchange as part of the development. Mount Osmond is composed of the Mount itself and a ridge stretching out to the south-east between the valley of the South Eastern Freeway and that of Waterfall Gully. Much of the suburb is more than 300 metres above sea level, with the Mount Osmond peak itself at 384 metres. Between the north-east and north-west are slopes leading down to the suburbs of Beaumont, Glen Osmond and Waterfall Gully, most of, owned as public land by various government departments – either as parks, tracks or vacant land for possible future use.
A somewhat "ring" of reserves exist on the slopes anti-clockwise from the Old Bullock Track to Mount Osmond Road near the freeway interchange. The South Australian Department of Environment and Natur
Division of Sturt
The Division of Sturt is an Australian electoral division in South Australia. It was proclaimed at the South Australian redistribution of 11 May 1949. Sturt was named for Captain Charles Sturt, nineteenth century explorer and the first European to discover the Murray River. Stretching from Adelaide's mortgage belt suburbs in the centre-east to the wealthy south-eastern suburbs, boundaries at the seat's creation saw it take in suburbs as far west as Port Adelaide and as far north as Virginia until 1955, after which it began to occupy the eastern area of Adelaide. Current boundaries see Sturt covering an area of 85 km² east of the city, from Oakden and Hope Valley in the north to Glen Osmond in the south, taking in the foothills of the Mount Lofty Ranges. Suburbs include Athelstone, Campbelltown, Frewville, Gilles Plains, Glenside, Highbury, Holden Hill, Klemzig, Marden, Paradise and parts of Payneham and Rostrevor. Sturt was first created for the 1949 election as a safe Labor seat with a notional 6.1 percent two-party margin.
However, for all but four of its first 44 years, it was dominated by the Liberal political dynasty of Keith Wilson and his son, Ian. Keith Wilson won the seat in 1949 with a marginal 2.8 percent two-party vote from an 8.9 percent two-party swing as part of the massive Liberal victory of that year. He was unseated by Labor challenger Norman Makin at the 1954 election. However, ahead of the 1955 election, a redistribution transferred most of Sturt's Labor-friendly territory to the newly-created Division of Bonython, turning Sturt from a three percent marginal Labor seat to a 2.4 percent marginal Liberal seat. Makin opted to transfer to Bonython, Keith Wilson retook Sturt in 1955 with a healthy 7.9 percent two-party swing, turning it into a safe Liberal seat in one stroke. He was reelected without serious difficulty until handing Sturt to Ian in 1966. Norm Foster defeated Ian at the 1969 election, but Ian regained the seat at the 1972 election as Labor won government. Ian was a key early member of the progressive Liberal Movement faction within the Liberal Party.
However, he remained with the Liberals when the Liberal Movement became a separate party, served as a minister in the last term of the Fraser government. The Liberal Movement ran a candidate in Sturt in the 1974 election, polling 7.2 percent, much of which derived from Wilson’s vote. The Wilson dynasty ended at the 1993 election, when Ian was defeated for preselection by Christopher Pyne. Sturt was redistributed prior to the 1993 election, reducing the Liberal margin from a safe 7.7 percent two-party margin to a marginal notional 4.7 percent two-party margin. However, Pyne retained the seat with a small swing in his favour, has been returned at every election since; the Liberal Movement's successor party, the Australian Democrats, traditionally polled well in Sturt, highlighted by 13.5 percent at their first showing in the 1977 election and 15 percent in the 1990 election, the best result by a minor party in Sturt. However, the Democrats vote dropped they gained only 2.26 percent in the 2004 election.
The party was deregistered in 2015. Additionally, an independent Liberal contested Sturt at the 1993 election, polling a respectable 14.6 percent. Pyne came close to losing Sturt at the 2007 election to Labor candidate Mia Handshin, after suffering a 5.9 percent two-party swing to finish with a 0.9 percent two-party margin, which made Sturt the most marginal seat in South Australia. Prior to the pre-selection of Handshin, No Pokies MP Nick Xenophon had been considering running in the seat as an independent, before deciding to run for the Senate instead. At the 2010 election, Pyne increased his two-party vote to 53.4 percent, which saw neighbouring Boothby become South Australia's most marginal seat. Pyne increased his two-party margin to 10.1 percent in the 2013 election and was elevated to the Cabinet of Australia. Nick Xenophon confirmed in December 2014 that the Nick Xenophon Team party would field lower and upper house candidates around the country at the 2016 federal election, citing the government's ambiguity on the Collins-class submarine replacement project as the primary motivation.
Before the NXT candidate was announced, a ReachTEL opinion poll of 700 Sturt voters conducted during July 2015 put NXT on 38 percent, the Liberals on 30.8 percent and Labor on 17.4 percent. On the two-party vote, the Liberals were on 52 percent to Labor on 48 percent, with NXT leading the primary vote, the decisive two-candidate vote put NXT on a winning 62 percent to the Liberals on 38 percent. ABC psephologist Antony Green's 2016 federal election guide for South Australia stated NXT had a "strong chance of winning lower house seats and three or four Senate seats". In late 2015, NXT nominated Sturt as their top South Australian lower house target and announced Matthew Wright as their NXT candidate in Sturt. Wright is an emergency physician at the Flinders Medical Centre who has worked for humanitarian projects in the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea and East Timor. A ReachTEL opinion poll in Sturt of 762 voters conducted by robocall on 9 June during the 2016 election campaign found NXT and the Liberals neck-and-neck.
Pyne retained the seat for the Liberals with a 55.9 percent two-party vote from a 4.2 percent two-party swing, reducing the seat from a safe to marginal status. Australian federal election, 2016 Results of the Australian federal election, 2016 ABC profile for Sturt: 2016 Poll Bludger profile for Sturt: 2016 AEC profile for Sturt: 2016 SA boundary map, 2001: AEC SA boundary map, 1984: Atlas SA
Eastwood, South Australia
Eastwood is a small triangular inner-southern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia in the City of Burnside. It is bounded to the north by Greenhill Road and the Adelaide Parklands, to the east by Fullarton Road and the suburb of Glenside, to the southwest by Glen Osmond Road and the suburb of Parkside. In the 2016 Census, there were 764 people in Eastwood. 73.0% of people were born in Australia and 80.2% of people only spoke English at home. The most common response for religion was No Religion at 48.8%. Eastwood is covered by the federal Division of Adelaide. At State Government level, Eastwood is a part of the electoral district of Unley
The Heysen Tunnels are twin tube road tunnels which carry the South Eastern Freeway under Eagle On The Hill in the Mount Lofty Ranges in South Australia. The tunnels were excavated using a tunnelling machine used in heavy-duty mining operations which tunnelled through 500 metres of rock for each tunnel at an average rate of 3 metres per day; the tunnels were completed in 1998 and opened in May 2000. Each tunnel carries 3 lanes of traffic. On average, they carry a total of 45,700 vehicles per day; the maximum height of vehicles permitted in the tunnels is 5.3 metres, the same as the Crafers and Mt Osmond interchanges. Laser height detectors monitor traffic to provide warnings to drivers before they attempt to enter the tunnel; the tunnels are named after artist Sir Hans Heysen. List of tunnels in Australia Australian Roads portal
Brown Hill Creek, South Australia
Brown Hill Creek is a south-eastern suburb of Adelaide in the City of Mitcham in South Australia, named in 1991 after Brown Hill Creek which flows from east to west through the locality. The creek itself was named after Brown Hill which rises south-east of Mitcham village; the area beside the creek in the suburbs of Mitcham and Brown Hill Creek was known to the Kaurna people of the Adelaide Plains as Wirraparinga, meaning "creek and scrub place". The creek valley south of Brown Hill is home to Brownhill Creek Recreation Park and has been the site a recreation park since the late 1800s. A bathing hole was established at a constructed dam on the creek near Mitcham village in 1894 but was removed eight years to protect the interests of market gardeners upstream. A a stone plaque declaring a "pleasure resort" from the early part of the 20th century still stands at the entrance to the valley, where Mitcham borders the suburb of Brown Hill Creek; the recreation reserve extends several kilometres upstream into the main creek valley through the heart of the suburb
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Division of Boothby
The Division of Boothby is an Australian electoral division in South Australia. The division was one of the seven established when the former Division of South Australia was redistributed on 2 October 1903 and is named after William Boothby, the Returning Officer for the first federal election. At the 2016 federal election, the seat covered 130 km², extending from Clarence Gardens and Urrbrae in the north to Marino and part of Happy Valley in the south, including the suburbs of Aberfoyle Park, Blackwood, Daw Park, Eden Hills, Flagstaff Hill, Mitcham, Seacliff, St Marys and Panorama. Before 1949 and the creation of the Division of Sturt, Boothby covered most of the southern and eastern suburbs of Adelaide, changed hands several times between the Liberal Party of Australia and the Australian Labor Party; the 1949 expansion of parliament saw parts of the southern portion transferred to the newly created Division of Kingston and parts of the eastern portion transferred to the newly created Sturt.
This saw Boothby change from a marginal Labor seat on a 1.8 percent two-party margin to a marginal Liberal seat on a two percent two-party margin. However, as part of the massive Liberal victory in the 1949 election, the Liberals picked up a 9.3 percent two-party swing, turning it into a safe Liberal seat in one stroke. The Liberals have held the seat since, for most of that time it has been safe to safe for that party. There was only one substantial redistribution in the past few decades, when Boothby absorbed parts of the abolished Division of Hawker prior to the 1993 election; this cut the Liberal margin by more than half, from a safe 10.7 two-party margin to a marginal notional 4.5 percent two-party margin. However, the Liberals won the seat on a safe 7.8 percent two-party margin. Today Boothby extends from Belair in the east to Brighton and Seacliff in the west. Boothby's most prominent members were Sir John McLeay, Speaker 1956-66, his son John, Jr. a minister in the Fraser government, former state premier Steele Hall.
Hall retired before at the 1996 election and the seat was held from 1996-2016 by Andrew Southcott. At the 2004 election, despite a solid national two-party swing and vote to the Liberals, Boothby became a marginal Liberal seat for the first time in over half a century, with Labor's Chloë Fox reducing the Liberal margin to 5.4 percent as incumbent Andrew Southcott narrowly won enough primary votes to retain the seat without the need for preferences. Labor's Nicole Cornes reduced Southcott's margin further to 2.9 percent at the 2007 election. At the 2010 election Labor's Annabel Digance came within 638 votes of ending the long Liberal run in the seat. At 0.75 percent Boothby was the most marginal seat in South Australia. However, Boothby became a safe Liberal seat again at the 2013 election. In 2015, Southcott announced his retirement from parliament to take effect at the 2016 federal election; the Liberals preselected newspaper columnist Nicolle Flint. Labor preselected 2015 Davenport state by-election candidate Mark Ward.
The Nick Xenophon Team announced Mitcham councillor Karen Hockley as their candidate. ABC psephologist Antony Green's 2016 federal election guide for South Australia stated NXT had a "strong chance of winning lower house seats and three or four Senate seats". Flint won the contest. Australian federal election, 2016 Results of the Australian federal election, 2016 ABC profile for Boothby: 2016 Poll Bludger profile for Boothby: 2016 AEC profile for Boothby: 2016 SA boundary map, 2001: AEC SA boundary map, 1984: Atlas SA