Clare Victor Dwiggins
Clare Victor Dwiggins was an American cartoonist who signed his work Dwig. Dwiggins created a number of comic strips and single-panel cartoons for various American newspapers and newspaper syndicates from 1897 until 1945, including his best-known strip, the long-running School Days. Born in Wilmington, Dwiggins was on a path toward a career in architecture but detoured into cartooning when his artwork was published in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch and the New York World in 1897, he created a wide variety of gag panels, including J. Filliken Wilberfloss, Leap Year Lizzie, Them Was the Happy Days, Uncle Jim and Tad and Tim, Mrs. Bump's Boarding House and Her Slate and Bill's Diary. Dwiggins died in a North Hollywood rest home on October 1958, after a long illness. Dwig's first comic strip was Home Wanted for Tags, a daily/Sunday strip for the McClure Newspaper Syndicate, which ran from 1910–1919, his longest-running strip was Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn, which used more than a half dozen of Mark Twain's characters but employed little content from his novels.
Dwig began School Days circa 1909 as a single panel, it evolved into a Sunday strip with a storyline about school kids that continued until c. 1932. Dwig drew Nipper for the Ledger Syndicate. During that same period, he did Footprints on the Sands of Time for the Ledger Syndicate. In 1940, he returned to Huckleberry Finn, reprinted in the pages of Doc Savage Comics and Supersnipe Comics, he drew Bobby Crusoe in 1945 for Supersnipe Comics. Adventures of Bobby Crusoe J. Filliken Wilberfloss Leap Year Lizzie Them Was the Happy Days Ophelia and her Slate In the Jungle Pinochle Twins (for the Philadelphia Inquirer Child Book of Jungle Lore in Limericks Bolivar Gallant Cholly The Nabobs Professor Gesla Little Roland School Days / Ophelia's Slate Day by Day with the Deys Home Wanted for Tags Pip Gint White Fibb Willie Fibb Wunst Upon a Time Makin' Believe Uncle Jim and Tad and Tim Mrs. Bumps Boarding House The District School Kidsburg School Days — known as The School Days of Tom Sawyer & Huck Finn Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn A Dog's Life Ophelia's Slate School Days Footprints on the Sands of Time Golden Days Nipper Bill's Diary Huckleberry Finn Toasts published by John C.
Winston Co. was a hardcover collection of bawdy and intemperate Edwardian poems and limericks, illustrated with line drawings. After 1945, Dwig focused including five books published with August Derleth. Works by Clare Victor Dwiggins at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Clare Victor Dwiggins at Internet Archive Clare Victor Dwiggins at Library of Congress Authorities, with 12 catalog records
A. E. Hayward
Alfred Earl Hayward, was a 20th century American comic strip artist. He was known professionally as A. E. Hayward for his comics work although he used his full name for his fine arts work, he is best known for his seminal strip Somebody's Stenog. This strip, featuring flapper-era secretary Cam O'Flage, was one of the first daily strips focusing on an independent woman, it was the first enduring daily strip to have an "office girl" as the protagonist and to be concerned with a group of female office workers. Hayward was born as Alfred Mark Hayward on February 14, 1884, in Camden, New Jersey, to English immigrants, his father and grandfather were painters, he became an accomplished watercolorist himself, exhibiting his impressionist landscapes to critical praise at New York's Fifteen Gallery, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, many cities of the United States and beyond. In addition to his painting, Hayward worked as a newspaper writer of humorous human interest fare, wrote poetry, lectured at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, but found his greatest fame when he turned to cartooning.
He created the strip Some Day, Maybe for the New York World in 1912 and Great Ceasar's Ghost named Great Ceasar's Goat and still Pinheads for the World. He created Colonel Corn for the New York Herald and the single-panel Padded Cell for the Public Ledger Syndicate. In Padded Cell he ran a suite of cartoons called Somebody's Stenographer for six weeks in 1916; this served as a prototype for his most successful work. Somebody's Stenog first ran on December 16, 1918, preceding the similarly-themed strips Winnie Winkle and Tillie the Toiler; the Sunday strip debuted on April 30, 1922. The strip was distributed out of Philadelphia by the Ledger Syndicate. Characters included Cam O'Flage's friend Mary Doodle, her boss Sam Smithers, her rival Kitty Scratch. Hayward retired from the strip in 1933 and died in 1939; the last Somebody's Stenog strip was published May 10, 1941. The strip was published outside America. In French Canada it ran in La Presse under the title LouLou and in Sweden it ran in Hemmets Journal as Grosshandlare Petterkvist och hans sekreterare.
Somebody's Stenog was successful enough that Al Capp, shopping Li'l Abner in the mid 1930s, was pressured to instead draw a strip similar to Hayward's. Hayward married Stella Kelly on August 28, 1907, they had Joyce. Hayward died in New York City on July 25, 1939
Cyrus H. K. Curtis
Cyrus Hermann Kotzschmar Curtis was an American publisher of magazines and newspapers, including the Ladies' Home Journal and The Saturday Evening Post. Born in Portland, Curtis was forced to leave high school after his first year to start working, as in 1866 his family lost their home in the Great Fire of Portland, he held a variety of newspaper and advertising jobs in Portland and Boston before starting his first publication, a weekly called the People's Ledger, in Boston in 1872. In 1876, he moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania a major publishing center, to reduce his printing costs. Curtis's first wife was Louisa Knapp. In 1883, Knapp contributed a one-page supplement to the Tribune and Farmer, a magazine published by Curtis; the following year, the supplement was expanded as an independent publication with Louisa as the editor. Its original name was The Ladies Home Journal and Practical Housekeeper, but Knapp dropped the last three words in 1886; the Ladies' Home Journal became the leading magazine of its type, reaching a circulation of one million subscriptions within ten years.
It was the first American magazine to do so. Louisa Knapp continued as editor until 1889. Several years Bok married Mary Louise Curtis in 1896, becoming the Curtises' son-in-law. Bok retired from the magazine in 1919. Bok introduced business practices such as: low subscription rates, inclusion of advertising to off-set costs, reliance on popular content; this operating structure was adopted by men's magazines such as McClure's and Munsey's a decade after it had become the standard practice of American women's magazines. Scholars argue that women's magazines, like the Ladies' Home Journal, pioneered these strategies "magazine revolution". Curtis founded the Curtis Publishing Company in 1891. A separate company founded by Curtis, Curtis-Martin Newspapers, controlled several newspapers, including for a time the Philadelphia Public Ledger, The Philadelphia Inquirer, the New York Evening Post. Management mistakes at the newspapers led to poor financial returns, they were sold. While Curtis was alive, his businesses, excepting the newspapers, were extremely successful.
The Ladies Home Journal was for decades the most circulating women's magazine in the US, The Saturday Evening Post enjoyed the highest circulation of any weekly magazine in the world. In 1929, the Post and the Journal together ran forty percent of all US magazine advertising. One source lists Curtis as the 51st richest person with a fortune of $43.2 billion adjusted for inflation, which according to this source made him richer than J. P. Morgan. Curtis built Lyndon, a Renaissance revival estate in Wyncote, with landscaping designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. Two of Curtis's yachts, built 1907 and 1920, were named Lyndonia. Curtis was more than an occasional sailor, noting in a 1922 New York Times interview, "Yachting is not a hobby with me, it is a necessity. I spend half my time on this ship," and further noting that most of his meetings with staff or board members were held in the second Lyndonia's dining room. Curtis had three large yachts built at Charles L. Seabury Co.: the 115-foot Machigonne in 1904.
Curtis was a founding member of the Camden Yacht Club in Camden and its Commodore from 1909 to 1933 donating the club's facilities to the town. In the summer of 1932, Curtis suffered a heart attack while aboard the second Lyndonia. While he was recuperating at Jefferson Hospital in Philadelphia, his second wife, Kate Stanwood Cutter Pillsbury Curtis, died suddenly. Curtis remained in frail health until his death on June 7, 1933, less than two weeks before his eighty-third birthday, he was interred at West Laurel Hill Cemetery in Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania. Soon after his death, most of the buildings on Curtis's estate were demolished, his daughter founded the Curtis Hall Arboretum on the site. After the Curtis Publishing Company moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1982, the company's former headquarters on Independence Square in downtown Philadelphia became the Curtis Center, home to a conference center, offices, a health club, retail shops, restaurants. Cyrus Curtis was among the first ten inductees in the American Advertising Federation's Advertising Hall of Fame.
Cyrus Curtis remains #20 on the list of the richest Americans ever. He was known for his philanthropy to hospitals, museums and schools, he donated $2 million for example. He purchased a pipe organ manufactured by the Austin Organ Company, displayed at the Philadelphia Sesquicentennial Exposition of 1926 and donated it to the University of Pennsylvania, it was incorporated into Irvine Auditorium when the building was constructed and is known to this day as the Curtis Organ, one of the largest pipe organs in the world. Curtis donated pipe organs to many institutions in Philadelphia and on the day of his funeral, all of those organs were played in his honor. In memory of his boyhood music teacher, Hermann Kotzschmar, for whom he had been named, Curtis in 1912 donated the Kotzschmar Memorial Organ to Maine's Portland City Hall Auditorium. In Thomaston, Maine, he funded the 1927–29 recreation of Montpel
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
The Saturday Evening Post
The Saturday Evening Post is an American magazine published six times a year. It was published weekly under this title from 1897 until 1963 every two weeks until 1969. From the 1920s to the 1960s, it was one of the most circulated and influential magazines for the American middle class, with fiction, non-fiction and features that reached millions of homes every week; the magazine declined in readership through the 1960s, in 1969 The Saturday Evening Post folded for two years before being revived as a quarterly publication with an emphasis on medical articles in 1971. The magazine was redesigned in 2013; the Saturday Evening Post was founded in 1821 and grew to become the most circulated weekly magazine in America. The magazine gained prominent status under the leadership of its longtime editor George Horace Lorimer; the editors claimed it had historical roots in the Pennsylvania Gazette, first published in 1728 by Samuel Keimer and sold to Benjamin Franklin in 1729. It discontinued publication in 1800.
The Saturday Evening Post published current event articles, human interest pieces, illustrations, a letter column, single-panel gag cartoons and stories by the leading writers of the time. It was known for original works of fiction. Illustrations were embedded in stories and advertising; some Post illustrations became popular and continue to be reproduced as posters or prints those by Norman Rockwell. Curtis Publishing Co. stopped publishing the Post in 1969 after the company lost a landmark defamation suit and was ordered to pay over $3 million in damages. The Post was revived in 1971 as a limited circulation quarterly publication; as of the late 2000s, The Saturday Evening Post is published six times a year by the Saturday Evening Post Society, which purchased the magazine in 1982. In 1916, Saturday Evening Post editor George Horace Lorimer discovered Norman Rockwell an unknown 22-year-old New York artist. Lorimer promptly purchased two illustrations from Rockwell, using them as covers, commissioned three more drawings.
Rockwell's illustrations of the American family and rural life of a bygone era became icons. During his 50-year career with the Post, Rockwell painted more than 300 covers; the Post employed Nebraska artist John Philip Falter, who became known "as a painter of Americana with an accent of the Middle West," who "brought out some of the homeliness and humor of Middle Western town life and home life." He produced 120 covers for the Post between 1943 and 1968, ceasing only when the magazine began displaying photographs on its covers. Another prominent artist was Charles R. Chickering, a freelance illustrator who went on to design numerous postage stamps for the U. S. Post Office. Other popular cover illustrators include the artists Constantin Alajalov. John Clymer, W. H. D. Koerner, J. C. Leyendecker, Charles Archibald MacLellan, John E. Sheridan, Douglass Crockwell, Amos Sewell, N. C. Wyeth; the magazine's line-up of cartoonists included Bob Barnes, Irwin Caplan, Tom Henderson, Al Johns, Clyde Lamb, Jerry Marcus, Frank O'Neal, B.
Tobey, Pete Wyma and Bill Yates. The magazine ran Ted Key's cartoon panel series Hazel from 1943 to 1969; each issue featured several original short stories and included an installment of a serial appearing in successive issues. Most of the fiction was written for mainstream tastes by popular writers, but some literary writers were featured; the opening pages of stories featured paintings by the leading magazine illustrators. The Post published stories and essays by H. E. Bates, Ray Bradbury, Kay Boyle, Agatha Christie, Brian Cleeve, Eleanor Franklin Egan, William Faulkner, F. Scott Fitzgerald, C. S. Forester, Ernest Haycox, Robert A. Heinlein, Kurt Vonnegut, Paul Gallico, Normand Poirier, Hammond Innes, Louis L'Amour, Sinclair Lewis, Joseph C. Lincoln, John P. Marquand, Edgar Allan Poe, Sax Rohmer, William Saroyan, John Steinbeck and Rex Stout and Rob Wagner, it published poetry by such noted poets as Carl Sandburg, Ogden Nash, Dorothy Parker and Hannah Kahn. Jack London's best-known novel The Call of the Wild was first published, in serialized form, in the Saturday Evening Post in 1903.
Emblematic of the Post's fiction was author Clarence Budington Kelland, who first appeared in 1916–17 with stories of homespun heroes, Efficiency Edgar and Scattergood Baines. Kelland was a steady presence from 1922 until 1961. For many years William Hazlett Upson contributed a popular series of short stories about the escapades of Earthworm Tractors salesman Alexander Botts. Publication in the Post helped established artists and writers stay afloat. P. G. Wodehouse said "the wolf was always at the door" until the Post gave him his "first break" in 1915 by serializing Something New. After the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Post columnist Garet Garrett became a vocal critic of the New Deal. Garrett accused the Roosevelt Administration of initiating socialist strategies. After Lorimer died, Garrett became editorial writer-in-chief and criticized the Roosevelt Administration's support of the United Kingdom and efforts to prepare to enter what became the Second World War. Garrett's positions may have cost the Post readers and advertisers.
The Post readership began to decline in the late 1960s. In general, the decline of general interest magazines was blamed on television, which competed for advertisers and readers' attention; the Post had problems retaining readers: the public's taste in fiction was changing, the Post's conservative politics and values appealed to a declining number of people. Content by popular writer
Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books. Since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El; as a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin, his foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there.
Depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as the genius inventor Lex Luthor, he is a friend of many other superheroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman. Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions, he remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises outside of comic books. He is regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time. Superman was created by Joe Shuster. A duo who met met in 1932 in a high school in Cleveland and bonded over their mutual love of fiction. Siegel aspired to become a writer and Shuster aspired to become an illustrator. Siegel wrote amateur science fiction stories, which he self-published a magazine called Science Fiction: The Advance Guard of Future Civilization.
His friend Shuster provided illustrations for his work. In January 1933, Siegel published a short story in his magazine titled "The Reign of the Superman"; the titular character is a vagrant named Bill Dunn, tricked by an evil scientist into consuming an experimental drug. The drug gives Dunn the powers of mind-reading, mind-control, clairvoyance, he uses these powers maliciously for profit and amusement, but the drug wears off, leaving him a powerless vagrant again. Shuster provided illustrations. Siegel and Shuster shifted with a focus on adventure and comedy, they wanted to become syndicated newspaper strip authors, so they showed their ideas to various newspaper editors. However, the newspaper editors told them. If they wanted to make a successful comic strip, it had to be something more sensational than anything else on the market; this prompted Siegel to revisit Superman as a comic strip character. Siegel modified Superman's powers to make him more sensational: Like Bill Dunn, the second prototype of Superman is given powers against his will by an unscrupulous scientist, but instead of psychic abilities, he acquires superhuman strength and bullet-proof skin.
Additionally, this new Superman was a crime-fighting hero instead of a villain, because Siegel noted that comic strips with heroic protagonists tended to be more successful. In years, Siegel once recalled that this Superman wore a "bat-like" cape in some panels, but he and Shuster agreed there was no costume yet, there is none apparent in the surviving artwork. Siegel and Shuster showed this second concept of Superman to Consolidated Book Publishers, based in Chicago. In May 1933, Consolidated had published a comic book titled Detective Dan: Secret Operative 48, it contained all-original stories as opposed to reprints of newspaper strips, a novelty at the time. Siegel and Shuster put together a comic book in similar format called The Superman. A delegation from Consolidated visited Cleveland that summer on a business trip, Siegel and Shuster took the opportunity to present their work in person. Although Consolidated expressed interest, they pulled out of the comics business without offering a book deal because the sales of Detective Dan were disappointing.
Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster. When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover, they continued collaborating on other projects, but for the time being Shuster was through with Superman. Siegel wrote to numerous artists; the first response came in July 1933 from Leo O'Mealia, who drew the Fu Manchu strip for the Bell Syndicate. In the script that Siegel sent O'Mealia, Superman's origin story changes: He is a "scientist-adventurer" from the far future, when humanity has evolved "super powers". Just before the Earth explodes, he escapes in a time-machine to the modern era, whereupon he begins using his super powers to fight crime. O'Mealia produced a few strips and showed them to his newspaper syndicate. Nothing of Siegel and O'Mealia's collaboration survives, except in Siegel's memoir. In June 1934, Siegel found another partner: an artist in Chicago named Russell Keaton.
Keaton drew the Buck R
Boy Scouts of America
The Boy Scouts of America is one of the largest scouting organizations and youth organizations in the United States, with about 2.4 million youth participants and about one million adult volunteers. The BSA was founded in 1910, since about 110 million Americans have been participants in BSA programs at some time; the BSA is part of the international Scout Movement and became a founding member organization of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1922. The mission of the Boy Scouts of America is to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law. Youth are trained in responsible citizenship, character development, self-reliance through participation in a wide range of outdoor activities, educational programs, and, at older age levels, career-oriented programs in partnership with community organizations. For younger members, the Scout method is part of the program to instill typical Scouting values such as trustworthiness, good citizenship, outdoors skills, through a variety of activities such as camping and hiking.
To further these outdoor activities, the BSA has four high-adventure bases: Northern Tier, Philmont Scout Ranch, Sea Base, Summit Bechtel Reserve, as well as close to a hundred separate camps and reservations dedicated to scouts. The traditional Scouting divisions are Cub Scouting for ages 5 to 11 years, Scouts BSA for ages 11 to 17, Venturing for ages 14 through 21. Learning for Life is a non-traditional affiliate. On February 1, 2019, the Boy Scouts of America renamed their flagship program, Boy Scouting, to Scouts BSA to reflect their change of policy to allow girls to join in separate troops; the BSA operates traditional Scouting by chartering local organizations, such as churches, civic associations, or educational organization, to implement the Scouting program for youth within their communities. Units are led by volunteers appointed by the chartering organization, who are supported by local councils using both paid professional Scouters and volunteers; the progressive movement in the United States was at its height during the early 20th century.
With the migration of families from farms to cities, there were concerns among some people that young men were no longer learning patriotism and individualism. The YMCA was an early promoter of reforms for young men with a focus on social welfare and programs of mental, physical and religious development.:72–82 BSA had two notable predecessors in the United States: the Woodcraft Indians started by Ernest Thompson Seton in 1902 in Cos Cob and the Sons of Daniel Boone founded by Daniel Carter Beard in 1905 in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1907, Robert Baden-Powell, founded the Scouting movement in England using elements of Seton's works among other influences. Several Scout programs for boys started independently in the US.. Many of these Scout programs in the US merged with the BSA.:52 In 1909, Chicago publisher W. D. Boyce was visiting London, where he encountered a boy who came to be known as the Unknown Scout. Boyce was lost on a foggy street when an unknown Scout came to his aid, guiding him to his destination.
The boy refused Boyce's tip, explaining that he was a Boy Scout and was doing his daily good turn. Interested in the Boy Scouts, Boyce met with staff at the Boy Scouts Headquarters and, by some accounts, Baden-Powell. Upon his return to the US, Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America on February 8, 1910. Edgar M. Robinson and Lee F. Hanmer became interested in the nascent BSA and convinced Boyce to turn the program over to the YMCA for development in April 1910. Robinson enlisted Seton, Charles Eastman, other prominent leaders in the early youth movements. Former president Theodore Roosevelt, who had long complained of the decline in American manhood, became an ardent supporter. In January 1911, Robinson turned the movement over to James E. West who became the first Chief Scout Executive and Scouting began to expand in the US:148 The BSA's stated purpose at its incorporation in 1910 was "to teach patriotism, self-reliance, kindred values.":7 Later, in 1937, Deputy Chief Scout Executive George J. Fisher expressed the BSA's mission: "Each generation as it comes to maturity has no more important duty than that of teaching high ideals and proper behavior to the generation which follows."
The current mission statement of the BSA is "to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law." Boy Scouts of America is distinct in its use of the term "Scout Oath" rather than "Scout Promise". The difference is that while the former phrase implies that a Scout is making his promise before God, the latter phrasing indicates that the Scout makes his commitment in the presence of fellow human beings; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was the first partner to sponsor Scouting in the United States, adopting the program in 1913 as part of its Mutual Improvement Association program for young men. In May 2018, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints announced that, effective year-end 2019, it would no longer sponsor scouting units with the Boy Scouts of America to focus on its own global youth leadership and development program, although Mormon youth are free to join scouting units sponsored by other organizations.
The BSA holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, which means that it is one of the comparatively rare "Title