Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Margo Lanagan in Waratah, New South Wales is an Australian writer of short stories and young adult fiction. She grew up in Raymond Terrace, moved to Melbourne circa 1971/1972. After overseas travel, she moved to Sydney in 1982. Many of her books, including Young Adult fiction, were only published in Australia, but several have attracted worldwide attention, her short story collection Black Juice won a 2006 Printz Honor Award. It was published in Australia by Allen & Unwin, in the United Kingdom by Gollancz in 2004, in North America by HarperCollins in 2005, it includes the much-anthologized short story "Singing My Sister Down", nominated for both the Hugo and the Nebula Awards for best short story. Her short story collection White Time published in Australia by Allen & Unwin in 2000, was published in North America by HarperCollins in August 2006, after the success of Black Juice, it received recognition as a 2007 Best Book for Young Adults from the American Library Association. In addition to Black Juice, a 2006 recipient, Tender Morsels won a Printz Honor Award in 2009.
Tender Morsels was a 2008 Shirley Jackson Award finalist, the novella Sea-Hearts was a 2009 finalist. Tender Morsels won a World Fantasy Award in 2009 for best novel, was a Locus Award for Best Young Adult Book nominee. Sea-Hearts won the World Fantasy Award for Best Novella in 2010. Lanagan is an alumna of the Clarion West Writers Workshop, 1999, returned as a teacher in 2011 and 2013; as Melanie Carter: The Cappuccino Kid. Random House Australia. ISBN 9781863590181As Belinda Hayes: Star of the Show.. Random House Australia. ISBN 9781863590198 The Girl in the Mirror.. Bantam. ISBN 9781863590204As Gilly Lockwood: Nowhere Girl.. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 9780330332477 Misty Blues. Pan Macmillan. 1993. ISBN 9780330274098. On the Wildside. Pan Macmillan. 1993. ISBN 9780330274401; as Mandy McBride: Temper, Temper. Bantam. 1990. ISBN 9780947189952. New Girl. Australia: Random House. 1992. ISBN 9781863189965. Cover Girl. Australia: Random House. 1992. ISBN 9781863590488; as Margo Lanagan: Junior fictionWildGame. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
1991. The Tankermen. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. Walking Through Albert. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. Treasure-Hunters of Quentaris; the Singing Stones. Young adult fictionThe Best Thing. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. 1995. ISBN 9781864488241. Touching Earth Lightly. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. 1996. ISBN 9781864488234. Fantasy fictionTender Morsels Sea Hearts /The Brides of Rollrock Island White Time.. Eos/Harper Collins 0060743948 Black Juice. Allen & Unwin ISBN 9781741750911. Harper Collins 9780060743901 Red Spikes. Allen & Unwin ISBN 9781741146578 Yellowcake. Allen & Unwin ISBN 9781742374789 Cracklescape. Twelfth Planet Press ISBN 9780987216243 "A Fine Magic" in Eidolon I "Winkie" in Red Spikes "Machine Maid" in "Extraordinary Engines" "A Dark Red Love Knot" in How Beautiful the Ordinary: Twelve Stories of Identity "Ferryman" in Firebirds Soaring "Mulberry Boys" in Blood and Other Cravings "Blooding the Bride" in Exotic Gothic 4 "The Fifth Star in the Southern Cross" in After the End: Recent Apocalypses "Mouth to Mouth" in Novascapes Margo Lanagan and Tender Morsels, interview by Jeff VanderMeer in Clarkesworld Magazine, October 2008 Margo Lanagan at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Margo Lanagan on Twitter
Horror is a genre of speculative fiction, intended to frighten, disgust, or startle its readers by inducing feelings of horror and terror. Literary historian J. A. Cuddon defined the horror story as "a piece of fiction in prose of variable length... which shocks, or frightens the reader, or induces a feeling of repulsion or loathing". It creates an frightening atmosphere. Horror is supernatural, though it can be non-supernatural; the central menace of a work of horror fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for the larger fears of a society. The horror genre has ancient origins with roots in folklore and religious traditions, focusing on death, the afterlife, the demonic and the principle of the thing embodied in the person; these were manifested in stories of beings such as witches, vampires and ghosts. European horror fiction became established through works by Ancient Romans; the well-known 19th century novel about Frankenstein was influenced by the story of Hippolytus, where Asclepius revives him from death.
Euripides wrote plays based on Hippolytos Kalyptomenos and Hippolytus. Plutarch's "The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans: Cimon describes the spirit of a murderer, who himself was murdered in a bathhouse in Chaeronea. Pliny the Younger tells the tale of Athenodorus Cananites. Athenodorus was cautious. While writing a book on philosophy, he was visited by a spectre bound in chains; the figure disappeared in the courtyard. The earliest recording of an official accusation of Satanism by the Church took place in Toulouse in AD 1022 against a couple of clerics. Werewolf stories were popular in medieval French literature. One of Marie de France's twelve lais is a werewolf story titled "Bisclavret"; the Countess Yolande commissioned a werewolf story titled "Guillaume de Palerme". Anonymous writers penned two werewolf stories, "Biclarel" and "Melion". Much horror fiction derives from the cruellest personages of the 15th century. Dracula can be traced to the Prince of Wallachia Vlad III whose alleged war crimes were published in German pamphlets.
A 1499 pamphlet published by Markus Ayrer is most notable for its woodcut imagery. The alleged serial killer spree of Giles de Rais have been seen as the inspiration for "Bluebeard"; the motif of the vampiress is most notably derived from the real life noblewoman and murderess, Elizabeth Bathory, helped usher in the emergence of horror fiction in the 18th century, such as through László Turóczi's 1729 book Tragica Historia. The 18th century saw the gradual development of the Gothic horror genre, it drew on the written and material heritage of the Late Middle Ages, finding its form with Horace Walpole's seminal and controversial 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto. In fact, the first edition was published disguised as an actual medieval romance from Italy and republished by a fictitious translator. Once revealed as modern, many found it anachronistic, reactionary, or in poor taste — but it proved popular. Otranto inspired Vathek by William Beckford, A Sicilian Romance, The Mysteries of Udolpho and The Italian by Ann Radcliffe and The Monk by Matthew Lewis.
A significant amount of horror fiction of this era was written by women and marketed towards a female audience, a typical scenario being a resourceful female menaced in a gloomy castle. The Gothic tradition blossomed into the genre modern readers call horror literature in the 19th century. Influential works and characters that continue resonating in fiction and film today saw their genesis in the Brothers Grimm's "Hänsel und Gretel", Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Washington Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Jane C. Loudon's "The Mummy!: Or a Tale of the Twenty-Second Century", Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Thomas Peckett Prest's Varney the Vampire, Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, the works of Edgar Allan Poe, the works of Sheridan Le Fanu, Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray, H. G. Wells' The Invisible Man, Bram Stoker's Dracula; each of these works created an enduring icon of horror seen in re-imaginings on the page and screen.
A proliferation of cheap periodicals around turn of the century led to a boom in horror writing. For example, Gaston Leroux serialized his Le Fantôme de l'Opéra before it was a novel in 1910. One writer who specialized in horror fiction for mainstream pulps such as All-Story Magazine was Tod Robbins, whose fiction deals with themes of madness and cruelty. Specialist publications emerged to give horror writers an outlet, prominent among them Weird Tales and Unknown Worlds. Influential horror writers of the early 20th century made inroads in these mediums; the venerated horror author H. P. Lovecraft, his enduring Cthulhu Mythos pioneered the genre of cosmic horror, M. R. James is credited with redefining the ghost story in that era; the serial murderer became a recurring theme. Yellow journalism and sensationalism of various murderers, such as Jack the Ripper, lesser so, Carl Panzram, Fritz Haarman, Albert Fish, all perpetuated this phenomenon; the trend continued in the postwar era renewed after the murders committed by Ed Gein.
In 1959, Robert Bloch, inspired by the murders, wrote Psycho. The crimes committed in 1969 by the Manson family influenced the slasher theme in horror fiction of the 1970s. In 1981, Thomas Harris wrote Red Dragon. In 1988, the sequel to tha
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, 128 miles north of London, 45 miles northeast of Birmingham and 56 miles southeast of Manchester, in the East Midlands. Nottingham has links to the legend of Robin Hood and to the lace-making and tobacco industries, it was granted its city charter in 1897 as part of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Nottingham is a tourist destination. In 2017, Nottingham had an estimated population of 329,200; the population of the city proper, compared to its regional counterparts, has been attributed to its historical and tightly-drawn city boundaries. The wider conurbation, which includes many of the city's suburbs, has a population of 768,638, it is the second-largest in The Midlands. Its Functional Urban Area the largest in the East Midlands, has a population of 912,482; the population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,610,000. Its metropolitan economy is the seventh largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $50.9bn.
The city was the first in the East Midlands to be ranked as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Nottingham has an award-winning public transport system, including the largest publicly owned bus network in England and is served by Nottingham railway station and the modern Nottingham Express Transit tram system, it is a major sporting centre, in October 2015 was named'Home of English Sport'. The National Ice Centre, Holme Pierrepont National Watersports Centre, Trent Bridge international cricket ground are all based in or around the city, the home of two professional league football teams; the city has professional rugby, ice hockey and cricket teams, the Aegon Nottingham Open, an international tennis tournament on the ATP and WTA tours. This accolade came just over a year. On 11 December 2015, Nottingham was named a "City of Literature" by UNESCO, joining Dublin, Edinburgh and Prague as one of only a handful in the world; the title reflects Nottingham's literary heritage, with Lord Byron, D. H. Lawrence and Alan Sillitoe having links to the city, as well as a contemporary literary community, a publishing industry and a poetry scene.
The city has two universities—Nottingham Trent University and the University of Nottingham—both of which are spread over several campuses in the city, with a total university student population of over 61,000. The city predates Anglo-Saxon times and was known in Brythonic as Tigguo Cobauc, meaning Place of Caves. In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog and Irish as Na Tithe Uaimh "The Cavey Dwelling"; when it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as "Snotingaham". Some authors derive "Nottingham" from Snottenga and ham, but "this has nothing to do with the English form". Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen; the Anglo-Saxon settlement was confined to the area today known as the Lace Market and was surrounded by a substantial defensive ditch and rampart, which fell out of use following the Norman Conquest and was filled by the time of the Domesday Survey. Following the Norman Conquest the Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall and Law Courts.
A settlement developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle. The space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later. Defences, consisted of a ditch and bank in the early 12th century; the ditch was widened, in the mid-13th century, a stone wall built around much of the perimeter of the town. A short length of the wall survives, is visible at the northern end of Maid Marian Way, is protected as a Scheduled Monument. On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John, including the Sheriff of Nottingham, it was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the final showdown between the Sheriff and the hero outlaw. By the 15th century Nottingham had established itself as a centre of a thriving export trade in religious sculpture made from Nottingham alabaster.
The town became a county corporate in 1449 giving it effective self-government, in the words of the charter, "for eternity". The Castle and Shire Hall were expressly excluded and remained as detached Parishes of Nottinghamshire. One of those impressed by Nottingham in the late 18th century was the German traveller C. P. Moritz, who wrote in 1782, "Of all the towns I have seen outside London, Nottingham is the loveliest and neatest. Everything had a modern look, a large space in the centre was hardly less handsome than a London square. A charming footpath leads over the fields to the highway. … Nottingham … with its high houses, red roofs and church steeples, looks excellent from a distance."During the Industrial Revolution, much of Nottingham's prosperity was founded on the textile industry.
Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC since 1963. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord called "the Doctor", an extraterrestrial being, to all appearances human, from the planet Gallifrey; the Doctor explores the universe in a time-travelling space ship called the TARDIS. Its exterior appears as a blue British police box, a common sight in Britain in 1963 when the series first aired. Accompanied by a number of companions, the Doctor combats a variety of foes while working to save civilisations and help people in need; the show is a significant part of British popular culture, elsewhere it has gained a cult following. It has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series; the programme ran from 1963 to 1989. There was an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot, in the form of a television film titled Doctor Who; the programme was relaunched in 2005, since has been produced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff.
Doctor Who has spawned numerous spin-offs, including comic books, novels, audio dramas, the television series Torchwood, The Sarah Jane Adventures, K-9, Class, has been the subject of many parodies and references in popular culture. Thirteen actors have headlined the series as the Doctor; the transition from one actor to another is written into the plot of the show with the concept of regeneration into a new incarnation, a plot device in which a Time Lord "transforms" into a new body when the current one is too badly harmed to heal normally. Each actor's portrayal is unique. Together, they form a single lifetime with a single narrative; the time-travelling feature of the plot means that different incarnations of the Doctor meet. The Doctor is portrayed by Jodie Whittaker, who took on the role after Peter Capaldi's exit in the 2017 Christmas special "Twice Upon a Time". Doctor Who follows the adventures of the title character, a rogue Time Lord from the planet Gallifrey who goes by the name "the Doctor".
The Doctor fled Gallifrey in a stolen TARDIS, a time machine that travels by materialising into and dematerialising out of the time vortex. The TARDIS has a vast interior but appears smaller on the outside, is equipped with a "chameleon circuit" intended to make the machine take on the appearance of local objects as a disguise. Across time and space, the Doctor's many incarnations find events that pique their curiosity and try to prevent evil forces from harming innocent people or changing history, using only ingenuity and minimal resources, such as the versatile sonic screwdriver; the Doctor travels alone and brings one or more companions to share these adventures. These companions are humans, owing to the Doctor's fascination with planet Earth, which leads to frequent collaborations with the international military task force UNIT when the Earth is threatened; the Doctor is centuries old and, as a Time Lord, has the ability to regenerate in case of mortal damage to the body, taking on a new appearance and personality.
The Doctor has gained numerous reoccurring enemies during their travels, including the Daleks, the Cybermen, the Master, another renegade Time Lord. Doctor Who first appeared on BBC TV at 17:16:20 GMT on Saturday, 23 November 1963, it was to be each episode 25 minutes of transmission length. Discussions and plans for the programme had been in progress for a year; the head of drama Sydney Newman was responsible for developing the programme, with the first format document for the series being written by Newman along with the head of the script department Donald Wilson and staff writer C. E. Webber. Writer Anthony Coburn, story editor David Whitaker and initial producer Verity Lambert heavily contributed to the development of the series; the programme was intended to appeal to a family audience as an educational programme using time travel as a means to explore scientific ideas and famous moments in history. On 31 July 1963, Whitaker commissioned Terry Nation to write a story under the title The Mutants.
As written, the Daleks and Thals were the victims of an alien neutron bomb attack but Nation dropped the aliens and made the Daleks the aggressors. When the script was presented to Newman and Wilson it was rejected as the programme was not permitted to contain any "bug-eyed monsters". According to producer Verity Lambert. We had a bit of a crisis of confidence. Had we had anything else ready we would have made that." Nation's script became the second Doctor. The serial introduced the eponymous aliens that would become the series' most popular monsters, was responsible for the BBC's first merchandising boom; the BBC drama department's serials division produced the programme for 26 seasons, broadcast on BBC 1. Falling viewing numbers, a decline in the public perception of the show and a less-prominent transmission slot saw production suspended in 1989 by Jonathan Powell, controller of BBC 1. Although it was cancelled with the decision not to commission a planned 27th season, which would have been broadcast in 1990, the BBC affirmed, over several ye
Short Trips: Destination Prague
Short Trips: Destination Prague is a Big Finish original anthology edited by Steven Savile and based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. The collection features stories set in the future of Prague; the Doctor complains about Herman Melville's novel Moby Dick. In the Doctor Who short story "Sunday Afternoon, AD 848,988", the Seventh Doctor tells his companion Ace that he has tried over a hundred times to read it but could never get past the first ten pages. Big Finish Productions - Short Trips: Destination Prague
Robert Hood is an American electronic music producer and DJ. He is a founding member of group Underground Resistance as a'Minister Of Information' with Mad Mike Banks and Jeff Mills, he is considered to be one of the founders of minimal techno. Robert Hood has released music under his own name, Inner Sanctum, The Vision and other aliases; when recording with Jeff Mills, he has used the alias H&M. Robert Hood - Sophisticcato, 12-inch Robert Hood - The Grey Area, 12-inch Robert Hood - Spectra, 12-inch Robert Hood - Red Passion III, 12-inch Robert Hood - Addict, 12-inch Robert Hood - Internal Empire, CD Robert Hood - The Protein Valve, 12-inch Robert Hood - Internal Empire, CD Robert Hood - The Pace, 12-inch Robert Hood - Master Builder, 12-inch Robert Hood - Minimal Nation Misspress, 2x12-inch Robert Hood - Minimal Nation, 2x12-inch Robert Hood - Internal Empire, 12-inch Robert Hood - Internal Empire, 2x12-inch Robert Hood - Internal Empire, CD Robert Hood - Nighttime World Volume 1, CD Robert Hood - Nighttime World Vol. 1, 2x12-inch Robert Hood - Moveable Parts Chapter 1, 12-inch Robert Hood - Master Builder, CD5" Robert Hood - Minimal Nation, 2x12-inch Robert Hood - The Vision, 12-inch Robert Hood - Underestimated, 12-inch Robert Hood - Moveable Parts Chapter 2, 2x12-inch Robert Hood - All Day Long, 12-inch Robert Hood - Hoodlum, 2x12-inch Robert Hood - Psychic / Pole Position, 12-inch Robert Hood - Stereotype, 12-inch Robert Hood - Red Passion II, 12-inch Robert Hood - Satellite - A Force Of One, 12-inch Robert Hood - Internal Empire, 2x12-inch Robert Hood - Technatural EP, 12-inch Robert Hood - Red Passion I, 12-inch Robert Hood - Nighttime World Volume 2, CD Robert Hood - Nighttime World Volume 2, 3x12-inch Robert Hood - Apartment Zero, 12-inch Robert Hood - Invincible, 12-inch Robert Hood - The Greatest Dancer, 12-inch Robert Hood - The Deal, 12-inch Robert Hood - Master Builder, 12-inch Robert Hood - Who Taught You Math, 12-inch Robert Hood - The Metronome, 12-inch Robert Hood - Monobox EP, 12-inch Robert Hood - Point Black, 2x12-inch Robert Hood - Point Black, CD Robert Hood - The Art Of War, 2x12-inch Robert Hood - Kick Dirt E.p, 12-inch Robert Hood - The Black & White E.p, 12-inch Robert Hood - "i", 12-inch Robert Hood - Untitled 5, 12-inch Robert Hood presents HoodMusic Vol 1, 12-inch Robert Hood presents HoodMusic Vol 2, 12-inch Robert Hood presents HoodMusic Vol 3, 12-inch Robert Hood - Shonky In The Hood EP, 12-inch Robert Hood – Superman / Range, 12-inch Monobox - Realm Monobox - Downtown Monobox - Population Monobox - Molecule Monobox - Molecule H&M - Tranquilizer EP, 12-inch H&M - Tranquilizer EP, 12-inch H&M - Drama EP, 12-inch The Vision - Gyroscopic EP, 12-inch The Vision - Toxin 12 EP, 12-inch The Vision - Waveform Transmission Vol. 2, 2x12-inch The Vision - Spectral Nomad, 12-inch The Vision - The Vision, 12-inch The Vision - Other Side Of Life, 12-inch The Vision - Laidback & Groovy, 12-inch Inner Sanctum - Inner Sanctum, 12-inch Floorplan - Funky Souls Floorplan - Doin' My Thing EP Floorplan - Envy Floorplan - Come On Rock / Burner Floorplan - On The Case Floorplan - Shop / Learn Floorplan - Living It Up / Wall To Wall Floorplan - Sanctified EP Floorplan - Paradise Floorplan - Victorious The Mathematic Assassins - Calculator Missing Channel - Atomic Whirlpool, 12-inch Missing Channel - Onslaught, 12-inch Missing Channel - Submerged, 12-inch X-101 "Sonic Destroyer" X-101 "Whatever Happened To Peace" X-101 "X-101" X-102 "Discovers The Rings Of Saturn" X-102 "OBX-A" X-103 - Thera, 12-inch X-103 - Atlantis, CD X-103 - Atlantis, 2x12-inch X-103 - Thera EP, 12-inch X-103 - Tephra EP, 12-inch DBX “Losing Control” Dave Clarke “ Wisdom To The Wise/ Red 2” Diego “Mind Detergent” Turner “When Will We Leave” Oliver Ho “Changing” Allen Gamble "Militant" - 2003 Allen Gamble "Your Mind is Mind" Monobox Mix - - 2005 The Black Dog - 2008 Marc Romboy “The Beat” - 2009 Detroit Grand Pubahs “Funk all Y’all” - 2009 Ben Klock "Goodly Sin" - 2009 Youandme "Close To Me" - 2010 Aufgang "Barock" - 2010 Juju & Jordash "Deep Blue Manies" - 2010 Boys Noize "Trooper" - 2010 Roel Salemink "Silenth Noises" - 2010 O/V/R "Post Traumatic Son" - 2011 DJ 3000 "Hotel Oasiz" - 2011 TommyFourSeven - 2011 Orlando Voorn "Phuture" - 2011 “Caught In The Act” Fabric 039: Robert Hood – March 2008 "Deep Concentration: The Grey Area mix" - December 2008 Robert Hood discography at Discogs Interview video for Jekyllethyde.fr Robert Hood's page at EPM Artist Management