Prime Minister of South Korea
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea is appointed by the President of South Korea, with the National Assembly's approval. The officeholder is not required to be a member of the National Assembly; the Prime Minister is not the head of government but rather serves in a role similar to that of a vice president. The Sino-Korean word gungmu means "state affairs" and chongni means "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor", so the full title in Korean means "Prime Minister for State Affairs", but it is not used as official English title; the short title in Korean is just Chongni. The position was created on 31 July 1948, two weeks before the government of South Korea was founded, was held by Lee Beom-seok until 1950; the title was Chief Cabinet Minister from 1961 until 1963. On 27 April 2014, Prime Minister Chung Hong-won announced his desire to resign. However, due to unsuccessful nominations, Chung remained in office until February 2015. On 23 January 2015, President Park Geun-hye named Saenuri's Floor Leader Lee Wan-koo as the new Prime Minister.
Lee was confirmed by the National Assembly as Prime Minister on 16 February 2015. However, on April 20 of the same year, he offered his resignation to the President in the midst of a bribery scandal; the Prime Minister is the principal executive assistant to the President, while the president is the actual head of government, but not the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister holds the second position after the President in the State Council of South Korea, the nominal cabinet of South Korea; the Prime Minister assists the President by supervising ministries, making recommendations for ministers, serves as the Vice-Chairman of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister is the first in the order of succession to discharge the duties of the office of the President as the Acting President should the president be unable to discharge her or his office; the most recent person to have served as Acting President was Hwang Kyo-ahn, during the impeachment of Park Geun-hye in 2016. A Prime Minister, appointed by the President but not yet confirmed by the National Assembly is informally called as the acting Prime Minister.
The term may be applied to a Prime Minister that has resigned but in the interim remains in office in a caretaker role. The Prime Minister's Office is supported by two deputy prime ministers; the Prime Minister of South Korea have some professional background. Whereas the President is always a sole politician. Prime Minister of Korea List of Korea-related topics Politics of South Korea Office for Government Policy Coordination, Prime Minister's Secretariat South Korea at worldstatesmen.org
The Korean Empire was the last independent unified Korean state. Proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty, the empire stood until Japan's annexation of Korea in August 1910. During the Korean Empire, Emperor Gojong oversaw the Gwangmu Reform, a partial modernization and Westernization of the military, land system, education system, of various industries. Korea in the Joseon dynasty had been a perfunctory client kingdom of China in the Qing dynasty due to the diplomatic reason though Joseon was managed by the King independently from China. Towards the end of the 19th century, influence over Korea was an area of conflict between the Qing and Japan; the First Sino-Japanese War marked the rapid decline of any power the Joseon state had managed to hold against foreign interference, as the battles of the conflict itself had been fought on Korean soil and the surrounding seas. With its newfound preeminence over the waning and weak Qing dynasty, Japan had delegates negotiate the Treaty of Shimonoseki with the Qing dynasty.
Through signing the treaty, a move designed to prevent the southern expansion of Russia, Japan wrested control over the Liaodong Peninsula from Qing and more over Korea. However, Russia recognized this agreement as an act against its interests in northeastern China and brought France and Germany to its side, in saying that the Liaodong Peninsula should be repatriated to Qing China. At the time, Japan was powerless to resist such foreign pressure by nations that it considered far more advanced and which it sought to emulate, as such relinquished its claim to Liaodong Peninsula. With the success of the three-country intervention, Russia emerged as another major power in East Asia, replacing the Qing Dynasty as the entity that the Joseon court's many government officials advocated close ties with to prevent more Japanese meddling in Korean politics. Queen Min, the consort of King Gojong recognized this change and formally established closer diplomatic relations with Russia to counter Japanese influence.
Queen Min began to emerge as a key figure in higher-level Korean counteraction against Japanese influence. Japan, seeing its designs endangered by the queen replaced its ambassador to Korea, Count Inoue, with Lieutenant-General Viscount Miura, a diplomat with a background in the Imperial Japanese Army, he subsequently orchestrated the assassination of Queen Min on October 8, 1895, at her residence at the Geoncheong Palace, the official sleeping quarters of the king within Gyeongbok Palace. With the assassination of his wife Queen Min, King Gojong and the Crown Prince fled to the Russian legation in 1896. During the time from Queen Min's death to the king's return from Russian protection, Korea underwent another major upheaval both at home and abroad. By 1894, new laws passed by progressives and reformers in the royal cabinet forced through long-desired reforms aimed at revamping Korea's antiquated society; these laws were called referring to the year in which they began. Meanwhile, the new reforms aimed at modernizing Korean society soon attracted controversy from within.
Anti-Japanese sentiment, which had become entrenched in the minds of commoners and aristocrats alike during the Japanese invasions of Korea, became pervasive in the royal court and upper echelons of society following the Ganghwa Treaty of 1876 and soon extended explosively to most Koreans following perceived Japanese meddling in court politics and the assassination of Queen Min. However, the new and modern reforms pushed forward by the pro-Japanese progressives, the most controversial of, the mandatory cutting of the traditional man bun, ignited further resentment and discontent; this led to the uprising of the Eulmi temporary armies aimed at avenging the assassination of Queen Min. In 1897, King Gojong, yielding to rising pressure from both overseas and the demands of the Independence Association-led public opinion, returned to Gyŏngungung. There, he proclaimed the founding of the "Great Korean Empire" re-designated the national title as such, declared the new era name Gwangmu severing Korea's superficial historic ties as a tributary of Qing China, which Korea had adhered to since the prior Manchurian invasion in 1636.
Gojong became the Gwangmu Emperor, the first imperial head of state and hereditary sovereign of the Korean Empire. This marked the complete end of the old world order and traditional tributary system in the Far East. Korea's new status as an empire meant "Completely independence from Qing's sphere of influence" which means Korea was not influenced from Qing externally according to the Treaty of Shimonoseki of 1895 and implemented the "full and complete" independence according to the treaty; the name meaning "Great Han Empire", was derived from Samhan the Three Kingdoms of Korea, in the tradition of naming new states after historic states. The significance of the declaration of an Empire, in the Korean understanding of the situation was to declare Korea's end of tributary relationship with the Qing dynasty; the usage of Emperor was reserved only for the emperor of China, the Son of Heaven. Korean dynasties had given tribute to Chinese dynasties; when Japan experienced the Meiji Restoration, the Emperor of Japan was declared the source of sovereignty in the Japanese government.
Upon receiving news of the Meiji restoration from Japan, the Korean government refused
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
The Korean Provisional Government, formally the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a recognized Korean government-in-exile, based in Shanghai, in Chungking, during the Japanese colonial rule of Korea. On April 11, 1919, the provisional constitution was enacted, the national sovereignty was called "Republic of Korea" and the political system was called "Democratic Republic". Introduced the presidential system and established three separate systems of legislative and judicial separation, the KPG inherited the territory of the former Korean Empire and stated that he favored the former imperial court, it supported and supported the independence movement under the provisional government, received economic and military support from the Kuomintang of China, the Soviet Union and France. After the Surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945, figures such as Kim Gu returned. On August 15, 1948, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was dissolved. Rhee, the first president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, became the first President of the Republic of Korea in 1948.
The Constitution of South Korea, amended in 1987, stated that the Korean people inherited the rule of the KPG. The government was formed on April 13, 1919, shortly after the March 1st movement of the same year during the Imperial Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula. Key members in its establishment included An Changho and Syngman Rhee, both of which were leaders of the Korean National Association at that time. An Changho played an important part in making Shanghai the center of the liberation movement and in getting KPG operations underway; as acting premier, he would help reorganize the government from a parliamentary cabinet system to a presidential system. The government resisted the colonial rule of Korea that lasted from 1910 to 1945, they coordinated the armed resistance against the Japanese imperial army during the 1920s and 1930s, including the Battle of Chingshanli in October 1920 and the assault on Japanese military leadership in Shanghai's Hongkou Park in April 1932. This struggle culminated in the formation of Korean Liberation Army in 1940, bringing together many if not all Korean resistance groups in exile.
The government duly declared war against the Axis powers Japan and Germany on December 9, 1941, the Liberation Army took part in allied action in China and parts of Southeast Asia. During World War II, the Korean Liberation Army was preparing an assault against the Imperial Japanese forces in Korea in conjunction with American Office of Strategic Services, but the Japanese surrender prevented the execution of the plan; the government's goal was achieved with Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945, but they were not approved by other governments as a member of allied nations, who signed peace treaty with Japan in San Francisco. The sites of the Provisional Government in Shanghai and Chongqing have been preserved as museums. In 1919, when U. S. President Woodrow Wilson ruled for national self-determination, Rhee Syng-man promoted the League of Nations mandate in the United States, Kim Kyu-sik pushed for independence under the approval of a victorious country in Paris; the provisional government gained approval from Poland through diplomatic efforts.
Meanwhile, in 1944, the government received approval from the Soviet Union. Jo So-ang, the head of diplomatic department of provisional government, met with the French ambassador in Chongqing and was quoted as saying that French government would give unofficial and substantively approve the government in April 1945. However, The government did not gain formal recognition from United States, United Kingdom and other world powers. Syngman Rhee - Impeached by the provisional assembly Yi Dongnyeong - Acting Park Eun-sik - Acting Park Eun-sik Yi Yu-pil -Acting Yi Sang-ryong Yang Gi-tak Yi Dongnyeong Ahn Chang-ho Yi Dong-nyeong Hong Jin Kim Koo Yi Dongnyeong Song Byeong-jo Yi Dongnyeong - Died in office Kim Koo Syngman Rhee - Became the first president of South Korea, from July 24, 1948 to April 26, 1960 History of South Korea Korean independence movements Korean Liberation Army Korea Times article "Provisional Government in Shanghai Resisted Colonial Rule" by Robert Neff Korea's Provisional Government established in 1919 in Shanghai - Arirang News
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea
Korean independence movement
The Korean independence movement was a military and diplomatic campaign to achieve the independence of Korea from Japan. After the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910, Korea's domestic resistance has peaked in the March 1st Movement, crushed and sent Korean leaders to flee into China. In China, Korean independence activists built ties with the National Government of the Republic of China which supported the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, as a government in exile. At the same time, the Korean Liberation Army, which operated under the Chinese National Military Council and the KPG, led attacks against Japan. After the outbreak of the Pacific War, China became one of the Allies of World War II. In the Second Sino-Japanese War, China attempted to use this influence to assert Allied recognition of the KPG. However, the United States was skeptical of Korean unity and readiness for independence, preferring an international trusteeship-like solution for the peninsula. Although China achieved agreement by the Allies on eventual Korean independence in the Cairo Declaration of 1943, continued disagreement and ambiguity about the postwar Korean government lasted until Soviet–Japanese War created a de facto division of Korea into Soviet and American zones, prompting the Korean War.
The date of the Surrender of Japan is an annual holiday called Gwangbokjeol in South Korea, Chogukhaebangŭi nal in North Korea. The last independent Korean monarchy, the Joseon dynasty, lasted over 500 years, both as the Joseon Kingdom and as the Empire of Korea, its international status and policies were conducted through careful diplomacy with the power en vogue in China, though other interactions with other international entities were not absent. Through this maneuvering and a dedicated adherence to strict Neo-Confucianist foreign and domestic policies, Joseon Korea retained control over its internal affairs and relative international autonomy though technically a suzerain of the ruling Chinese dynasties for most of this period; these policies were effective in maintaining Korea's relative independence and domestic autonomy in spite of a number of regional upheavals and a number of invasions. However, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the rise of Western imperialism boosted by the Industrial Revolution and other major international trends, the weakening of China made Korea vulnerable to foreign maneuvering and encroachment, both as a target in and of itself and as a stepping-stone to the "larger prize" of China.
This period was marked in Korea by major upheavals, many intrigues, the inability of Joseon Korea and the Empire of Korea to right itself amidst all of the maneuvering around it by larger powers, revolts/insurrections, other indicators of a turbulent time. By the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895 it was evident internationally that China could no longer protect its international interests, much less its own, against its opponents, that its attempts to modernize its military and institutions were unsuccessful. Among other things, the Treaty of Shimonoseki that ended this war stipulated that China would relinquish suzerainty and influence over Korea, recognize Korea's full independence and autonomy, end the tribute system which had linked China and Korea for many centuries. In practical reality, this stipulation implied the handover of primary foreign influence in Korea from China to Japan, as Japanese forces had taken positions in the Korean Peninsula during the course of the war.
This paved the way for Imperial Japan to tighten its influence on Korea without official Chinese intervention. In 1905, the Eulsa Treaty made the Empire of Korea a protectorate of Japan. All of these treaties were procured under duress, though under duress, Emperor Sunjong of Korea refused to sign any of them and considered them illegal and not binding. Notably, both the 1905 treaty and the 1910 annexation treaty were declared "already null and void" when the normalization of relations between the Republic of Korea and Japan was negotiated in 1965; the Japanese rule that ensued was oppressive to a far-reaching degree, giving rise to many Korean resistance movements. By 1919 these became nationwide. Japanese rule was oppressive but changed over time. There was harsh repression in the decade following annexation. Japan's rule was markedly different than in Formosa; this period is called the dark period by Koreans. Tens of thousands of Koreans were arrested for political reasons; the harshness of Japanese rule increased support for the Korean independence movement.
Many Koreans left the Korea
Yun Posun was a Korean independence activist and politician, who served as President of South Korea from 1960 to 1962 before being replaced by the long-serving Park Chung-hee as a result of the May 16 coup in 1961. Having entered politics after World War II, Yun served as Secretary to Korea's Chief of Staff in 1947, he served as Commerce Minister for the newly liberated Korea from 1949–1950. In 1955 Yun helped establish the South Korean Democratic Party. Yun Posun was born in Dunpo-myeon, South Chungcheong Province in 1897, he was a son of Lady Yi Beomsuk. Yun studied in the United Kingdom, graduating with a Master of Arts from the University of Edinburgh in 1930, he returned to Korea in 1932. Yun entered politics in 1945 following Gwangbokjeol; the first Doctor of Philosophy from Princeton University in Korea, as well as first President of South Korea, Dr. Syngman Rhee, was his mentor. By 1947, Yun was serving as Secretary to the Korean Chief of Staff. In 1948, Rhee appointed Yun to the position of mayor of Seoul.
A year he was made Minister of Commerce and Industry. However, Yun soon began to disagree with Rhee's authoritarian policies. While serving as president of the Red Cross Society, he was elected to the National Assembly in 1954. A year he co-founded the opposition South Korean Democratic Party. In 1959, he became a representative to the Supreme Council of the Democratic Party. Rhee's government was ousted by a student-led, pro-democracy uprising in 1960. In response to the authoritarian excesses of Rhee's regime, South Korea had switched to a parliamentary system. Following Park Chung Hee's coup in 1961, Yun stayed in his post in order to provide some legitimacy to the new regime, but resigned on March 22, 1962. In the following years, Yun received suspended sentences several times for anti-government activities, he opposed Park's authoritarian rule and ran for president twice, in 1963 and 1967, losing each time. Yun retired from active politics in 1980 and focused his life on cultural activities until his death on July 18, 1990.
Grand Order of Mugunghwa In-Cheon Cultural Award Yun Chi-ho Yun Chi-Oh Yun Chi-Young Chang Myon Chang Chun-ha South Korean presidential election, August 1960 South Korean presidential election, 1963 South Korean presidential election, 1967 "Road of Thorns.
Seoul National Cemetery
The Seoul National Cemetery is located in Dongjak-dong, Dongjak-gu, South Korea. When established by presidential decree of Syngman Rhee in 1956, it was the country's only national cemetery; as the cemetery reached capacity in the early 1970s, Daejeon National Cemetery was established in 1976. Both cemeteries had been overseen by the Ministry of Defence until 2005 but in 2006 the Daejeon National Cemetery was transferred to the Ministry of Patriots' and Veterans' Affairs; the cemetery is reserved for Korean veterans, including those who died in the Korean independence movement, Korean War, Vietnam War. In August 2005, controversy was stirred by the visit of a North Korean delegation to the cemetery; the delegation was led by Kim Ki-Nam, numbered 182 officials. The visit not only sparked outrage among those opposed to warmer relations with the North, but raised fears that a future delegation from the South might be expected to pay their respects to Kim Il-sung in Pyongyang; the late president Kim Dae-Jung was interred there on Aug 23, 2009.
The Seoul National Cemetery is near Dongjak Station on Seoul Subway Line 4 or Seoul Subway Line 9. Except for some special days the Seoul National Cemetery allows access to the public. Syngman Rhee – President of Korea – buried 1965 Park Chung-hee – President of Korea – buried 1979 Yuk Young-soo – wife of President Park – buried 1974 Kim Dae-jung – President of Korea – buried 2009 Kim Young-sam – President of Korea – buried 2015 Lee Beom-seok – Prime Minister – buried 1972 Park Tae-joon – Founder of POSCO – buried 2011 Chae Myung-shin – ROK Marine Corps General – buried 2013 Jang In-hwan – Korean Independence activist and assassin of Durham Stevens – buried 1975 Yi Cheol-seung – Member of National Assembly On June 22, 1970, three North Korean agents broke into the cemetery and planted a bomb. One agent was killed. On August 14, 2005, a group of North Korean delegations including Vice Chairman of North Korea's Peace and Reunification Committee of the DPRK, visited the Seoul National Cemetery.
On his death on August 18, 2009, he was buried at the National Cemetery in Dongjak-dong, in Seoul, not in Daejeon, the planned burial site. History of South Korea Daejeon National Cemetery Kumsusan Palace of the Sun – in North Korea List of Korea-related topics List of national cemeteries by country Revolutionary Martyrs' Cemetery – in North Korea Patriotic Martyrs' Cemetery – in North Korea United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Busan Cemetery for North Korean and Chinese Soldiers in Paju War Memorial of Korea – in Seoul May 18th National Cemetery Korean-language site of the National Memorial Board Seoul National Cemetery at Find a Grave