After You've Gone (TV series)
After You've Gone was a British comedy that aired on BBC One from 12 January 2007 to 21 December 2008. Starring Nicholas Lyndhurst, Celia Imrie, Dani Harmer and Ryan Sampson, After You've Gone was created by Fred Barron, who created My Family; the writers include Barron, Ian Brown, Katie Douglas, James Hendie, Danny Robins, Andrea Solomons and Dan Tetsell. Three series and two Christmas specials aired, work on scripts for a fourth series had begun when the BBC withdrew the commission in November 2008 and cancelled the series; when his ex-wife Ann goes to Africa to help out following a natural disaster, Jimmy Venables, a handyman, has to move back into the marital home to look after his two children and Alex. Jimmy's opinionated widowed former mother-in-law Diana Neal, a teacher, who has always disliked Jimmy, decides to help him out. Diana's husband, Patrick Neal OBE, died in 1996. Fashion-obsessed Molly is an intelligent girl who sees herself as the only adult in the family, while cheerful Alex is bright but has changing ideas.
Jimmy had a girlfriend, Siobhan Casey, a hairdresser, who feels he does not pay her enough attention. Jimmy's assistant is Kev, while the landlord of his local pub, The Leek and Shepherd, is the pessimistic Bobby. In Series Two, Siobhan goes back to college to study Business Studies, she appears less in Series Three, having been written-out by having her split with Jimmy. The actress playing the character, Amanda Abbington, was pregnant at time of filming and so it was decided to make things easier for her by reducing her sizeable role. Bobby and Kev, have been developing a tendency to team up and do things which annoy Jimmy. Compared to My Family, After You've Gone is a light comedy which pulled in good viewing figures despite being broadcast at the same time as Coronation Street, it was broadcast on Friday evenings on BBC One and followed by the heavier comedy of Have I Got News for You. Amanda Abbington is seen less in Series Three due to her real-life pregnancy. Nicholas Lyndhurst and Celia Imrie were household names by the time they appeared on the programme: Lyndhurst had appeared in Only Fools and Horses and Goodnight Sweetheart while Imrie featured in Dinnerladies and Calendar Girls.
Dani Harmer and Ryan Sampson had appeared in various roles – the most notable being Harmer in The Story of Tracy Beaker – but have both gone on to more solid roles since. Harmer went on to star in her own programme called Dani's House while Sampson had a leading role in two 2008 episodes of Doctor Who, as well as appearing in a pilot programme for BBC Three called The Things I Haven't Told You; the theme song is ``. The song was composed by Turner Layton with lyrics by Henry Creamer and was released in 1918 by Marion Harris; the BBC announced in January that it had commissioned a third series with eight episodes and a Christmas special, they announced that a fourth series had been commissioned that included ten episodes and a festive one-off for 2009. The BBC made a statement announcing that the third series would be the last despite writers working on the scripts; the cancellation cost the corporation thousand of pounds, a BBC spokesperson said "We are proud of the programme and its achievements over the past three years but believe it has now come to a natural end."Following the abrupt cancellation, there was a proposal to shift the series to radio, utilising the unfilmed but completed scripts for the fourth series, which the series writers behind the proposal felt could be developed on a cheap budget as no scripts required being written.
However the proposal did not come to fruition. All of the three series of After You've Gone have been released on DVD in the UK; the final series was released on 18 January 2010. All 25 episodes, including the Christmas specials, have been released; the first two series of After You've Gone have been released on DVD in Australia. Note: Despite being filmed in High Definition no Blu-ray release. After You've Gone at BBC Programmes After You've Gone at British Comedy Guide After You've Gone on IMDb After You've Gone at TV.com
Kinda (Doctor Who)
Kinda is the third serial of the 19th season of the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, first broadcast in four twice-weekly parts on BBC1 from 1 to 9 February 1982. In the serial, the Mara, an alien being from another plane uses the dreams of the time-travelling air stewardess Tegan Jovanka to reach the planet Deva Loka; the Mara takes over the body of the Kinda Aris to attack colonists on the planet. An Earth colonisation survey expedition to the beautiful jungle planet Deva Loka is being depleted as members of the survey disappear one by one. Four have gone. Sanders relies on bombast and rules, while Hindle his deputy, is close to breaking point. Only Todd the scientific officer, seems to deal with the situation with equanimity, she does not see the native people, the Kinda, as a threat but rather respects their culture and is intrigued by their power of telepathy. The social structure is curious in that women seem dominant and are the only ones with the power of voice; the humans are holding two silent males hostage for "observation".
Todd believes they are more advanced than they first appear, as they possess necklaces representative of the double helix of DNA, indicating a more advanced civilisation. Elsewhere in the jungle, the TARDIS crew are under stress Nyssa, who has collapsed from exhaustion; the Fifth Doctor constructs a delta wave augmenter to enable her to rest in the TARDIS, while he and Adric venture deeper into the jungle. They soon find an automated total survival suit system, which activates and marches them to the Dome, the colonist base. Sanders is a welcoming but gruff presence. Sanders decides leaving the highly-strung Hindle in charge, his will is enforced by means of the two Kinda hostages, who have forged a telepathic link with him, believing their souls to have been captured in his mirror. The Doctor and Adric are arrested as Hindle now evinces megalomania. Tegan faces a more metaphysical crisis, she has fallen asleep near the euphonious and soporific windchimes, unaware of the danger of the dreaming of an unshared mind.
Her mind opens in a void, where she undergoes provocation and terror from a series of nightmarish characters, one of which taunts her: "You will agree to being me, sooner or this side of madness or the other". The spectres are a manifestation of the Mara, an evil being of the subconscious that longs for corporeal reality. Mentally tortured, she agrees to become the Mara and a snake symbol passes to her arm; when her mind returns to her body, she is possessed by the Mara. She passes the snake symbol to the first Kinda she finds, a young man named Aris, the brother of one of the Kinda in the Dome, he too now finds the power of voice. Back at the Dome, Hindle has conceived a bizarre and immolatory plan to destroy the jungle, which he views as a threat. Adric plays along with this delusion but Hindle’s world starts to fall apart when first Adric'betrays' him and Sanders defies expectation and returns from the jungle. Sanders is radically different from the martinet in earlier episodes. Panna, an aged female mystic of the tribe, presented him with a strange wooden box which when opened, cleared his mind and left him a more contented and enlightened person.
When Hindle continues to claim authority over the Dome, Sanders plays along with his deputy's megalomania - "As you like. You know best." He shows it to Hindle, who makes the Doctor open it. The Doctor and Todd see beyond the toy inside and share a vision from Panna and her young ward, who invites them to a cave; the shock of the situation allow the Doctor and Todd to slip away into the jungle, where they encounter Aris dominating a group of Kinda and fulfilling a tribal prophecy that "When the Not-We come, one will arise from among We, a male with Voice who must be obeyed." Karuna soon finds the Doctor and Todd and takes them to meet Panna in the cave from the vision, with the wise woman realising the danger of the situation now Aris has voice. She reveals that the Mara has gained dominion on Deva Loka; the Great Wheel, which turns as civilisations rise and fall has turned again and the hour is near when chaos will reign, instigated by the Mara. The vision she shares is Panna’s last act: when it is finished, she is dead.
In the Kinda world, multiple fathers are shared by children, just as multiple memories are held and at Panna's death, her life experience transfers to Karuna. She urges Todd and the Doctor to return to the Dome, to prevent Aris leading an attack on it, which will increase the chaos and hasten the collapse of Kinda civilisation. At the Dome, Hindle and Adric remain in a state of unreality, with the former becoming more demented unbalanced and infantile. Sanders continues to humour him to the point of talking Adric out of an initial escape attempt. Adric does escape and attempts to pilot the TSS but is soon confronted by Aris and the Kinda, he panics and Aris is wounded by the machine and the Kinda scatter. The Doctor and Todd find an wrecked and sleeping Tegan near the windchimes and conclude that she was the path of the Mara back into this world, they find Adric and the party heads back to the Dome, where Hindle has now completed the laying of explosives, which will incinerate the jungle and the Dome, the ultimate self-defence.
Hindle is tricked into opening the Box of Jhana and the visions therein restore
Bottom (TV series)
Bottom is a British TV sitcom created by Adrian Edmondson and Rik Mayall that aired on BBC2 from 17 September 1991 to 10 April 1995 across three series. The show stars Edmondson and Mayall as Edward Elizabeth "Eddie" Hitler and Richard "Richie" Richard, two flatmates who live in Hammersmith, West London; the show is noted for its nihilistic humour and violent comedy slapstick. Bottom spawned five stage-show tours between 1993 and 2003, a feature film, Guest House Paradiso. Plans for a spin-off series titled Hooligan's Island featuring various Bottom characters were cancelled in 2012. In 2004, Bottom came in at No. 45 in the "Britain's Best Sitcom" poll by the BBC. Main charactersAdrian Edmondson as Edward "Eddie" Hitler Rik Mayall as Richard "Richie" RichardRecurring charactersSteve O'Donnell as Spudgun Christopher Ryan as Dave Hedgehog Lee Cornes as Dick Head Roger Sloman as Mr. Harrison Eddie and Richie are two pathetic, slobby flatmates living in a filthy, damp flat at 11 Mafeking Parade in Hammersmith, London.
Mayall described them as "unemployed survivors". They spend their time concocting desperate schemes to convince women to have sex with them, including buying sex spray, forging money, pretending to be aristocrats, their plans are never successful however, the stress of their miserable lives can cause them to become irritable with each other. Whenever tensions hit breaking point and Eddie end up fighting. Both men are immature. Richie is a virgin. Despite being a penniless slob, he projects a pompous sort of snobbery in an attempt to impress others and boost his self-esteem. Eddie, the more popular of the two, enjoys drinking and secretly steals family heirlooms and cash from Richie, although he has inventive moments, like building a cash forger, an electric toilet, a time machine. Eddie's friends — the gormless Spudgun and Dave Hedgehog — both fear Richie, believing him to be psychotic. Although the four of them sometimes venture out to the local pub, the Lamb and Flag, most of the episodes are set within the confines of the squalid flat.
Adrian Edmondson and Rik Mayall had been a double act since their first meeting as 20th Century Coyote, while they were students at Manchester University in 1976. They developed the Eddie and Richie characters over the course of their career, which were loosely based on their own friendship; the names themselves come from Mayall's own nicknames for each other. The duo had portrayed characters similar to Eddie and Richie in their past television comedy shows The Young Ones, The Dangerous Brothers, Filthy, Rich & Catflap. Bottom was developed while Edmondson and Mayall planned their West End production of Samuel Beckett's play Waiting for Godot at the Queen's Theatre. According to Mayall, it was the first project that the two wrote in "some time", it was their best work, marking "a new chapter in their relationship"; the title was as a joke, intended to be "Your Bottom", giving viewers the fun of saying things like "I saw Your Bottom last night", "I love Your Bottom". He added, "It's about two guys at the bottom of the heap... we called it Bottom to make people think we were doing bottom jokes".
"It's rude, a waste of license payers' money". Each episode was filmed in front of a live audience at 35 minutes in length edited to 30 minutes; the original-length scripts can be found in the published script books, several removed scenes were included in the VHS release Fluff that consisted of bloopers. Several of these scenes, as well as some smaller sections of dialogue removed for timing reasons, are included in DVD releases; the final episode of the second series, "'s Out", was not broadcast as part of the original series, or as a part of the first repeat airing of the series. This episode was set on Wimbledon Common involving the antics of a flasher, prior to broadcast on 15 July 1992, after the episode was filmed but before it had aired, Rachel Nickell was murdered on Wimbledon Common. In consequence the BBC delayed the episode's broadcast before the VHS release of the second series; the episode was first broadcast as part of a rerun of the second series on 10 April 1995. Following the second series and Mayall pursued other projects, including the Bottom theatrical productions.
They reconvened in 1994 to film the third series. A fourth series was written but turned down by the BBC. Though the pair were working apart, a fourth series was at one point written, but the BBC declined the script, despite announcing that Bottom would return in a voice-over during the end-credits of the original broadcast of the final episode.. Edmondson had, stated in interviews that he would have liked to make another series of Bottom with Mayall, but "in about fifteen years' time, when they are old men". Rik Mayall maintained that they would work together, they just needed "a good idea". However, in December 2004 exactly a year after the Weapons Grade Y-Fronts tour had ended, Edmondson told the British Daily Mirror newspaper that the pair felt it was " time to stop. We're both getting too old. We both realised
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
French and Saunders
French and Saunders is a British sketch comedy television series written by and starring comic duo Dawn French and Jennifer Saunders. It is the name by which the performers are known on the occasions when they appear elsewhere as a double act. Popular in the late 1980s and the early 1990s, the show was given one of the highest budgets in BBC history to create detailed spoofs and satires of popular culture, movies and art; the duo continue to film holiday specials for the BBC, both have been successful starring in their own shows. Saunders won a BAFTA, an Emmy Award and international acclaim for writing and playing the lead role of Edina Monsoon in Absolutely Fabulous, which led to cameo roles in the American sitcoms Roseanne and Friends, she won an American People's Choice Award for voicing the wicked Fairy Godmother in the DreamWorks animated film Shrek 2, but more she has written and starred in another two BBC sitcoms and Jerusalem and The Life and Times of Vivienne Vyle. Her other work includes being the face of BBC America.
Meanwhile, French starred in the successful sitcom The Vicar of Dibley which received great critical acclaim as well as numerous holiday specials and future airplay, achieving cult status. She starred in three series of the comedy show Murder Most Horrid, she had a voice over role as Mrs. Beaver in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, but more she has starred in Jam and Jerusalem, written by Saunders, Lark Rise to Candleford. For many years she became popular for her appearances in the Terry's Chocolate Orange adverts saying the famous line "It's not Terry's, it's mine!" and is the voice of W H Smith and Tesco adverts. She released her autobiography Dear Fatty, referring to Saunders, to whom she gave the nickname "Fatty". In a 2005 poll to find The Comedian's Comedian, the duo were voted among the top 50 comedy acts by fellow comedians and comedy insiders, their last special, 2005's French and Saunders Christmas Celebrity Special, aired on 27 December 2005 on BBC One.
In 2006, both Saunders and French announced that their sketch show was now dead, that they had moved on to more age appropriate material. Their last concert, last performing as a duo act, Still Alive tour ran until the end of 2008, resumed in Australia in the summer of 2009. In 2009, they were jointly awarded the BAFTA Fellowship. Dawn French and Jennifer Saunders met in 1978 while they were students at the Central School of Speech and Drama and began their career to collaborate on several comedy projects, they came to prominence in the early 1980s for performing at the London alternative comedy club The Comic Strip, which gave its name to its eponymous television series and the informal grouping of so-called alternative comedians. French and Saunders were featured on the live comedy album of The Comic Strip recorded by comedy entrepreneur Martin Lewis for his Springtime! Label and was released in 1981; the duo made their first mainstream television appearance in the sketch comedy show The Comic Strip Presents... where they appeared in 30 episodes each as well as writing material for the show.
French and Saunders began to establish themselves in what was referred to as the "underground comedy" scene, along with many other prolific actors and comedians whom they would go on to work with for the next twenty-plus years. In 1983, they starred in an edition of Channel 4's series The Entertainers, went on to appear as comedy relief on the weekly music programme The Tube on the same channel, for which French received her honour of being the first person to use the word "blowjob" on British television. In 1985, French and Saunders collaborated on their programme Girls on Top, which they once again wrote and starred in. Co-stars Tracey Ullman and Ruby Wax rounded out a set of four oddball roommates, the show ran for two years. In 1986, French and Saunders made their first of many appearances on Comic Relief, they signed a long-term contract with the BBC. In 1987, French and Saunders created their eponymous sketch show, which has carried over six seasons up until 2007, their show began humbly, but established its own niche as a spoof on other types of shows.
In the first season, it was intentionally set up to look like a low-budget variety show in which the duo were attempting grandiose stunts and failing miserably. A "famous" guest star would be brought on treated badly. Featured during this season was a set of geriatric dancers and a bongos/keyboard music duo called Raw Sex long-time collaborators Simon Brint and Rowland Rivron and the vocal talents of Kirsty MacColl; as their show progressed and ratings skyrocketed and Saunders received higher and higher budgets with which to create elaborate parodies of mainstream culture. These ranged anywhere from recreations of films to spoofs on popular music artists. Certain spoken phrases and sight gags that referenced performed sketches were incorporated for loyal fans. In particular there is a running gag suggesting that French and Saunders are unable to affect accents. Saunders goads French to try the accent by saying: "How are you?", French responds with an interpretation sounding more like a strong Northern Irish accent.
Since the duo break character in the middle of elaborate sketches to do an "accent check" a
Confidence and Paranoia
"Confidence and Paranoia" is the fifth episode from series one of the science fiction sitcom Red Dwarf. It was first broadcast on the British television channel BBC2 on 14 March 1988; the plot involves Lister's mutated pneumonia. Written by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor, directed by Ed Bye, the episode was going to be broadcast as the series cliffhanger but was moved down in the broadcast schedule with a new series finale taking its place. Considered to be one of the weaker efforts from the first series, the episode was re-mastered, along with the rest of the first three series, in 1998, to bring the episode up to a standard suitable for international broadcast. Lister falls ill after snooping through Kristine Kochanski's quarters, which have not been decontaminated yet; the pneumonia he contracts is a mutated strain and, while delirious, he has hallucinations which become solid—fish rain in his sleeping quarters, the Mayor of Warsaw from 1546 spontaneously combusts, two guests materialise in the drive room.
These guests are Lister's Confidence, who appears as everything Lister associates with confidence - a tall, flashily-dressed game show host type who calls Lister "the King", Lister's Paranoia, who appears as the complete opposite of Confidence in personality and appearance - a stooped, black suit-clad little man. Despite Rimmer's warnings that the two guests are symptoms of Lister's disease and therefore dangerous, Lister begins spending a lot of time with his Confidence, who helps him figure out that Rimmer hid Kochanski's hologram disc in the solar panels outside their sleeping quarters. However, Rimmer is soon proven correct when the Medical-Computer is smashed to pieces, Paranoia disappears. Whilst on an spacewalk to recover the hologram disc, Confidence reveals he murdered Paranoia to get rid of him and pressures Lister to perform suicidal acts of over-confidence, namely removing his helmet; when Confidence decides to prove that "Oxygen is for losers!" by removing his own helmet, he subsequently explodes from the vacuum of space.
Lister, having retrieved the disc, nervously rehearses his first words to Kochanski. When he switches on the program, however, a second hologram of Rimmer appears; the production team were worried that they might get complaints about cruelty to fish regarding the raining fish hallucination scene. In fact no fish were harmed and none were dropped from any height, but placed on the floor; the episode used split-screen techniques to show The Mayor of Warsaw approaching Rimmer and spontaneously combusting. The technique was used to minimise any potential threat to the actors; the mayor, Rimmer's reaction and the explosion were all carried out as separate shots and cut together. This episode was going to be the last of the series, would have concluded with Kochanski being resurrected as a "sort-of cliffhanger"; the BBC electrician strike had disrupted the series production, but this gave Grant and Naylor time to re-think about an earlier script titled "Bodysnatcher", intended to be the second episode: the pair felt that "Bodysnatcher" was the weakest script of the six, suffered because they had not written an ending for it.
Rob and Doug took the idea from "Bodysnatcher" of two Listers not getting along, adapted it into the idea of having two Rimmers together. So the ending of "Confidence and Paranoia" was changed to have a duplicate of Rimmer resurrected instead, this cliffhanger continued into the series finale "Me²". Film references include The Wizard of Oz; the Alien tagline is parodied "In space, no one can hear you cha-cha-cha". To relieve his boredom, Holly deletes his memory banks of all Agatha Christie's novels and gets intensely involved with reading Hercule Poirot novels; the episode was broadcast on the British television channel BBC2 on 14 March 1988 in the 9:00pm evening time slot. Although the pilot episode "The End" drew in over five million viewers, this figure was now tailing off as the series progressed; the episode was considered to be one of the weakest from the first series by Red Dwarf Smegazine readers — it came in 28th place with 0.2% of the votes. The remastering of Series I to III was carried out during the late 1990s.
Changes throughout the series included replacement of the opening credits, giving the picture a colour grade and filmising, computer generated special effects of Red Dwarf and many more visual and audio enhancements. Changes specific to "Confidence and Paranoia" include a new recorded Holly joke to replace the opening'post office worker' gag, dramatic music cue added to Lister's collapse due to the mutated illness and a CGI scene of Red Dwarf travelling through the dust storm. Howarth, Chris. Red Dwarf Programme Guide. Virgin Books. ISBN 0-86369-682-1. "Confidence and Paranoia" at BBC Programmes "Confidence and Paranoia" at TV.com "Confidence and Paranoia" on IMDb Episode Guide - Series 1 at RedDwarf.co.uk
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate