A lectionary is a book or listing that contains a collection of scripture readings appointed for Christian or Judaic worship on a given day or occasion. There are sub-types such as a "gospel lectionary" or evangeliary, an epistolary with the readings from the New Testament Epistles; the Talmud claims that the practice of reading appointed Scriptures on given days or occasions dates back to the time of Moses and began with the annual religious festivals of Passover and the Feast of Tabernacles. The Mishnah portion of the Talmud finished in the early 3rd century AD/CE contains a list of Torah readings for various occasions and assumes that these special readings interrupt a regular schedule of Torah readings. In addition to these Torah readings, the Gemara portion of the Talmud knows of assigned annual readings from the prophets. By the Medieval era the Jewish community had a standardized schedule of scripture readings both from the Torah and the prophets to be read in the synagogue. A sequential selection was read from the Torah, followed by the "haftarah" – a selection from the prophetic books or historical narratives linked to the selection from the Torah.
Jesus may have read a providentially "random" reading when he read from Isaiah 61:1-2, as recorded in Luke 4:16-21, when he inaugurated his public ministry. The early Christians adopted the Jewish custom of reading extracts from the Old Testament on the Sabbath, they soon added extracts from the writings of the Evangelists. Both Hebrew and Christian lectionaries developed over the centuries. A lectionary will go through the scriptures in a logical pattern, include selections which were chosen by the religious community for their appropriateness to particular occasions; the one-year Jewish lectionary reads the entirety of the Torah within the space of a year and may have begun in the Babylonian Jewish community. The existence of both one-year and three-year cycles occurs in both Judaism. Within Christianity, the use of pre-assigned, scheduled readings from the scriptures can be traced back to the early church, seems to have been inherited from Judaism; the earliest documentary record of a special book of readings is a reference by Gennadius of Massilia to a work produced at the request of Bishop Venerius of Marseilles, who died in 452, though there are 3rd-century references to liturgical readers as a special role in the clergy.
Not all of the Christian Church used the same lectionary, throughout history, many varying lectionaries have been used in different parts of the Christian world. Until the Second Vatican Council, most Western Christians used a lectionary that repeated on a one-year basis; this annual lectionary provided readings for Sundays and, in those Churches that celebrated the festivals of saints, feast-day readings. The Eastern Orthodox Church and many of the Oriental Churches continue to use an annual lectionary. Within Lutheranism there remains an active minority of pastors and congregations who use the old one-year lectionary referred to as the Historic Lectionary; the Reformed churches divided the Heidelberg Catechism into 52 weekly sections, many churches preach or teach from a corresponding source scripture weekly. Lectionaries from before the invention of the printing press contribute to understanding the textual history of the Bible. See List of New Testament lectionaries. After the Second Vatican Council of 1962–1965, the Holy See before producing an actual lectionary, promulgated the Ordo Lectionum Missae, giving indications of the revised structure and the references to the passages chosen for inclusion in the new official lectionary of the Roman Rite of Mass.
It introduced an arrangement by which the readings on Sundays and on some principal feasts recur in a three-year cycle, with four passages from Scripture being used in each celebration, while on weekdays only three passages are used, with the first reading and the psalm recurring in a two-year cycle, while the Gospel reading recurs after a single year. This revised Mass Lectionary, covering much more of the Bible than the readings in the Tridentine Roman Missal, which recurred after a single year, has been translated into the many languages in which the Roman Rite Mass is now celebrated, incorporating existing or specially prepared translations of the Bible and with readings for national celebrations added either as an appendix or, in some cases, incorporated into the main part of the lectionary; the Roman Catholic Mass Lectionary is the basis for many Protestant lectionaries, most notably the Revised Common Lectionary and its derivatives, as organized by the Consultation on Common Texts organization located in Nashville, Tennessee.
Like the Mass lectionary, they organize the readings for worship services on Sundays in a three-year cycle, with four elements on each Sunday, three elements during daily Mass: first reading from the Old Testament or, in Eastertide from certain books of the New Testament. The lectionaries are organized into three-year cycles of readings; the years are designated A, B, or C. Each y
Eucharist in Lutheranism
The Eucharist in the Lutheran Church refers to the liturgical commemoration of the Last Supper. Lutherans believe in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, affirming the doctrine of sacramental union, "in which the body and blood of Christ are and present and received with the bread and wine." Martin Luther saw the main basis for the Eucharist to be found in Matthew 26:26–28, Mark 14:22–24, Luke 22:19-20, 1 Corinthians 11:23-29. Lutherans believe that the Body and Blood of Christ are "truly and present in, with and under the forms" of consecrated bread and wine, so that communicants eat and drink both the elements and the true Body and Blood of Christ himself in the Sacrament of the Eucharist whether they are believers or unbelievers; the Lutheran doctrine of the Real Presence is known as the sacramental union. This theology publicly confessed in the Wittenberg Concord, it has been called "consubstantiation," but most Lutheran theologians reject the use of this term as it creates confusion with an earlier doctrine of the a similar name.
Lutherans use the term "in, with and under the forms of consecrated bread and wine" and "sacramental union" to distinguish their understanding of the Eucharist from those of the Reformed and other traditions. For Lutherans the Eucharist is not considered to be a valid sacrament unless the elements are used according to Christ's mandate and institution; this was first formulated in the Wittenberg Concord of 1536 in the formula: Nihil habet rationem sacramenti extra usum a Christo institutum. To remove any scruple of doubt or superstition, the reliquiæ traditionally are either consumed, poured into the earth, or reserved. In most Lutheran congregations, the administration of private communion of the sick and "shut-in" involves a separate service of the Eucharist for which the sacramental elements are consecrated by the celebrant. Today, many Lutheran churches offer the Eucharist weekly. Weddings and funerals sometimes include the celebration of the Eucharist in Lutheran churches. At the ordinations of pastors/priests and the consecration of bishops, the Eucharist is always offered.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and its congregations practice open communion—meaning that Holy Communion is offered to all baptized Christians who have confessed their sins and received absolution. Congregations in the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod practice closed communion, meaning that Lutheran catechetical instruction is required for all people before receiving the Eucharist, though some congregations in these synods either ask that one speak to the pastor before the service to confirm their common faith or acknowledge this on their attendance card. For Lutherans in general and absolution are considered proper preparation for receiving the sacrament. However, the historic practice among Lutherans of preparation by private confession and absolution is found in American Lutheran congregations. For this reason a brief order or corporate rite of confession and absolution is included at the beginning of Lutheran liturgies. A growing number of congregations in the ELCA, offer instruction to baptized children between the ages of 6-8 and, after a short period of catechetical instruction, the children are admitted to partake of the Eucharist.
Most other ELCA congregations offer First Communion instruction to children in the 6th grade. In other Lutheran churches, the person must have receive confirmation before receiving the Eucharist. Infants and children who haven't received the catechetical instruction may be brought to the Eucharistic distribution by their parents to be blessed by the pastor; the manner of receiving the Eucharist differs throughout the world. In most American Lutheran churches, an older Latin Rite custom is maintained, where a cushioned area and altar rails sit at the front of the altar where the congregation can come to kneel down and receive the sacrament. Traditionally, only those within the holy office of the ministry distributed both of the communion elements, but it is now the prevailing practice that the Pastor distributes the host and an assistant distributes the wine; the congregation may make the sign of the cross. In other Lutheran churches, the process is much like the Post-Vatican II revised rite of the Roman Catholic Church.
The eucharistic minister and his assistants line up, with the eucharistic minister in the center holding the hosts and the two assistants on either side holding the chalices. The people receive the Eucharist standing. Following this, the people make the sign of the cross and return to their places in the congregation; the bread is a thin unleavened wafer, but leavened wafers may be used. Some parishes use intinction, the dipping of the host into the chalice. Placing the host in the hand of the communicant is practiced, but some people may prefer that the pastor place the host into their mouth in the pre-Vatican II Catholic tradition; the wine is administered via a chalice, but many congregations use individual cups. These may be either prefilled
Lutheranism is a major branch of western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation; the reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity. The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation; the divide centered on two points: the proper source of authority in the church called the formal principle of the Reformation, the doctrine of justification called the material principle of Lutheran theology.
Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, predestination; the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.
Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel". The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed; as time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church. Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway and the monarch of Sweden adopted Lutheranism.
Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark–Norway remained Catholic. Although Frederick pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen. During Frederick's reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted. Frederick's son Christian was Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway; the constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was "The pure word of God, the Law and the Gospel". It does not mention the Augsburg Confession; the priests had to understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.
The youths were taught from Luther's Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life: "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", "the eternal life". Instruction is still similar; the first complete Bible in Danish was based on Martin Luther's translation into German. It was published with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition. Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome has been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God"; the Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany. They led elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism; the pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.
Four years at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas, Lutheranism did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsa
Asperges is a name given to the rite of sprinkling a congregation with holy water. The name comes from the first word in the 9th verse of Psalm 51 in the Latin translation, sung during the traditional form of the rite except during Eastertide; the 51st Psalm is one of the antiphons that may be sung in the rite under the Mass of Paul VI. "On Sundays in Eastertide, the blessing of holy water and sprinkling with it may be carried out in memory of baptism... If the rite is performed within Mass it takes the place of the usual penitential act at the beginning of the Mass". During the Easter Vigil and the Feast of the Baptism of the Lord, many Catholic parish Masses reserve a part of the Mass during which the Confiteor would be said to renew the Baptismal promises; this Renewal of Baptismal Vows, along with Asperges, is common among Lutherans and Anglicans as well. During the Funeral Mass, the casket is blessed with holy incense; the priest blesses the water with one of the three prayers proposed. He may bless salt and put it in the water, if local conditions or custom of the people favours doing so.
He takes a sprinkler, sprinkles himself, the ministers, the clergy and people, preferably walking through the church to do so. While the sprinkling is being done, an antiphon or a hymn is sung; the Roman Missal proposes several, based on the following verses of Scripture: Outside of Eastertide Psalm 51:9 Ezekiel 36:25-26 1 Peter 1:3-5 During Eastertide Ezekiel 47:1-2 and Ezekiel 47:9 Zephaniah 3:8 and Ezekiel 36:25 Daniel 1 PeterBut other suitable hymns are permitted. The antiphon Asperges Me is sung, except during the Easter season and on Palm Sunday, when it is replaced by the more lengthy and florid antiphon, Vidi aquam. Where the 1962 Missal is used, the Asperges is done before the principal Mass on Sunday, except on Palm Sunday, when it is replaced with the blessing of palms followed by a procession; the Asperges is so called from the words intoned at the beginning of the ceremony, taken from Psalm 50:3, throughout the year except at Eastertide, when Vidi aquam, with Psalm 116:1, is intoned.
It precedes every other ceremony that may take place before the Mass, such as the blessing of palms or of candles. It is performed by the celebrant priest wearing a cope of the liturgical color of the day, it is omitted when the Blessed Sacrament is exposed, though many rubricists think that the sprinkling of the altar only, not of the congregation, should be omitted. After intoning the antiphon the priest recites the psalm Miserere or Confitemini, according to the season, sprinkling first the front and platform of the altar himself, next the ministers and choir, lastly the congregation walking through the main part of the church, though he need not go beyond the gate of the sanctuary or choir; the ceremony has been in use at least from the tenth century, growing out of the custom of early antiquity of blessing water for the faithful on Sundays. Its object is to prepare the congregation for the celebration of the Mass by moving them to sentiments of penance and reverence suggested by the words of the 50th psalm, or by impressing on them that they are about to assist at the sacrifice of our redemption as suggested in the psalm used at Easter time.
Both the Asperges and the Vidi aquam are structured like the Introit of the Tridentine Mass: 1st verse, 2nd verse, Gloria Patri, the 1st verse again. In the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite, the sprinkling of holy water takes place on numerous occasions; the most important is on the Great Feast of Theophany following the Great Blessing of Waters at the end of the Divine Liturgy. The Great Blessing takes place twice: once on the Eve of the feast, once on the day of the feast. At both blessings, the priest sprinkles the faithful, he begins the process of going to each family's home to sprinkle it with the blessed "Theophany water". Some monasteries and churches have the tradition of blessing holy water and sprinkling on the first day of each month. There are several feast days during the year when sprinkling with holy water is prescribed, such as Bright Friday, the Feast of the Procession of the Cross on the first day of the Dormition Fast, the Feast of Mid-Pentecost, when the fields are blessed with holy water.
Certain ceremonies will call for the blessing of holy water, such as the consecration of a church. The form of aspergillum may differ from place to place; the Greek Orthodox will use a randistirion, a standing vessel with a tapered lid. The tip of the lid is pierced with small holes; the Russian Orthodox will use a whisk made of cotton, straw or hair from which the holy water is flung. The blessing takes place at a holy water font or baptismal font, placed in the center of the temple. There are the Lesser Blessing of Waters. After blessing the holy water, the priest will
A sermon is an oration or lecture by a preacher. Sermons address a scriptural, religious, or moral topic expounding on a type of belief, law, or behavior within both past and present contexts. Elements of the sermon include exposition and practical application; the act of delivering a sermon is known as preaching. In Christian churches, a sermon is delivered in a place of worship, either from an elevated architectural feature, known as a pulpit or an ambo, or from behind a lectern; the word sermon comes from a Middle English word, derived from Old French, which in turn originates from the Latin word sermō meaning "discourse". A sermonette is a short sermon; the Bible contains many speeches without interlocution, which some take to be sermons: Moses in Deuteronomy 1-33. In modern language, the word sermon is used in secular terms, pejoratively, to describe a lengthy or tedious speech delivered with great passion, by any person, to an uninterested audience. In Christianity, a sermon is identified as an address or discourse delivered to an assembly of Christians containing theological or moral instruction.
The sermon by Christian orators was based on the tradition of public lectures by classical orators. Although it is called a homily, the original distinction between a sermon and a homily was that a sermon was delivered by a clergyman while a homily was read from a printed copy by a layman. In the 20th century the distinction has become one of the sermon being to be longer, have more structure, contain more theological content. Homilies are considered to be a type of sermon narrative or biographical, see sermon types below; the word "sermon" is used to describe many famous moments in Christian history. The most famous example is the Sermon on the Mount by Jesus of Nazareth; this address was given around 30 AD, is recounted in the Gospel of Matthew as being delivered on a mount on the north end of the Sea of Galilee, near Capernaum. It is contained in some of the other gospel narratives. During the history of Christianity, several figures became known for their addresses that became regarded as sermons.
Examples in the early church include Peter, Stephen and John Chrysostom. These addresses were used to spread Christianity across Europe and Asia Minor, as such are not sermons in the modern sense, but evangelistic messages; the sermon has been an important part of Christian services since Early Christianity, remains prominent in both Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Lay preachers sometimes figure in these traditions of worship, for example the Methodist local preachers, but in general preaching has been a function of the clergy; the Dominican Order is known as the Order of Preachers. The Franciscans are another important preaching order. In 1448 the church authorities seated at Angers prohibited open-air preaching in France. In most denominations, modern preaching is kept below forty minutes, but historic preachers of all denominations could at times speak for several hours, use techniques of rhetoric and theatre that are today somewhat out of fashion in mainline churches. During the Middle Ages, sermons inspired the beginnings of new religious institutes.
Pope Urban II began the First Crusade in November 1095 at the Council of Clermont, when he exhorted French knights to retake the Holy Land. The academic study of sermons, the analysis and classification of their preparation and delivery, is called homiletics. A controversial issue that aroused strong feelings in Early Modern Britain was whether sermons should be read from a prepared text, or extemporized from some notes. Many sermons have been written down and published. Many clergymen recycled large chunks of published sermons in their own preaching; such sermons include John Wesley's 53 Standard Sermons, John Chrysostom's Homily on the Resurrection and Gregory Nazianzus' homily "On the Theophany, or Birthday of Christ". The 80 sermons in German of the Dominican Johannes Tauler were read for centuries after his death. Martin Luther published his sermons on the Sunday lessons for the edification of readers; this tradition was continued by Chemnitz and Arndt and others into the following centuries—for example CH Spurgeon's stenographed sermons, The Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit.
The widow of John Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury received £2,500 for the manuscripts of his sermons, a larg
In Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism, the Penitential Rite known as Confession and Absolution, is a form of general confession that takes place at the start of each Divine Service or Mass. ===In the ordinary form of the Roman Rite In the Roman Catholic Church, the ordinary form of the Mass was promulgated in 2000 as Third edition of the Roman Missal. In the ordinary form, the Penitential Act is part of the Introductory Rites, it follows the greeting in the order of Mass. The three formulas of the Penitential Act are: Formula A - called the Confiteor and contains a mea culpaFormula B - a short dialogue between the priest and congregation. Formula C - a dialogue said or sung by the deacon or priest, or sung by the cantor, it contains three tropes, each followed by an acclamation The formula of absolution which concludes all three formulas. Formula C, which allows freedom for the celebrant to formulate similar acclamations with a more eucharistic tone, is recommended by many prominent liturgists.
They ask “why run the risk of individualizing members of the assembly in a penitential mode after they have gathered as a worshipping community?”The Penitential Act is followed by the Kyrie eleison chant, the Gloria, the Collect, which concludes the Introductory Rites. If certain celebrations are combined with Mass the Penitential Act and other parts of the Introductory Rites are omitted or performed in a different way. An example is the Mass of Ash Wednesday, in which the Penitential Act is replaced by the blessing and imposition of ashes after the homily. "On Sundays in the Season of Easter, in place of the customary Penitential Act, from time to time the Blessing and Sprinkling of Water to recall Baptism may take place." In the Tridentine Mass the Confiteor prayer is part of the Prayers at the Foot of the Altar. The formula in Liturgical Latin is: ℣: "Confíteor Deo omnipoténti, beátæ Maríæ semper Vírgini, beáto Michaéli Archángelo, beáto Ioánni Baptístæ, sanctis Apóstolis Petro et Páulo, ómnibus Sanctis, et vobis, fratres: quia peccávi nimis cogitatióne, verbo, et ópere: mea culpa, mea culpa, mea máxima culpa.
Ideo precor beátam Maríam semper Virginem, beátum Michaélem Archángelum, beátum Ioánnem Baptístam, sanctos Apóstolos Petrum et Páulum, omnes Sanctos, et vos, fratres, oráre pro me ad Dóminum Deum nostrum. "℟: "Misereátur tui omnípotens Deus, et dimíssis peccátis tuis, perdúcat te ad vitam ætérnam. "℣: "Amen "The others on their part, recite the Confiteor, replacing vobis fratres with tibi pater and vos fratres with te pater. The Misereatur is spoken by the priest replacing tui with vestri, tuis with vestris, te with vos; the formula of absolution, known by its incipit Indulgentiam absolutionem, which concludes the rite is: ℣: "Indulgéntiam, absolutiónem, et remissiónem peccatórum nostrórum, tríbuat nobis omnípotens et miséricors Dóminus. "℟: "Amen " Sometimes known as "general confession", the Lutheran Penitential Rite is done at the start of each Mass. The pastor and congregation say the pastor says the Declaration of Grace; the Declaration of Grace is not an absolution. In Lutheran practice, the sacramental rite of confession is its own separate service, private confession is expected before partaking of the Eucharist.
Pastor: "If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, the truth is not in us."People: "But if we confess our sins, God, faithful and just will forgive our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness."Pastor: "Let us confess our sins to God our Father."People: "Most merciful God, we confess that we are by nature sinful and unclean. We have sinned against you in thought and deed, by what we have done and by what we have left undone. We have not loved You with our whole heart. We justly deserve Your present and eternal punishment. For the sake of Your Son, Jesus Christ, have mercy on us. Forgive us, renew us, lead us, so that we may delight in Your will and walk in Your ways to the glory of your Holy Name. Amen."Pastor: "In the mercy of almighty God, Jesus Christ was given to die for us, for His sake God forgives us all our sins. To those who believe in Jesus Christ He gives the power to become the children of God and bestows on them the Holy Spirit. May the Lord, who has begun this good work in us, bring it to completion in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ."
The Order of the Mass