Hugo Münsterberg was a German-American psychologist. He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to industrial/organizational, medical, clinical and business settings. Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. Torn between his loyalty to the United States and his homeland, he defended Germany's actions, attracting contrasting reactions. Hugo Münsterberg was born into a merchant family in Danzig a port city in West Prussia. If he was known for his German nationalism, Hugo's family was Jewish, a heritage he didn't feel connection with and would ever manifest publicly, his father Moritz, was a successful lumber merchant and his mother, Minna Anna Bernhardi, a recognized artist and musician, was Moritz's second wife. Moritz had two sons with his first wife and Emil, two with Anna and Oscar; the four sons remained close, all of them became successful in their careers. A neo-Renaissance villa in Detmold, that Oscar lived in from 1886-1896 has been renovated and opened as a cultural center.
The family had a great love of the arts, Münsterberg was encouraged to explore music and art. Both his mother and his father died; when he was 12, his mother died. This marked a major change in the young boy's life, transforming him from a carefree child to a much more serious young man. In 1880 his father died. Münsterberg had many interests in his early years and displayed interests in many fields including art, poetry, foreign languages and acting. Münsterberg's first years of school were spent at the Gymnasium of Danzig from which he graduated in 1882 with Oliver and Dennis, he entered the University of Leipzig in 1883 where he heard a lecture by Wilhelm Wundt and became interested in psychology. Münsterberg became Wundt's research assistant, he received his Ph. D. in physiological psychology in 1885 under Wundt's supervision at the age of 22. Following Wundt's advice Münsterberg decided to study medicine and in 1887 received his medical degree at the University of Heidelberg, he passed an examination that enabled him to lecture as a privatdocent at University of Freiburg.
While at Freiburg he started a psychology laboratory and began publishing papers on a number of topics including attentional processes, memory and perception. In the same year he married a distant cousin, Selma Oppler of Strassburg, on August 7. In 1889, he was promoted to assistant professorship and attended the First International Congress of psychology where he met William James, they kept up a frequent correspondence and in 1892 James invited him to Harvard for a three-year term as a chair of the psychology lab though Münsterberg did not speak English at the time. He learned to speak English rather and as a result his classes became popular with students, in fact he was attracting students from James's classes. Part of the responsibilities he assumed as part of his new position at Harvard was that he became the supervisor of the psychology graduate students, in this position directed their dissertation research; as a result, he had a great influence of many students including Mary Whiton Calkins.
In 1895 he returned to Freiburg due to uncertainties of settling in the United States. However, because he could not obtain an academic position that he wanted, he wrote James and requested his old position back so that he could return to Harvard which he did in 1897, but he never could separate himself from his homeland of Germany. While at Harvard, Münsterberg's career was going well, he was affiliated with many organizations including the American Psychological Association of which he became president, the American Philosophical Association of which he became president, the Washington Academy, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was the organizer and vice-president of the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at the Saint Louis World's Fair of 1904, vice-president of the International Psychological Congress in Paris in 1900, vice-president of the International Philosophical Congress at Heidelberg in 1907. In 1910-11 he was appointed exchange professor from Harvard to the University of Berlin.
During that year he founded the Amerika-Institut in Berlin. During the whole period of his stay in the United States, he worked for the improvement of the relations between the United States and Germany, writing in the U. S. for a better understanding of Germany and in Germany for a higher appreciation of the United States. Because of his work in applied psychology, Münsterberg was well known to the public, academic world, scientific community; the outspoken views of Münsterberg on the issues of the upcoming First World War raised storms of controversy about his ideals and position. He appeared as the most eminent supporter of German policies in U. S. and as such was at the utmost bitterly condemned by the Entente Allies and their friends, but to the pro-Germans, he appeared an idol. While supporting German policies, Münsterberg denounced many of the activities of the Teutonic hyphenates in the United States. Fearing a patriotic response to overt support of the German Empire would undermine his own more covert approach, he condemned the forming of an alien party within the United States as "a crime against the spirit of true Americanism" and said that its results would reach far beyond the time of the war.
At his death, the general attitude toward Münsterberg had changed and his death went unnoticed. This was because of his pro-Germ
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
University of Chicago
The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890 by John D. Rockefeller, the school is located on a 217-acre campus in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood, near Lake Michigan; the University of Chicago holds top-ten positions in various international rankings. The university is composed of an undergraduate college as well as various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions. Beyond the arts and sciences, Chicago is well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies; the university has additional campuses and centers in London, Beijing and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago. University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including sociology, economics, literary criticism and the behavioralism school of political science.
Chicago's physics department and the Met Lab helped develop the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction beneath the viewing stands of university's Stagg Field, a key part of the classified Manhattan Project effort of World War II. The university research efforts include administration of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, as well as the Marine Biological Laboratory; the university is home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. With an estimated completion date of 2021, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation; the University of Chicago has produced faculty members and researchers. As of 2018, 98 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, faculty, or staff, making it a university with one of the highest concentrations of Nobel laureates in the world. 34 faculty members and 18 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur "Genius Grant".
In addition, Chicago's alumni and faculty include 54 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholars, 9 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award Winners, 24 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 16 billionaire graduates and a plethora of members of the United States Congress and heads of state of countries all over the world. The University of Chicago was incorporated as a coeducational institution in 1890 by the American Baptist Education Society, using $400,000 donated to the ABES to match a $600,000 donation from Baptist oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, including land donated by Marshall Field. While the Rockefeller donation provided money for academic operations and long-term endowment, it was stipulated that such money could not be used for buildings; the Hyde Park campus was financed by donations from wealthy Chicagoans like Silas B. Cobb who provided the funds for the campus' first building, Cobb Lecture Hall, matched Marshall Field's pledge of $100,000. Other early benefactors included businessmen Charles L. Hutchinson, Martin A. Ryerson Adolphus Clay Bartlett and Leon Mandel, who funded the construction of the gymnasium and assembly hall, George C. Walker of the Walker Museum, a relative of Cobb who encouraged his inaugural donation for facilities.
The Hyde Park campus continued the legacy of the original university of the same name, which had closed in 1880s after its campus was foreclosed on. What became known as the Old University of Chicago had been founded by a small group of Baptist educators in 1856 through a land endowment from Senator Stephen A. Douglas. After a fire, it closed in 1886. Alumni from the Old University of Chicago are recognized as alumni of the present University of Chicago; the university's depiction on its coat of arms of a phoenix rising from the ashes is a reference to the fire and demolition of the Old University of Chicago campus. As an homage to this pre-1890 legacy, a single stone from the rubble of the original Douglas Hall on 34th Place was brought to the current Hyde Park location and set into the wall of the Classics Building; these connections have led the Dean of the College and University of Chicago and Professor of History John Boyer to conclude that the University of Chicago has, "a plausible genealogy as a pre–Civil War institution".
William Rainey Harper became the university's president on July 1, 1891 and the Hyde Park campus opened for classes on October 1, 1892. Harper worked on building up the faculty and in two years he had a faculty of 120, including eight former university or college presidents. Harper was an accomplished scholar and a member of the Baptist clergy who believed that a great university should maintain the study of faith as a central focus. To fulfill this commitment, he brought the Old University of Chicago's Seminary to Hyde Park; this became the Divinity School in the first professional school at the University of Chicago. Harper recruited acclaimed Yale baseball and football player Amos Alonzo Stagg from the Young Men's Christian Association training Shool at Springfield to coach the school's football program. Stagg was given a position on the first such athletic position in the United States. While coaching at the University, Stagg invented the numbered football jersey, the huddle, the lighted playing field.
Stagg is the namesake of the university's Stagg
Washington State University
Washington State University is a public research university in Pullman, Washington. Founded in 1890, WSU is a land-grant university with programs in a broad range of academic disciplines. With an undergraduate enrollment of 24,470 and a total enrollment of 29,686, it is the second largest institution of higher education in Washington state behind the University of Washington; the university operates campuses across Washington known as WSU Spokane, WSU Tri-Cities, WSU Vancouver, all founded in 1989. In 2012, WSU launched an Internet-based Global Campus, which includes its online degree program, WSU Online. In 2015, WSU expanded to a sixth campus, known as WSU Everett; these campuses award bachelor's and master's degrees. Freshmen and sophomores were first admitted to the Vancouver campus in 2006 and to the Tri-Cities campus in 2007. Enrollment for the four campuses and WSU Online exceeds 29,686 students; this includes 1,751 international students. WSU's athletic teams are called the Cougars and the school colors are crimson and gray.
Six men's and nine women's varsity teams compete in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference. Both men's and women's indoor track teams compete in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. Washington State College was established by the Washington Legislature on March 28, 1890, less than five months after statehood; the institution was one of the land-grant colleges created under the 1862 federal Morrill Act signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln. The federal land grants for the new institution included 90,000 acres of federal land for an agricultural college and 100,000 acres for a school of science. After an extended search for a location, the state's new land-grant college opened in Pullman on January 13, 1892; the year 1897 saw the first graduating class of women. The school changed its name from Washington Agricultural College and School of Science to State College of Washington in 1905, but was called Washington State College; the state legislature changed the name to Washington State University in 1959.
Enoch Albert Bryan, appointed July 22, 1893, was the first influential president of WSU. Bryan held graduate degrees from Harvard and Columbia and served as the president of Vincennes University in Indiana. Before Bryan's arrival, the fledgling university suffered through significant organizational instability. Bryan guided WSU toward respectability and is arguably the most influential figure in the university's history; the landmark clock tower in the center of campus is his namesake. WSU's role as a statewide institution became clear in 1894 with the launch of its first agricultural experiment station west of the Cascade Mountains near Puyallup. WSU has subsequently established extension offices and research centers in all regions of the state, with major research facilities in Prosser, Mount Vernon, Wenatchee. In 1989, WSU gained branch campuses in Spokane, the Tri-Cities, Vancouver. Overall, the federal government and the State of Washington have entrusted 190,000 acres of land to WSU for agricultural and scientific research throughout the Pacific Northwest.
Professional education began with the establishment of the School of Veterinary Science in 1899. The veterinary school was elevated to college status in 1916 and became the College of Veterinary Medicine in 1925. Graduate education began in the early years and, in 1902, the first master's degree was conferred, an M. S. in Botany. In 1917, the institution was organized into five colleges and four schools, with deans as administrative heads. In 1922 a graduate school was created. In 1929, the first Ph. D. degree was conferred, in bacteriology. The university offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees in 200 fields of study through 65 departments and programs; these departments and programs are organized into 10 academic colleges as follows: College of Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences College of Arts and Sciences Carson College of Business Edward R. Murrow College of Communication College of Education Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine College of Nursing College of Pharmacy College of Veterinary MedicineIn addition, WSU has an all-university honors college, a graduate school, an online global campus, an accredited intensive English program for non-native speakers.
Washington State University is chartered by the State of Washington. A board of regents provides direction to the president. There are ten regents appointed by the governor; the tenth is a student regent appointed on an annual basis. A bill adding an eleventh regent, who would be a full-time or emeritus faculty member, stalled in the Washington legislature in 2018; the regents are Theodor P. Baseler, Brett Blankenship, Scott E. Carson, Marty Dickinson, Ron Sims, Jordan Frost, Lura J. Powell, Heather Redman, Lisa K. Schauer, Michael C. Worthy. Kirk Schulz serves as WSU's president and chief executive officer. Daniel Bernardo serves as provost and handles academics and faculty matters for WSU statewide; the former president, Elson Floyd the former president of University of Missouri System, succeeded V. Lane Rawlins on May 21, 2007, served until his death on June 20, 2015. Bernardo was dean of the WSU College of Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences. WSU has had 11 presidents in its 125-year history: George W. Lilley, John W. Heston, Enoch A. Bryan, Ernest O. Holland, Wil
Walter Bowers Pillsbury
Walter Bowers Pillsbury was an American psychologist, born at Burlington, Iowa. He studied for two years at Penn College, Iowa, graduated from the University of Nebraska, subsequently completed a Ph. D. at Cornell University. Pillsbury taught at the University of Michigan after 1897, in 1905–1910 as junior professor of philosophy and director of the psychological laboratory and afterward as professor of psychology. In 1908–1909 he lectured at Columbia, he served as president of the Western Philosophical Association in 1907 and of the American Psychological Association in 1910. Besides contributing to the American Journal of Psychology and to The Philosophical Review, he translated, with Edward B. Titchener, Külpe's Introduction to Philosophy and published: L'Attention The Psychology of Reasoning The Essentials of Psychology A History of Psychology This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Colby, F.. "Pillsbury, Walter Bowers". New International Encyclopedia. 18.
New York: Dodd, Mead. P. 629. Walter Bowers Pillsbury — Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences Walter Bowers Pillsbury at Find a Grave
Carl Emil Seashore, born Sjöstrand, was a prominent American psychologist and educator. He was the author of numerous books and articles principally regarding the fields of speech-language pathology, music education, the psychology of music and art, he served as Dean of the Graduate College of University of Iowa from 1908-1937. He is most associated with the development of the Seashore Tests of Musical Ability. Seashore was born in Mörlunda, Hultsfred Municipality, Kalmar County, Sweden, to Carl Gustav and Emily Sjöstrand, he emigrated with his family to the United States in 1870 at the age of 3 due to both economic and religious considerations and settled in Rockford, before moving and settling in a farming community located in Boone County, Iowa. The name "Seashore" is a translation of the Swedish surname Sjöstrand. Seashore had two brothers who were all educated in Swedish, his father, Carl Gustav Seashore, was a lay preacher and built a church, where Seashore began serving as the church organist at the age of 14.
He graduated from Gustavus Adolphus College in St. Peter, Minnesota, in 1891, having studied mathematics, classical languages and literature. Music was considered the "most important extracurricular activity in college" and he enjoyed singing at all sorts of collegiate occasions. During his years in college he served as the organist and choir director of a local Swedish-American Lutheran church and his salary there paid most of his college expenses. Seashore became a member of the Iowa Beta chapter of Sigma Alpha Epsilon. Seashore attended Yale University when it had just opened the Graduate Department of Philosophy and Psychology, he studied under George Trumbull Ladd, professor of metaphysics and moral philosophy, Edward Wheeler Scripture, an experimental psychologist who conducted research on phonetics. In 1877, Ladd had authored the standard American textbook Elements of Physiological Psychology. In 1895, Seashore was awarded the school's first Ph. D in psychology for his dissertation on the role of inhibition in learning.
After receiving his Ph. D degree from Yale, Seashore spent the summer in Europe to visit different German and French psychology laboratories before returning to Yale University as a Fellow in Psychology and an assistant to Ladd. In 1897, he was offered a permanent position at Yale. Additionally, he was offered an opportunity to go to China as a missionary teacher. However, he decided to return to his home state and spent the next fifty years as a researcher and an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Iowa. In 1908, Seashore was made Dean of the Graduate School at University of Iowa, where he maintained the position for nearly 30 years, he became president of the American Psychological Association in 1911 and presided over the 20th meeting in Washington D. C. In 1905, Seashore was made chairman of the Philosophy and Psychology Department and in 1908, he was made Dean of the Graduate School, he served for 40 years as Professor of Chair of the Department of Psychology. He served as Chairman of the Division of Anthropology and Psychology from 1933 - 1939.
He helped found the Iowa Psychological Clinic in 1908 and became president of the American Psychology Association in 1911. He went on to establish the Psychopathic Hospital at the University of Iowa, the Iowa Institute for Mental Hygiene, the Gifted Student Project in 1915. Seashore was interested in audiology, the psychology of music, the psychology of speech and stuttering, the psychology of the graphic arts and measuring motivation and scholastic aptitude. In particular, he was interested in the three perspectives of the psychology of music: the psychology of individual talent, the psychology of aesthetic feeling in musical appreciation and expression, the psychology of the pedagogy of music. Seashore used standardized tests to objectively measure an individual's ability to perceive different dimensions of music and how musical aptitude differed between students, he devised the Seashore Tests of Musical Ability in 1919, a version of, still used in schools in the United States. The test involved controlled procedures for measuring respondent's ability to discriminate pitch, tempo and rhythm.
His interests in the fine arts led to a joint effort with Dr. Norman Charles Meier and the publication of the Meier-Seashore Art Judgment Test in 1929. During the early 1930s, he received financial support for his research from the Bell Laboratories. Among the larger projects that he supervised was one at the Eastman School of Music with financial assistance from George Eastman, his complete publication list from 1893 to 1949 includes 237 articles. Given his interests in music and the arts, Seashore established some of the first graduate programs in the nation in the creative arts music and the literary arts, where a student could obtain a doctorate with an artistic creation, he strived to incorporate experimental psychology and the scientific method into the fields of art and related subjects. During his time at the University of Iowa, Seashore dedicated his career to education and research on the qualities of music perception and aesthetic talent. There, he mentored several students that became prominent psychological figures, such as Walter Richard Miles, Francis P. Robinson, Lee Edward Travis, Joseph Harold Tiffin.
Seashore dedicated some of his musical focus on understanding the perception of vibrato, or the pulsation of pitch, in music and its effects on the richness and vibrance of tone. He spent considerable time to measure and define the function of vibrato in music, he described vibrato as "a basic phenomenon of nature" to provide the tone with richness and
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a