Aleksander Kwaśniewski is a Polish politician and journalist. He served as the President of Poland from 1995 to 2005, he was born in Białogard, during Communist rule, he was active in the Socialist Union of Polish Students and was the Minister for Sport in the Communist government during the 1980s. After the fall of Communism, he became a leader of the left-wing Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland, successor to the former ruling Polish United Workers' Party, a co-founder of the Democratic Left Alliance. Kwaśniewski was elected to the presidency in 1995, defeating the Lech Wałęsa, he was re-elected to a final term as president in 2000 in a decisive first-round victory. Although he was praised for attempting to further integrate Poland into the European Union, he faced criticism for involving the country in the Iraq War, his term ended on 23 December 2005, when he handed over power to his elected successor, conservative Lech Kaczyński. From 1973-77, Kwaśniewski studied Transport Economics and Foreign Trade at the University of Gdańsk, although he never graduated.
He became politically active at this time, joined the ruling Polish United Workers' Party in 1977, remaining a member until it was dissolved in 1990. An activist in the communist student movement until 1982, he held, among other positions, the chairmanship of the University Council of the Socialist Union of Polish Students from 1976-77 and the vice-chairmanship of the Gdańsk Voivodship Union from 1977-79. Kwaśniewski was a member of the SZSP supreme authorities from 1977-82. From November 1981 to February 1984 he was the editor-in-chief of the communist-controlled student weekly ITD editor-in-chief of the daily communist youth Sztandar Młodych from 1984-85, he was a co-founder of the first computer-science periodical in Poland, Bajtek, in 1985. From 1985-87, Kwaśniewski was Minister for Youth Affairs in the Zbigniew Messner government, Chairman of the Committee for Youth and Physical Culture till June 1990, he joined the government of Mieczysław Rakowski, first as a Cabinet Minister and as chairman of the government Social-Political Committee from October 1988 to September 1989.
A participant in the Round-Table negotiations, he co-chaired the task group for trade-union pluralism with Tadeusz Mazowiecki and Romuald Sosnowski. As the PZPR was wound up, he became a founding member of the post-communist Social Democratic Party of the Republic of Poland from January to February 1990, its first chairman until he assumed the presidency in December 1995, he was one of the founding members of the coalition Democratic Left Alliance in 1991. Kwaśniewski was an activist in the Student Sports Union from 1975-79 and the Polish Olympic Committee. Running for the Sejm from the Warsaw constituency in 1991, he won the largest number of votes, although did not win an absolute majority. Kwaśniewski headed the parliamentary caucus of the Democratic Left Alliance in his first and second terms, he was a member of the Foreign Affairs Committee and chairman of the Constitutional Committee of the National Assembly from November 1993 to November 1995. In an bitter campaign, Kwaśniewski won the presidential election in 1995, collecting 51.7 percent of votes in the run-off, against 48.3 percent for the incumbent, Lech Wałęsa, the former Solidarity leader.
Kwaśniewski's campaign slogans were "Let's choose the future" and "A Poland for all". Political opponents disputed his victory, produced evidence to show that he had lied about his education in registration documents and public presentations. There was some mystery over his graduation from university. A law court confirmed that Kwaśniewski had lied about his record—and this did not come to light until after the election—but did not penalise him for it. Kwaśniewski took the presidential oath of office on 23 December 1995; the same day, he was sworn in as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces at the Warszawa First Fighter Wing, in Mińsk Mazowiecki. His political course resembled that of Wałęsa's in several key respects, such as the pursuit of closer ties to the European Union and NATO. Kwaśniewski continued the transition to a market economy and the privatization of state-owned enterprises, although with less energy than his predecessor. Hoping to be seen as "the president of all Poles", including his political opponents, he quit the Social Democratic Party after election.
He formed a coalition with the rightist government of Jerzy Buzek with few major conflicts and on several occasions he stood against movements of the Democratic Left Alliance government of Leszek Miller. At one moment, support for Kwaśniewski reached as high as 80% in popularity polls. In 1997, Polish newspaper Zycie reported that Kwaśniewski had met former KGB officer Vladimir Alganov at the Baltic sea resort Cetniewo in 1994. First Kwaśniewski denied meeting Alganov and filed a libel suit against the newspaper. Kwaśniewski admitted that he had met Alganov on official occasions, but denied meeting him in Cetniewo. Kwaśniewski's greatest achievement was his ability to bring about a new Constitution of Poland to replace the modified Stalinist document still in use; the failure to create a new document had been a criticism leveled at Wałęsa. Kwaśniewski campaigned for its approval in the subsequent referendum, he signed it into law on 16 July 1997, he took an active part in the efforts to secure Polish membership of NATO.
He headed Poland's delegation at the 1997 Madrid summit, where Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary were promised membership
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Rzeczpospolita is a nationwide daily economic and legal newspaper and the only conservative-liberal newspaper in Poland. It is issued by Gremi Media SA; the paper's title may be loosely translated as "commonwealth" or "republic", a part of the traditional full name of the Polish state – Rzeczpospolita Polska. Rzeczpospolita is read by 274,000 adult Poles on a daily basis, of which 75% have higher education, nearly 87% have a permanent job. More than three-quarters of key corporate personnel choose Rzeczpospolita. Over one half of Rzeczpospolita readers manage the work of others on an everyday basis. A daily newspaper with this title was issued for the first time in 1920 as a medium of the conservative Christian National Party, it was Initially owned by its founder Ignacy Jan Paderewski and after 1924 by Wojciech Korfanty, two prominent politicians of that time. The editor-in-chief Stanisław Stroński sought to maintain quality of the content by cooperating with a group of authors, including Adolf Nowaczyński, Kornel Makuszyński, Władysław Witwicki.
The last issue of Rzeczpospolita in the Second Polish Republic appeared on the last day of 1931. During the war, an irregular paper associated with one of the Polish resistance groups – Polish People's Independence Action – was issued under the same title. In 1944 an administration dependent on the Soviet Union started activities behind the lines of the Red Army, within the territory of Poland; the activity was directed only against former Nazi German forces, in order to gain the favour of Polish society. On 23 July 1944, when the war had not been over yet, the first issue of Rzeczpospolita – the newspaper of the Polish Committee of National Liberation – was published in Chełm; the editor-in-chief was Jerzy Borejsza, a communist activist and journalist in the interwar years, who after the outbreak of war collaborated with the Russians before they entered Polish territory. His articles in Rzeczpospolita presented the opinions in line with the position of the Kremlin; the newspaper began strenuous endeavours.
The Home Army commanders and their decision to commence the Warsaw Uprising were criticised, while nationalisation and land reform were supported. After the war, Rzeczpospolita was issued by "Czytelnik" cooperative publishing house, whose president was Borejsza himself, he delegated the editorial duties to Paweł Hoffman. Dziennik Gospodarczy changing it again to Rzeczpospolita. Dziennik Polityczno-Gospodarczy. In 1949, the editor-in-chief was Henryk Korotyński, newspaper joined the campaign against the Roman Catholic Church. In 1949, the state authorities had established another newspaper – People's Tribune as an organ of a newly formed political party, the Polish United Workers' Party. Rzeczpospolita had been issued still by nearly two years, until the beginning of 1951, when it was discontinued because coexistence of the party and government newspapers was considered at that time unfavorable for a consolidated one-party state. Part of the team joined Głos Pracy, while several journalists, including Korotyński, moved to Życie Warszawy.
In 1980 the state had faced a crisis, the party's overall image deteriorated significantly. This prompted the idea to relaunch a separate government newspaper. In the spring of 1981, thus during the rise of Solidarity, Edmund Osmańczyk, member of parliament of the Polish People’s Republic, proposed to revive Rzeczpospolita as a "governmental medium presenting the position of the state on a daily basis”. Józef Barecki, former editor of Trybuna Ludu, a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and of the parliament, as well as a government spokesman for a year, was appointed as the editor-in-chief; the first issue of the new Rzeczpospolita appeared during the martial law, on 14 January 1982. The state, as an entity, had become independent from the party. Thus, from 1982 onwards and Trybuna Ludu resumed their parallel existence as the official bulletins of the government and the party apparatus respectively; this dualism corresponded to the situation in the Soviet Union, where the government newspaper Izvestia functioned alongside the party's Pravda, where Izvestia has steered a course strikingly similar to Rzeczpospolita in the 1990s.
After the free elections of 4 June 1989 and after Tadeusz Mazowiecki became Prime Minister, the management of the newspaper changed as well. Rzeczpospolita became an independent newspaper, its new editor-in-chief was Dariusz Fikus. The new Polish government made Rzeczpospolita legitimately independent. In February 1991, Państwowe Przedsiębiorstwo Wydawnicze "Rzeczpospolita", a state publishing company, with Maciej Cegłowski as the new CEO, together with the French Robert Hersant press group, Presse Participations Europennes, established Presspublica company, its first CEO was the editor-in-chief of Rzeczpospolita, Dariusz Fikus. The Polish shareholder held 51% of company shares, while the French owned 49%. In 1993, Rzeczpospolita was named the Newspaper of the Year by the Pheidippides Committee. In the mid-1990s, the Polish party sold the additional 2% of shares to the French. In 1996, the Norwegian Orkla Media corporation acquired shares held by the Robert Hersant group. During the next
Supreme Court of Poland
The Supreme Court is the highest court in the Republic of Poland. It is located in the Krasiński Warsaw; the Supreme Court supervises the adjudication in: General courts: these are district and appeal courts. They adjudicate in the areas of civil, criminal and labour law. Military courts: these are circuit and garrison courts, they deal with matters relating to crimes committed by soldiers in active service, civilian employees in military units, prisoners of war. The Supreme Court is the court of last resort of appeal against judgements in the lower courts, it passes resolutions to clarify specific legal provisions and resolve disputable questions in specific cases. These however are not binding; the President of the Republic of Poland appoints Supreme Court judges for an indefinite period. This is done upon a motion of the National Council of the Judiciary; the President selects the First President of the court from candidates presented by the General Assembly of the Supreme Court. The First President holds office for a six-year term, though he or she may be dismissed by the Sejm upon a motion by the President of the Republic of Poland if found convicted of a crime.
In July 2018 a new law came into force which lowers the mandatory retirement age from 70 to 65. The introduction of this law is contested and the constitutionality of the law is being assessed. Critics have argued the law is aimed at removing non-pliant judges and installing PiS-led government appointees. In 2017 the Polish government passed a law which would have forced all Supreme Court judges into mandatory retirement apart from those granted an extension by the Minister of Justice; the bill was passed in the Polish Sejm and the Senate however following mass protests against the bill it was vetoed by President Andrzej Duda on July 24, 2017. A revised bill reduced mandatory retirement age of judges from 70 to 65; the bill was signed by President Duda and came into force in July 2018. The law retires 40% of the Supreme Court bench including the First President of the Supreme Court, Malgorzata Gersdorf. Opposition groups, the EU, the Supreme Court and the National Council of the Judiciary have claimed the law is unconstitutional because it violates the principles of the independence of the judiciary.
In August 2018 the Supreme Court sent questions to the European Court of Justice regarding the reforms. Under European Union treaties the court can prevent the law from coming into force if it undermines EU treaties regarding judicial independence. On Dec. 17, 2018 the President of Poland signed a law that will reinstate the judges, forced out of their jobs. Stanisław Pomian-Srzednicki Franciszek Nowodworski Władysław Seyd Leon Supiński Wacław Barcikowski Jan Wasilkowski Zbigniew Resich Jerzy Bafia Włodzimierz Berutowicz Adam Łopatka Adam Strzembosz Lech Gardocki Stanisław Dąbrowski Lech Krzysztof Paprzycki Małgorzata Gersdorf Józef Iwulski Constitutional Tribunal of the Republic of Poland Supreme Court of the Republic of Poland
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
University of Warsaw
The University of Warsaw, established in 1816, is the largest university in Poland. It employs over 6,000 staff including over 3,100 academic educators, it provides graduate courses for 53,000 students. The University offers some 37 different fields of study, 18 faculties and over 100 specializations in Humanities, technical as well as Natural Sciences, it was founded as a Royal University on 19 November 1816, when the Partitions of Poland separated Warsaw from the oldest and most influential University of Kraków. Alexander I granted permission for the establishment of five faculties – law and political science, philosophy and the humanities; the university expanded but was closed during November Uprising in 1830. It was reopened in 1857 as the Warsaw Academy of Medicine, now based in the nearby Staszic Palace with only medical and pharmaceutical faculties. All Polish-language campuses were closed in 1869 after the failed January Uprising, but the university managed to train 3,000 students, many of whom were important part of the Polish intelligentsia.
The university was resurrected during the First World War and the number of students reached 4,500 in 1918. After Poland's independence the new government focused on improving the university, in the early 1930s it became the country's largest. New faculties were established and the curriculum was extended. Following the Second World War and the devastation of Warsaw, the University reopened in 1945. Today, the University of Warsaw consists of 126 buildings and educational complexes with over 18 faculties: biology, chemistry and political science and sociology, physics and regional studies, history, applied linguistics and Slavic philology, philology, Polish language and public administration, applied social sciences and mathematics, computer science and mechanics; the University of Warsaw is one of the top Polish universities. It was ranked by Perspektywy magazine as best Polish university in 2010, 2011, 2014 and 2016. International rankings such as ARWU and University Web Ranking rank the university as the best Polish higher level institution.
On the list of 100 best European universities compiled by University Web Ranking, the University of Warsaw was placed as 61st. QS World University Rankings positioned the University of Warsaw as the best higher level institution among the world's top 400. In 1795 the partitions of Poland left Warsaw with access only to the Academy of Vilnius. In 1815, the newly established autonomous Congress Poland de facto belonging to the Russian Empire found itself without a university at all, as Vilnius was incorporated into Russia; the first to be established in Congress Poland were the Medical School. In 1816 Tsar Alexander I permitted the Polish authorities to create a university, comprising five departments: Law and Administration, Philosophy and Art and Humanities; the university soon grew to 50 professors. After most of the students and professors took part in the November 1830 Uprising the university was closed down. After the Crimean War, Russia entered a brief period of liberalization, the permission was given to create a Polish medical and surgical academy in Warsaw.
In 1862 departments of Law and Administration and History, Mathematics and Physics were opened. The newly established academy gained importance and was soon renamed the "Main School". However, after the January 1863 Uprising the liberal period ended and all Polish-language schools were closed down again. During its short existence, the Main School educated over 3,000 students, many of whom became part of the backbone of the Polish intelligentsia; the Main School was replaced with a Russian-language "Imperial University of Warsaw". Its purpose was to provide education for the Russian military garrison of Warsaw, the majority of students were Poles; the tsarist authorities believed that the Russian university would become a perfect way to Russify Polish society and spent a significant sum on building a new university campus. However, various underground organizations soon started to grow and the students became their leaders in Warsaw. Most notable of these groups joined the ranks of the 1905 Revolution.
Afterwards a boycott of Russian educational facilities was proclaimed and the number of Polish students dropped to below 10%. Most of the students who wanted to continue their education left for Western Europe. After the fall of the January Uprising, the Tsarist authorities' decided to convert the Main School into a Russian-language university, which functioned under the name of Imperial University for 46 years. There were two times. During the 1905–1907 revolution, such a proposal was made by some of the professors, in the face of a boycott of the university by Polish students. Talks on that subject were conducted with a number of Russian cities, including Voronezh and Saratov; the Russian government decided to keep a university in Warsaw, but as a result of the boycott, the university was Russian not only in the sense of the language used, but of the nationality of its professors and students. For the second time the question emerged during th