Stanislav Marselyevich Lebamba is a Russian professional football player. He plays for BFC Daugavpils, his father is from his mother Russian. Career summary by sportbox.ru Stanislav Lebamba at Soccerway
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp of the fruit of the oil palms the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa. Palm oil is reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content, it is not to be confused with palm kernel oil derived from the kernel of the same fruit or coconut oil derived from the kernel of the coconut palm. The differences are in color, in saturated fat content: palm mesocarp oil is 49% saturated, while palm kernel oil and coconut oil are 81% and 86% saturated fats, respectively. However, crude red palm oil, refined and deodorized, a common commodity called RBD palm oil, does not contain carotenoids; the oil palm produces bunches containing a large number of fruits with the fleshy mesocarp enclosing a kernel, covered by a hard shell. FAO considers palm palm kernels to be primary products; the oil extraction rate from a bunch varies from 17 to 27% for palm oil, from 4 to 10% for palm kernels.
Along with coconut oil, palm oil is one of the few saturated vegetable fats and is semisolid at room temperature. Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient in the tropical belt of Africa, Southeast Asia and parts of Brazil, its use in the commercial food industry in other parts of the world is widespread because of its lower cost and the high oxidative stability of the refined product when used for frying. One source reported that humans consumed an average 17 pounds of palm oil per person in 2015; the use of palm oil in food products has attracted the concern of environmental activist groups. This has resulted in significant acreage losses of the natural habitat of the three surviving species of orangutan. One species in particular, the Sumatran orangutan, has been listed as critically endangered. In 2004, an industry group called the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil was formed to work with the palm oil industry to address these concerns. Additionally, in 1992, in response to concerns about deforestation, the Government of Malaysia pledged to limit the expansion of palm oil plantations by retaining a minimum of half the nation's land as forest cover.
Humans used oil palms as far as 5,000 years back. It is believed. Palm oil from E. guineensiss has long been recognized in West and Central African countries, is used as a cooking oil. European merchants trading with West Africa purchased palm oil for use as a cooking oil in Europe. Palm oil became a sought-after commodity by British traders, for use as an industrial lubricant for machinery during Britain's Industrial Revolution. Palm oil formed the basis of soap products, such as Lever Brothers' "Sunlight" soap, the American Palmolive brand. By around 1870, palm oil constituted the primary export of some West African countries, such as Ghana and Nigeria, although this was overtaken by cocoa in the 1880s. Palm oil, like all fats, is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol. Palm oil has an high concentration of saturated fat the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, to which it gives its name. Monounsaturated oleic acid is a major constituent of palm oil. Unrefined palm oil is a significant source of part of the vitamin E family.
The approximate concentration of esterified fatty acids in palm oil is: Red palm oil is rich in carotenes, such as alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lycopene, which give it a characteristic dark red color. However, palm oil, refined and deodorized from crude palm oil does not contain carotenes. Many processed foods either contain. After milling, various palm oil products are made using refining processes. First is fractionation, with crystallization and separation processes to obtain solid, liquid fractions. Melting and degumming removes impurities; the oil is filtered and bleached. Physical refining removes smells and coloration to produce "refined and deodorized palm oil" and free fatty acids, which are used in the manufacture of soaps, washing powder and other products. RBDPO is the basic palm oil product sold on the world's commodity markets. Many companies fractionate it further to produce palm oil for cooking oil, or process it into other products. Since the mid-1990s, red palm oil has been cold-pressed from the fruit of the oil palm and bottled for use as a cooking oil, in addition to other uses such as being blended into mayonnaise and vegetable oil.
Oil produced from palm fruit is called red palm oil or just palm oil. It is around 50% saturated fat—considerably less than palm kernel oil—and 40% unsaturated fat and 10% polyunsaturated fat. In its unprocessed state, red palm oil has an intense deep red color because of its abundant carotene content. Like palm kernel oil, red palm oil contains around 50% medium chain fatty acids, but it contains the following nutrients: Carotenoids such as alpha- and beta-carotene and lycopene Sterols Vitamin E Antioxidants in the form of flavonoids and phenolic acid White palm oil is the result of processing and refining; when refined, the palm oil loses its deep red color. It is extensively used in food manufacture and can be found in a variety of pr
Mouila is the capital of the Ngounié region of Gabon. It has a population of about 20,000 people, its main sight is a lake known for its bright blue water. Mouila is spread out and has several markets and commercial centers. A taxi service runs in Mouila. Taxis are green and white and cost 200-500 Central African Francs depending on the distance traveled. Mouila is a major hub of commerce and travel, it is served by Mouila Airport. From Mouila, bush taxis may be obtained traveling to Ndende, Lambaréné, Libreville and Lebamba. Mouila has a tropical savanna climate. François Bozizé, a former president of the Central African Republic, is from Mouila. Pierre Mamboundou, politician André Raponda Walker, the anthropologist and priest worked near here at a place called Sainte-Martin
The Ngounié River is a river flowing through southwest-central Gabon. It is the last and second most important tributary of the Ogooué River, the first being the Ivindo River, it flows down from the Chaillu Mountains, along the border with Congo, turns northwest, flowing through the towns of Fougamou and Mouila before flowing into the Ogooué. The river name, Ngounié, is a French rewording of "Ngugni", used by Vili language speakers in the Samba Falls/Imperatrice Falls area in the mid-1800s to call the northern border of their district, "Nsina-Ngugni"; when Robert Bruce Napoleon Walker and Paul Du Chaillu arrived in the area, they wrote down "Ngouyai" or "Ngunyé". The Gisir and Punu language speakers of Gabon know the river as "Durembu-du-Manga", while the Apindji and Tsogo speakers know it as Otembo-a-Manga; the Kele speakers know it as "Melembye-a-Manga". The first part of these names means "body of water" in the given languages, "manga" refers to dwarf palm trees which grow along its bank; the Ngounié River, with a basin area of about 33,100 square kilometres, is the second largest tributary of the Ogooué River.
It rises in the Chaillu Mountains. For 60 kilometres, the river has a south and west flow, forms a border with Congo. At the Polo River confluence, it changes direction, heading northwest, before passing through three waterfalls, it establishes a floodplain within a 220 kilometres valley between the Moukande Mountains and the Massif due Chaillu. After meandering for more than 400 kilometres on the valley floor, it joins the Ogooué prior to Lambaréné. Development in the floodplain occurs in the areas between Lebamba and Mouila, again from the Fougamou area to the Ogooué at Lambarene. Conservatively, the estimated valley flood land area is 150,000 hectares; the left bank is characterized by sandy clay soils. The Ngounié River Valley is formed between the forest-covered Du Chaillu Hills and the Ikoundou Mountains, has grassy vegetation; the region within this valley is known as Ngounié. Its tributaries include Louetsié, which passes through Mbigou. Imperatrice Falls, are 10 metres in height, they are located in a river bend in 5 kilometres from Fougamou.
Here, the Ngounié measures 150 metres in width and contains small islands. This is within the Peneplain Chaillu, which features granite hills as well as rocky bays; the climate is characterized by its equatorial humidity. The average temperature varies between 23–28 °C; the relative humidity is greater than 80%. Annual rainfall is measured around 2,000–2,200 millimetres. Wet seasons occur during September -- March -- May; the hydro-power potential of the Ngounié River has been proposed to be tapped by a hydroelectric project located on the Empress Eugénie Falls. The project is planned as a 56 MW run-of-the-river scheme with four units 14 MW capacity each. Two additional units of 14 MW have been planned for completion in 2015, thus taking the total installed capacity of the station to 84 MW; the project utilizes the main Empress Eugénie waterfall of about 12 metres and a series of rapids in a river length of 2,000 metres, creating a total head of 20 metres for power generation. The geology in the project area consists of granite gneiss formations.
National Geographic. 2003. African Adventure Atlas Pg 24,72. Led by Sean Frase Barret, Jacques. Géographie et cartographie du Gabon: atlas illustré. Editions classiques d'expression francaise. P. 14–15. ISBN 978-2-85069-301-4. Gray, Christopher John. Colonial Rule and Crisis in Equatorial Africa: Southern Gabon, C. 1850-1940. University Rochester Press. ISBN 978-1-58046-048-4. Hickendorff, Annelies. Gabon. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-554-6. Hughes, R. H.. A Directory of African Wetlands. IUCN. ISBN 978-2-88032-949-5. Warne, Sophie. Gabon, São Tomé and Príncipe. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-073-2
Gabon the Gabonese Republic, is a country on the west coast of Central Africa. Located on the equator, Gabon is bordered by Equatorial Guinea to the northwest, Cameroon to the north, the Republic of the Congo on the east and south, the Gulf of Guinea to the west, it has an area of nearly 270,000 square kilometres and its population is estimated at 2 million people. Its capital and largest city is Libreville. Since its independence from France in 1960, the sovereign state of Gabon has had three presidents. In the early 1990s, Gabon introduced a multi-party system and a new democratic constitution that allowed for a more transparent electoral process and reformed many governmental institutions. Abundant petroleum and foreign private investment have helped make Gabon one of the most prosperous countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, with the 7th highest HDI and the fourth highest GDP per capita in the region. GDP grew by more than 6% per year from 2010 to 2012. However, because of inequality in income distribution, a significant proportion of the population remains poor.
Gabon's name originates from gabão, Portuguese for "cloak", the shape of the estuary of the Komo River by Libreville. The earliest inhabitants of the area were Pygmy peoples, they were replaced and absorbed by Bantu tribes as they migrated. In the 15th century, the first Europeans arrived. By the 18th century, a Myeni speaking kingdom known as Orungu formed in Gabon. On February 10, 1722, Bartholomew Roberts, a Welsh pirate known as Black Bart, died at sea off Cape Lopez, he raided ships off the Americas and West Africa from 1719 to 1722. French explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza led his first mission to the Gabon-Congo area in 1875, he founded the town of Franceville, was colonial governor. Several Bantu groups lived in the area, now Gabon when France occupied it in 1885. In 1910, Gabon became one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa, a federation that survived until 1959. In World War II, the Allies invaded Gabon in order to overthrow the pro-Vichy France colonial administration.
The territories of French Equatorial Africa became independent on August 17, 1960. The first president of Gabon, elected in 1961, was Léon M'ba, with Omar Bongo Ondimba as his vice president. After M'ba's accession to power, the press was suppressed, political demonstrations banned, freedom of expression curtailed, other political parties excluded from power, the Constitution changed along French lines to vest power in the Presidency, a post that M'ba assumed himself. However, when M'ba dissolved the National Assembly in January 1964 to institute one-party rule, an army coup sought to oust him from power and restore parliamentary democracy. French paratroopers flew in within 24 hours to restore M'ba to power. After a few days of fighting, the coup ended and the opposition was imprisoned, despite widespread protests and riots. French soldiers still remain in the Camp de Gaulle on the outskirts of Gabon's capital to this day; when M'Ba died in 1967, Bongo replaced him as president. In March 1968, Bongo declared Gabon a one-party state by dissolving the BDG and establishing a new party—the Parti Democratique Gabonais.
He invited all Gabonese, regardless of previous political affiliation. Bongo sought to forge a single national movement in support of the government's development policies, using the PDG as a tool to submerge the regional and tribal rivalries that had divided Gabonese politics in the past. Bongo was elected President in February 1975. Bongo was November 1986 to 7-year terms. In early 1990 economic discontent and a desire for political liberalization provoked violent demonstrations and strikes by students and workers. In response to grievances by workers, Bongo negotiated with them on a sector-by-sector basis, making significant wage concessions. In addition, he promised to open up the PDG and to organize a national political conference in March–April 1990 to discuss Gabon's future political system; the PDG and 74 political organizations attended the conference. Participants divided into two loose coalitions, the ruling PDG and its allies, the United Front of Opposition Associations and Parties, consisting of the breakaway Morena Fundamental and the Gabonese Progress Party.
The April 1990 conference approved sweeping political reforms, including creation of a national Senate, decentralization of the budgetary process, freedom of assembly and press, cancellation of an exit visa requirement. In an attempt to guide the political system's transformation to multiparty democracy, Bongo resigned as PDG chairman and created a transitional government headed by a new Prime Minister, Casimir Oye-Mba; the Gabonese Social Democratic Grouping, as the resulting government was called, was smaller than the previous government and included representatives from several opposition parties in its cabinet. The RSDG drafted a provisional constitution in May 1990 that provided a basic bill of rights and an independent judiciary but retained strong executive powers for the president. After further review by a constitutional committee and the National Assembly, this document came into force in March 1991. Opposition to the PDG continued after the April 1990 conference, in September 1990, two coup d'état attempts were uncovered and aborted.
Despite anti-government demonstrations after the untimely death of an opposition leader, the first multiparty National Assembly elections in almo