Senegal the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa. Senegal is bordered by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the southeast, Guinea-Bissau to the southwest. Senegal borders The Gambia, a country occupying a narrow sliver of land along the banks of the Gambia River, which separates Senegal's southern region of Casamance from the rest of the country. Senegal shares a maritime border with Cape Verde. Senegal's economic and political capital is Dakar; the unitary semi-presidential republic is the westernmost country in the mainland of the Old World, or Afro-Eurasia, owes its name to the Senegal River, which borders it to the east and north. Senegal covers a land area of 197,000 square kilometres and has an estimated population of about 15 million; the climate is Sahelian, though there is a rainy season. From a Portuguese transliteration of the name of the Zenaga known as the Sanhaja, or a combination of the supreme deity in Serer religion and o gal meaning body of water in the Serer language.
Alternatively, the name could derive from the Wolof phrase "Sunuu Gaal," which means "our boat." The territory of modern Senegal has been inhabited by various ethnic groups since prehistory. Organized kingdoms emerged around the seventh century, parts of the country were ruled by prominent regional empires such as the Jolof Empire; the present state of Senegal has its roots in European colonialism, which began during the mid-15th century, when various European powers began competing for trade in the area. The establishment of coastal trading posts led to control of the mainland, culminating in French rule of the area by the 19th century, albeit amid much local resistance. Senegal peacefully attained independence from France in 1960, has since been among the more politically stable countries in Africa. Senegal's economy is centered on commodities and natural resources. Major industries are fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials, ship construction and repair.
As in most African nations, agriculture is a major sector, with Senegal producing several important cash crops, including peanuts, cotton, green beans, tomatoes and mangoes. Owing to its relative stability and hospitality are burgeoning sectors. With it being a multiethnic and secular nation, Senegal is predominantly Sunni Muslim with Sufi and animist influences. French is the official language, although many native languages are recognized. Since April 2012, Senegal's president has been Macky Sall. Senegal has been a member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie since 1970. Archaeological findings throughout the area indicate that Senegal was inhabited in prehistoric times and has been continuously occupied by various ethnic groups; some kingdoms were created around the 7th century: Takrur in the 9th century and the Jolof Empire during the 13th and 14th centuries. Eastern Senegal was once part of the Ghana Empire. Islam was introduced through Toucouleur and Soninke contact with the Almoravid dynasty of the Maghreb, who in turn propagated it with the help of the Almoravids, Toucouleur allies.
This movement faced resistance from ethnicities of the Serers in particular. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the area came under the influence of the empires to the east. In the Senegambia region, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved as a result of captives taken in warfare. In the 14th century the Jolof Empire grew more powerful, having united Cayor and the kingdoms of Baol, Saloum, Futa Tooro and Bambouk, or much of present-day West Africa; the empire was a voluntary confederacy of various states rather than an empire built on military conquest. The empire was founded by Ndiadiane Ndiaye, a part Serer and part Toucouleur, able to form a coalition with many ethnicities, but collapsed around 1549 with the defeat and killing of Lele Fouli Fak by Amari Ngone Sobel Fall. In the mid-15th century, the Portuguese landed on the Senegal coastline, followed by traders representing other countries, including the French. Various European powers—Portugal, the Netherlands, Great Britain—competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward.
In 1677, France gained control of what had become a minor departure point in the Atlantic slave trade—the island of Gorée next to modern Dakar, used as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland. European missionaries introduced Christianity to the Casamance in the 19th century, it was only in the 1850s that the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland after they abolished slavery and began promoting an abolitionist doctrine, adding native kingdoms like the Waalo, Cayor and Jolof Empire. French colonists progressively invaded and took over all the kingdoms except Sine and Saloum under Governor Louis Faidherbe. Yoro Dyao was in command of the canton of Foss-Galodjina and was set over Wâlo by Louis Faidherbe, where he served as a chief from 1861 to 1914. Senegalese resistance to the French expansion and curtailing of their lucrative slave trade was led in part by Lat-Dior, Damel of Cayor, Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof, the Maad a Sinig of Sine, resulting in the Battle of Logandème.
On 4 April 1959 Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became independent on 20 June 1960, as a result of a transfer of power agreement signed with France on 4 April 1960. Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on 20 August, when
Ouakam is a commune d'arrondissement in the city of Dakar, Senegal. The commune is the birthplace of French politicians Ségolène Royal and Rama Yade and Senegalese writer and politician Birago Diop. Ouakam is one of the four original Lebou villages of the Cap-Vert Peninsula, along with Yoff and Hann. Ouakam is an ancient village, it is situated on the Atlantic coast at the foot of a range of hills, the Deux Mamelles, Ouakam has two beaches, one of, popular among surfers. According to the 2013 census, the commune of Ouakam comprised 74,692 people; the Mosque of the Divine was built by Mohamed Gorgui Seyni Guèye, a holy man who claimed to see the mosque in a dream. He followed the dream to the beach on June 28, 1973, where he received an order from the Lord to build it; the African Renaissance Monument was constructed on one of the Deux Mamelles hills in Ouakam and was unveiled on April 4, 2010. The village of Ouakam is home to the Lebou people. In the colonial era, Senegalese riflemen were garrisoned at Ouakam, while today the community is home to several military encampments such as the National Military Academy, a French Army air base, a Senegalese Air Force base.
Ouakam is a tourist center with the construction of the new African Renaissance Monument. Its chief football clubs are Entente Sotrac. Mouhamed Gorgui Seyni Gueye, builder of the Madjidoul Rabani Mosque near the beach Birago Diop, writer Ségolène Royal, French politician, was born on the military base at Ouakam where her father, Jacques Royal, was an artillery colonel Rama Yade, French politician and Secretary of State for Sports C. T. Mbengue, An Introduction to the Traditional Villages of Yoff and Ouakam, in R. Register and B. Peeks, Village wisdom, future cities, 1996, Third international conference Écoville-Écovillage, Ecocity Builders, California, pp. 82–85 Germaine Françoise Bocandé, L’implantation militaire française dans la région du Cap-Vert: causes, problèmes et conséquences des origines à 1900, University of Dakar, 1980, 112 p. Maps and airports for Ouakam « La vague de Ouakam »
The Dyula are a Mande ethnic group inhabiting several West African countries, including the Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana,and Burkina Faso. Characterized as a successful merchant caste, Dyula migrants began establishing trading communities across the region in the fourteenth century. Since business was conducted under non-Muslim rulers, the Dyula developed a set of theological principles for Muslim minorities in non-Muslim societies, their unique contribution of long-distance commerce, Islamic scholarship and religious tolerance were significant factors to the peaceful expansion of Islam in West Africa. The Mandé embraced Islam during the thirteenth century following introduction to the faith through contact with the Soninké people and North African traders. By the 14th century the Malian empire had reached its apogee, acquiring a considerable reputation for the Islamic rulings of its court and the pilgrimages of several emperors who followed the tradition of Lahilatul Kalabi, the first black prince to make hajj to Mecca.
It was at this time that Mali began encouraging some of its local merchants to establish colonies close to the gold fields of West Africa. This migrant trading class were known as Dyula, the Mandingo word for “merchant”; the Dyula spread throughout the former area of Mandé culture from the Atlantic coast of Senegambia to the Niger and from the southern edge of the Sahara to forest zones further south. They established decentralized townships in non-Muslim colonies that were linked to an extensive commercial network, in what was described by professor Philip D. Curtin as a “trading diaspora.” Motivated by business imperatives, they expanded into new markets, founding settlements under the auspices of various local rulers who permitted them self-governance and autonomy. Organization of dyula trading companies was based a clan-family structure known as the lu - a working unit consisting of a father and his sons and other attached males. Members of a given lu dispersed from the savanna to the forest, managed circulation of goods and information, placed orders, controlled the economic mechanisms of supply and demand.
Over time dyula colonies developed a theological rationale for their relations with non-Muslim ruling classes and subjects in what author Nehemia Levtzion dubbed “accommodationist Islam”. The man credited with formulating this rationale is Sheikh Al-Hajj Salim Suwari, a Soninke cleric from the core Mali area who lived around 1500, he made hajj to Mecca several times and devoted his intellectual career to developing an understanding of the faith that would assist Muslim minorities in “pagan” lands. He drew on North African and Middle Eastern jurists and theologians who had reflected on the problem of Muslims living among non-Muslim majorities, situations that were frequent in the centuries of Islamic expansion. Sheikh Suwari formulated the obligations of Muslim minorities in West Africa into something known as the Suwarian tradition, it stressed the need for Muslims to coexist peaceably with unbelievers and so justified a separation of religion and politics. In this understanding, Muslims must nurture their own learning and piety and thereby furnish good examples to the non-Muslims around them.
They could accept jurisdiction of non-Muslim authorities as long as they had the necessary protection and conditions to practice the faith. In this teaching, Suwari followed a strong predilection in Islamic thought for any government if non-Muslim or tyrannical as opposed to none; the military jihad was a resort. Suwari discouraged dawah, instead contending that Allah would bring non-Muslims to Islam in His own way. Since their Islamic practice was capable of accommodating traditional cults, dyula served as priests and counselors at the courts of animist rulers; as fellow Muslims, dyula merchants were able to assess the valuable trans-Saharan trade network conducted by North African Arabs and Berbers whom they met at commercial centers across the Sahel. Some important trade goods included gold, millet and kola nuts from the south and slave beads and cowrie shells from the north, it was under Mali that the great cities of the Niger bend including Gao and Djenné prospered, with Timbuktu in particular becoming known across Europe for its great wealth.
Important trading centers in Southern West Africa developed at the transitional zone between the forest and the savanna. Western trade routes continued to be important, with Ouadane and Chinguetti being the major trade centres in what is now Mauritania; the development of Dyula trade in Ghana and the adjacent Ivory Coast had important political consequences and sometimes military implications as well. The dyula spearheaded Mande penetration of the forested zones in the south by establishing caravan routes and trading posts at strategic locations throughout the region en route to cola-producing areas. By the start of the sixteenth century, dyula merchants were trading as far south as the coast of modern Ghana. On the forest's northern fringes, new states emerged, such as Banda; as the economic value of gold and kola became appreciated, forests south of these states which had hitherto been little inhabited because of limited agricultural potential became more thickly populated, the same principles of political and military mobilization began being applied there.
Village communities became tributaries of ruling groups, with some members becoming the clients and slaves needed to support royal households and trading enterprises. Som
The Biafada people is an ethnic group of Guinea-Bissau and Gambia. This group is considered as a subgroup of the Tenda people. In Guinea Bissau, the Biafada are divided into four groups. A small group speaks the Gool dialect. Two large groups reside in Quinara Region, the southwestern part of the country, they speak the Bubwas and Guinala dialects; the fourth group live in the southern province of Tombali, on the border with Guinea Conakry, speaks the dialect Bagandada. They were once grouped into three kingdoms: Biguda and Bissege; the Biafada speak the Biafada language. Like most West Africans, the Biafada are farmers; the staple crops for these people are rice. However, due to globalization, they raise other crops that originated in other parts of the world: maize, melons, potatoes and tomatoes. Devoted to livestock, the Biafadas raise sheep and goats for meat, as they do not drink milk from those animals; this reduces the importance of the hunting. A ceremony celebrates. One characteristic of these ceremonies is the practice of circumcision.
This applies to males, but sometimes to females. In more conservative families it is forbidden for a woman to become pregnant outside of marriage. If this happens, the woman and the man are subject to heavy punishment known as "di minjer justisa"; this was banned by Guinea Bissau in the 1970s. However Polygamy is common; the majority of Biafadas are Sunni Muslims. However, some are animists who believe that objects have spirits; the Biafadas mix Islam with animistic rites. About a dozen Biafada are most resident in Biafada. Other Biafadas are Catholics in the capital
Yof is a town, part of the city of Dakar. It lies north of downtown Dakar and north of Dakar Airport; the town is built along the broad beach at Yoff Bay. According to the 2014 census, the population of Yoff is 89,442 inhabitants. Yoff is one of the four original Lebou villages of the Cap-Vert Peninsula, along with Hann and Ouakam. Administration is devolved to the town, run by the Layene Islamic Brotherhood, the town featuring the mausoleum of its founder; as a result, no alcohol is available in the town. Fishing is an important local industry. There are numerous construction-industry businesses and suppliers in the Yoff area, it includes the largest Muslim cemetery serving greater Dakar. Senegal Airlines has its head office on the airport property. At one time Air Sénégal International had its head office on the grounds of the airport. Geja Roosjen. Stichting Yoff: Project Moving Birds for Senegal 2006-2007. Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Retrieved 2009-01-20. Richard Dumez and Moustapha Kâ. Yoff Le Territoire Assiégé: Un village lébou dans la banlieue de Dakar.
Dossiers régions côtières et petites îles 7. Unesco. Dakar. Britannica Online
Ngor is a commune d'arrondissement of the city of Dakar, Senegal. As of 2013 it had a population of 17,383; the westernmost point of the African continent is located there. Ngor is one of the four original Lebou villages of the Cap-Vert Peninsula, along with Yoff and Ouakam, it includes the small island of Ngor. Ngor's recorded history dates back to 1550 when migrants from the interior of Senegal including the Walo, Cayor and Baol came into the Cap-Vert peninsula; the most notable football club is Olympique de Ngor, the club once played at the First Division of Senegal and Ligue 1 and was relegated in 2016 to Ligue 2 where they play. Another club named Almadies who once played in the First Division up to around the 1970s was based in Ngor. Diogal Sakho, musician C. T. Mbengue, "An introduction to the traditional villages of Yoff and Ouakam ", R. Register and B. Peeks, Village wisdom, future cities, 1996, Third Ecoville-Ecovillage International Conference at Yoff, Sénégal, Ecocity Builders, California, p. 82–85.
Jean-Louis Acquier, village de la grande banlieue de Dakar: traditions et mutations, University of Bordeaux, 1971, p. 250 p. Fatou Seye Mbow, Évolution des villages lébou du Cap-Vert: le cas de Ngor', University of Dapar, 1983, p. 168 Official website
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal. It is located on the Cap-Vert peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city on the African mainland; the city of Dakar proper has a population of 1,030,594, whereas the population of the Dakar metropolitan area is estimated at 2.45 million. The area around Dakar was settled in the 15th century; the Portuguese established a presence on the island of Gorée off the coast of Cap-Vert and used it as a base for the Atlantic slave trade. France took over the island in 1677. Following the abolition of the slave trade and French annexation of the mainland area in the 19th century, Dakar grew into a major regional port and a major city of the French colonial empire. In 1902, Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the capital of French West Africa. From 1959 to 1960, Dakar was the capital of the short-lived Mali Federation. In 1960, it became the capital of the independent Republic of Senegal. Dakar is home to multiple national and regional banks as well as numerous international organizations.
From 1978 to 2007, it was the traditional finishing point of the Dakar Rally. Dakar will host the 2022 Summer Youth Olympics, making it the first African city to host the Olympics; the Cap-Vert peninsula was settled no than the 15th century, by the Lebou people, an aquacultural ethnic group related to the neighboring Wolof and Serer. The original villages: Ouakam, Ngor and Hann, still constitute distinctively Lebou neighborhoods of the city today. In 1444, the Portuguese reached the Bay of Dakar as slave-raiders. Peaceful contact was opened in 1456 by Diogo Gomes, the bay was subsequently referred to as the "Angra de Bezeguiche"; the bay of "Bezeguiche" would go on to serve as a critical stop for the Portuguese India Armadas of the early 16th century, where large fleets would stop, both on their outward and return journeys from India, to repair, collect fresh water from the rivulets and wells along the Cap-Vert shore and trade for provisions with the local people for their remaining voyage. The Portuguese founded a settlement on the island of Gorée, which by 1536 they began to use as a base for slave exportation.
The mainland of Cap-Vert, was under control of the Jolof Empire, as part of the western province of Cayor which seceded from Jolof in its own right in 1549. A new Lebou village, called Ndakaaru, was established directly across from Gorée in the 17th century to service the European trading factory with food and drinking water. Gorée was captured by the United Netherlands in 1588; the island was to switch hands between the Portuguese and Dutch several more times before falling to the English under Admiral Robert Holmes on January 23, 1664, to the French in 1677. Though under continuous French administration since, métis families, descended from Dutch and French traders and African wives, dominated the slave trade; the infamous "House of Slaves" was built at Gorée in 1776. In 1795, the Lebou of Cape Verde revolted against Cayor rule. A new theocratic state, subsequently called the "Lebou Republic" by the French, was established under the leadership of the Diop, a Muslim clerical family from Koki in Cayor.
The capital of the republic was established at Ndakaaru. In 1857 the French established a military post at Ndakaaru and annexed the Lebou Republic, though its institutions continued to function nominally; the Serigne of Ndakaaru is still recognized as the traditional political authority of the Lebou by the Senegalese State today. The slave trade was abolished by France in February 1794. However, Napoleon reinstated it in May 1802 finally abolished it permanently in March 1815. Despite Napoleon's abolition, a clandestine slave trade continued at Gorée until 1848, when it was abolished throughout all French territories. To replace trade in slaves, the French promoted peanut cultivation on the mainland; as the peanut trade boomed, tiny Gorée Island, whose population had grown to 6,000 residents, proved ineffectual as a port. Traders from Gorée decided to move to the mainland and a "factory" with warehouses was established in Rufisque in 1840. Large public expenditure for infrastructure was allocated by the colonial authorities to Dakar's development.
The port facilities were improved with jetties, a telegraph line was established along the coast to Saint-Louis and the Dakar-Saint-Louis railway was completed in 1885, at which point the city became an important base for the conquest of the western Sudan. Gorée, including Dakar, was recognised as a French commune in 1872. Dakar itself was split off from Gorée as a separate commune in 1887; the citizens of the city elected their own mayor and municipal council and helped send an elected representative to the National Assembly in Paris. Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the capital of French West Africa in 1902. A second major railroad, the Dakar-Niger built from 1906–1923, linked Dakar to Bamako and consolidated the city's position at the head of France's West African empire. In 1929, the commune of Gorée Island, now with only a few hundred inhabitants, was merged into Dakar. Urbanization during the colonial period was marked by forms of racial and social segregation—often expressed in terms of health and hygiene—which continue to structure the city today.
Following a plague epidemic in 1914, the authorities forced most of the African population out of old neighborhoods, o