According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities for commercial air transport. Airports have facilities to store and maintain aircraft, a control tower. An airport consists of a landing area, which comprises an aerially accessible open space including at least one operationally active surface such as a runway for a plane to take off or a helipad, includes adjacent utility buildings such as control towers and terminals. Larger airports may have airport aprons, taxiway bridges, air traffic control centres, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, emergency services. In some countries, the US in particular, they typically have one or more fixed-base operators, serving general aviation. An airport serving helicopters is called a heliport. An airport for use by seaplanes and amphibious aircraft is called a seaplane base; such a base includes a stretch of open water for takeoffs and landings, seaplane docks for tying-up. An international airport has additional facilities for customs and passport control as well as incorporating all of the aforementioned elements.
Such airports rank among the most complex and largest of all built typologies with 15 of the top 50 buildings by floor area being airport terminals. The terms aerodrome and airstrip may be used to refer to airports, the terms heliport, seaplane base, STOLport refer to airports dedicated to helicopters, seaplanes, or short take-off and landing aircraft. In colloquial use in certain environments, the terms airport and aerodrome are interchanged. However, in general, the term airport may imply or confer a certain stature upon the aviation facility that other aerodromes may not have achieved. In some jurisdictions, airport is a legal term of art reserved for those aerodromes certified or licensed as airports by the relevant national aviation authority after meeting specified certification criteria or regulatory requirements; that is to say, all airports are aerodromes, but not all aerodromes are airports. In jurisdictions where there is no legal distinction between aerodrome and airport, which term to use in the name of an aerodrome may be a commercial decision.
In United States technical/legal usage, landing area is used instead of aerodrome, airport means "a landing area used by aircraft for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo". Smaller or less-developed airfields, which represent the vast majority have a single runway shorter than 1,000 m. Larger airports for airline flights have paved runways of 2,000 m or longer. Skyline Airport in Inkom, Idaho has a runway, only 122 m long. In the United States, the minimum dimensions for dry, hard landing fields are defined by the FAR Landing And Takeoff Field Lengths; these include considerations for safety margins during takeoff. The longest public-use runway in the world is at Qamdo Bamda Airport in China, it has a length of 5,500 m. The world's widest paved runway is 105 m wide; as of 2009, the CIA stated that there were 44,000 "... airports or airfields recognizable from the air" around the world, including 15,095 in the US, the US having the most in the world. Most of the world's large airports are owned by local, regional, or national government bodies who lease the airport to private corporations who oversee the airport's operation.
For example, in the United Kingdom the state-owned British Airports Authority operated eight of the nation's major commercial airports – it was subsequently privatized in the late 1980s, following its takeover by the Spanish Ferrovial consortium in 2006, has been further divested and downsized to operating just Heathrow now. Germany's Frankfurt Airport is managed by the quasi-private firm Fraport. While in India GMR Group operates, through joint ventures, Indira Gandhi International Airport and Rajiv Gandhi International Airport. Bengaluru International Airport and Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport are controlled by GVK Group; the rest of India's airports are managed by the Airports Authority of India. In Pakistan nearly all civilian airports are owned and operated by the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority except for Sialkot International Airport which has the distinction of being the first owned public airport in Pakistan and South Asia. In the United States, commercial airports are operated directly by government entities or government-created airport authorities, such as the Los Angeles World Airports authority that oversees several airports in the Greater Los Angeles area, including Los Angeles International Airport.
In Canada, the federal authority, Transport Canada, divested itself of all but the remotest airports in 1999/2000. Now most airports in Canada are owned and operated by individual legal authorities or are municipally owned. Many U. S. airports still lease part or all of their facilities to outside firms, who operate functions such as retail management and parking. In the U. S. all commercial airport runways are certified by the FAA under the Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 139, "Certification of Commercial Service Airports" but maintained by the local airport under the regulatory authority of the FAA. Despite the reluctance to privatize airports in the US, the government-owned, contractor-operated arrangement is the standard for the operation of commercial airports in the rest of the world. Airports are divided into airside areas; the landside area is open to the public, while access to the airside area is controlled. The airside area includes all parts of the airpo
Lake of the Ozarks
Lake of the Ozarks is a large reservoir created by impounding the Osage River in the northern part of the Ozarks in central Missouri. Extents of three smaller tributaries to the Osage are included in the impoundment: the Niangua River, Grandglaize Creek, Gravois Creek; the lake has a surface area of 54,000 acres and 1,150 miles of shoreline, the main channel of the Osage Arm stretches 92 miles from end to end. The total drainage area is over 14,000 square miles; the lake's serpentine shape has earned it the nickname "The Magic Dragon", which has in turn inspired the names of local institutions such as The Magic Dragon Street Meet. A hydro-electric power plant on the Osage River was first pursued by Kansas City developer Ralph Street in 1912, he put together the initial funding and began building roads and infrastructure necessary to begin construction of a dam, with a plan to impound a much smaller lake. In the mid-1920s, Street's funding dried up, he abandoned the effort; the lake was created by the construction of the 2,543-foot long Bagnell Dam by the Union Electric Company of St. Louis, Missouri.
The principal engineering firm was Webster. Construction began August 8, 1929, was completed in April 1931 and reached spillway elevation on May 20, 1931. During construction, the lake was referred to as Lake Osage; the Missouri General Assembly named it Lake Benton after Senator Thomas Hart Benton. None of the names stuck, as it was popularly referred to by its location at the northern edge of the Ozarks; the electric generating station, however, is still referred to by the utility company as the "Osage Hydroelectric Plant." While some sources indicate that more than 20 towns and settlements were permanently flooded to create the lake, subsequent research indicates that the actual number was closer to eight, while several other sites had been abandoned, were relocated to make way for the lake, or were on high enough ground that the creation of the lake didn't affect them. At the time of construction, the Lake of the Ozarks was the largest man-made lake in the United States and one of the largest in the world.
It was created to provide hydroelectric power for customers of Union Electric, but it became a significant tourist destination for the Midwest. Most of its shoreline is owned, unlike many flood-control lakes in the region that were constructed by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the stable surface elevation has created ideal conditions for private development within a few feet of the shoreline. There are over 70,000 homes along the lake. Spectacular scenery characteristic of the Ozarks has helped to transform the lake into a major resort area, more than 5 million people visit annually. In 2011, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission renewed the lease for the power plant operated by Ameren Missouri. In the process, FERC determined that numerous homes and structures were encroaching on utility land in violation of federal regulations. According to the Boston Globe, this issue "has triggered panic in the area's lakefront communities and led to a growing battle among regulators, a utility company, land attorneys, the state's congressional delegation."
The Lake of the Ozarks is located within the Ozark Mountains with the dam at 38°12′09″N 92°37′35″W at an elevation of 659 feet. It lies in central Missouri on the Salem Plateau of the Ozarks; the lake extends across four Missouri counties, from Benton County in the west through Camden County and Morgan County to Miller County in the east. The reservoir is impounded at its northeastern end by Bagnell Dam, the Osage River is both its primary inflow and outflow. Long and winding in shape, the lake consists of the main, 93-mile-long Osage River channel as well as several arms, each fed by a different tributary; the southwestern arm is fed by the Niangua and Little Niangua Rivers, the southeastern arm by Grandglaize Creek, the northern arm by several streams including Gravois Creek, Indian Creek, Little Gravois Creek. Many smaller tributaries drain into the lake, creating numerous small coves and indentations in its shore; as a result, the lake has 1,150 miles of shoreline. U. S. Route 54 runs east-west across the reservoir's southwestern arm and generally northeast-southwest along its eastern shoreline, crossing the southeastern arm at Osage Beach.
Missouri Route 5 runs north-south along the lake's western shoreline, crossing the main channel at Hurricane Deck. Missouri Route 7 runs northwest-southeast to the lake's southwest, crossing the southwestern arm. Missouri Route 134 runs southeast from U. S. 54 north of Osage Beach to its southern terminus in Lake of the Ozarks State Park. In addition, a network of lettered, supplemental state routes provides access to various points along the lake shore. Numerous settlements are located on the Lake of the Ozarks; the largest is Osage Beach. The second largest is the city of Camdenton, located on U. S. 54 a few miles east of the southwestern arm. Lake Ozark lies north of Osage Beach and just south of Bagnell Dam. Other, smaller communities along or near the lake include: Kaiser, Linn Creek, Village of Four Seasons, Rocky Mount, Sunrise Beach, Hurricane Deck, Gravois Mills and Lakeview Heights; the Lake of the Ozarks has a storage capacity of 1,927,000 acre feet. When filled to that volume, it has a surface elevation of 660 feet and occupies a surface area of 54,000 acres.
The lake varies in surface eleva
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is a governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters. Its powers include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, the protection of U. S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Created in August 1958, the FAA replaced the former Civil Aeronautics Administration and became an agency within the US Department of Transportation; the FAA's roles include: Regulating U. S. commercial space transportation Regulating air navigation facilities' geometric and flight inspection standards Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology Issuing, suspending, or revoking pilot certificates Regulating civil aviation to promote transportation safety in the United States through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation The FAA is divided into four "lines of business".
Each LOB has a specific role within the FAA. Airports: plans and develops projects involving airports, overseeing their construction and operations. Ensures compliance with federal regulations. Air Traffic Organization: primary duty is to safely and efficiently move air traffic within the National Airspace System. ATO employees manage air traffic facilities including Airport Traffic Control Towers and Terminal Radar Approach Control Facilities. See Airway Operational Support. Aviation Safety: Responsible for aeronautical certification of personnel and aircraft, including pilots and mechanics. Commercial Space Transportation: ensures protection of U. S. assets during the launch or reentry of commercial space vehicles. The FAA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. as well as the William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City and its nine regional offices: Alaskan Region – Anchorage, Alaska Northwest Mountain – Seattle, Washington Western Pacific – Los Angeles, California Southwest – Fort Worth, Texas Central – Kansas City, Missouri Great Lakes – Chicago, Illinois Southern – Atlanta, Georgia Eastern – New York, New York New England – Boston, Massachusetts The Air Commerce Act of May 20, 1926, is the cornerstone of the federal government's regulation of civil aviation.
This landmark legislation was passed at the urging of the aviation industry, whose leaders believed the airplane could not reach its full commercial potential without federal action to improve and maintain safety standards. The Act charged the Secretary of Commerce with fostering air commerce and enforcing air traffic rules, licensing pilots, certifying aircraft, establishing airways, operating and maintaining aids to air navigation; the newly created Aeronautics Branch, operating under the Department of Commerce assumed primary responsibility for aviation oversight. In fulfilling its civil aviation responsibilities, the Department of Commerce concentrated on such functions as safety regulations and the certification of pilots and aircraft, it took over the building and operation of the nation's system of lighted airways, a task initiated by the Post Office Department. The Department of Commerce improved aeronautical radio communications—before the founding of the Federal Communications Commission in 1934, which handles most such matters today—and introduced radio beacons as an effective aid to air navigation.
The Aeronautics Branch was renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce in 1934 to reflect its enhanced status within the Department. As commercial flying increased, the Bureau encouraged a group of airlines to establish the first three centers for providing air traffic control along the airways. In 1936, the Bureau itself began to expand the ATC system; the pioneer air traffic controllers used maps and mental calculations to ensure the safe separation of aircraft traveling along designated routes between cities. In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act transferred the federal civil aviation responsibilities from the Commerce Department to a new independent agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority; the legislation expanded the government's role by giving the CAA the authority and the power to regulate airline fares and to determine the routes that air carriers would serve. President Franklin D. Roosevelt split the authority into two agencies in 1940: the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Civil Aeronautics Board.
CAA was responsible for ATC, airman and aircraft certification, safety enforcement, airway development. CAB was entrusted with safety regulation, accident investigation, economic regulation of the airlines; the CAA was part of the Department of Commerce. The CAB was an independent federal agency. On the eve of America's entry into World War II, CAA began to extend its ATC responsibilities to takeoff and landing operations at airports; this expanded role became permanent after the war. The application of radar to ATC helped controllers in their drive to keep abreast of the postwar boom in commercial air transportation. In 1946, Congress gave CAA the added task of administering the federal-aid airport program, the first peacetime program of financial assistance aimed exclusivel
Osage Beach, Missouri
Osage Beach is a city in Camden and Miller counties in the U. S. state of Missouri. Most of the city is in Camden County; the population was 4,351 at the 2010 census. The city, known today as Osage Beach, was named Zebra; the city's post office was established in 1886 and was located on the river bottom, east of the present day post office. The Grand Glaize bridge was replaced in the 1980s. Like the surrounding areas, Zebra was nothing more than a name with a post office. Zebra was soon flooded out during the construction of the Bagnell Dam, which created one of the North America's largest man-made lakes — the Lake of the Ozarks; the post office was rebuilt on the top of a nearby cliff at the heart of the brand new lake. In 1935, residents of the city changed the post office designation to Osage Beach, but no official boundaries were formulated until the early 1960s. Osage Beach was incorporated on May 22, 1959. On May 17, 1960, voters approved legal disincorporation in a special election, but in late 1963, a group interested in re-incorporation began organizing and planning a strategy for change.
The group lobbied for incorporation stating that with a growing community certain services could only be afforded to the people through local government organization. Tourists were becoming more common in the area as entertainment and lake activities grew in popularity, many residents were moving in permanently, new businesses were forming, the group feared without incorporation Osage Beach would not progress and would lose its identity as the lake's largest and most progressive recreational area; the group met publicly to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of incorporation and directly confronted the issues that dealt with the disincorporation of 1960. The public was called to another special election in 1965. In the spring of 1965, voters approved the second and final incorporation of the City of Osage Beach and a fourth class city was created or more appropriately stated — re-created. Official boundaries of the city were established, four wards were formed and two aldermen per ward, a mayor, a marshall were to be elected at large.
Osage Beach is located at 38°8′18″N 92°38′55″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.33 square miles, of which 9.75 square miles is land and 0.58 square miles is water. The city is located on the shores of the Lake of the Ozarks; as of the census of 2010, there were 4,351 people, 2,038 households, 1,166 families residing in the city. The population density was 446.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,261 housing units at an average density of 539.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.6% White, 1.1% African American, 0.6% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 2.4% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.8% of the population. There were 2,038 households of which 19.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.3% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.8% were non-families.
35.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.04 and the average family size was 2.57. The median age in the city was 48.9 years. 15.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.9% male and 51.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,662 people, 1,687 households, 1,035 families residing in the city; the population density was 389.8 people per square mile. There were 4,055 housing units at an average density of 431.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.35% White, 0.76% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.16% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.20% of the total population. There were 1,687 households out of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.2% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.6% were non-families.
31.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.58. In the city, the population was spread out with 16.0% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 29.3% from 45 to 64, 20.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,448, the median income for a family was $49,554. Males had a median income of $30,444 versus $21,440 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,685. About 4.5% of families and 6.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.3% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over. Osage Beach Elementary-Camdenton R-III School of the Osage Columbia College - Lake of the Ozarks campus State Fair Community C