Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Bristol Rovers F.C.
Bristol Rovers Football Club is a professional football club in Bristol, which plays in League One, the third tier of English football. The team play home matches at Memorial Stadium in Horfield; the club was founded in 1883 as Black Arabs F. C. and were known as Eastville Rovers and Bristol Eastville Rovers before changing its name to Bristol Rovers in 1899. The club's official nickname is The Pirates; the local nickname of the club is The Gas, from the gasworks next to their former home, Eastville Stadium, which started as a derogatory term used by fans of their main rivals, Bristol City, but was affectionately adopted by the team. Cardiff City and Swindon Town are considered third biggest rivals. Rovers were admitted to the Football League in 1920 and have played there since, apart from spending the 2014–15 season in the Conference Premier, their highest finishing positions were in 1956 and 1959, on both occasions ending the season in 6th place in Division Two the second tier of English football.
The club's honours include winning the third tier title twice, the fourth tier play-off final once. Rovers were Football League Trophy finalists in 1990 and 2007; the club was formed following a meeting at the Eastville Restaurant in Bristol in September 1883. It was called Black Arabs F. C. after the Arabs rugby the predominantly black kits in which they played. This name only lasted for the 1883–84 season, in a bid to draw more fans from the local area the club was renamed Eastville Rovers in 1884; the club played only friendly games until the 1887–88 season, when it took part in the Gloucestershire Cup for the first time. In 1892 the club became a founder member of the Bristol and District League, which three years was renamed the Western League. In 1897 Eastville Rovers joined the Birmingham and District League, for two seasons played in both this league and the Western League. At the beginning of the 1897–98 season, the club turned professional and changed its name to Bristol Eastville Rovers, on 17 February 1899 the name was changed to Bristol Rovers.
In 1899 Bristol Rovers joined the newly formed Southern League, where they remained until 1920, winning the league title along the way in 1905. For the 1920–21 season, the Southern League teams were moved into the new Division Three of the Football League, which became Division Three the following season, they remained in this division for over 30 years, before winning the league, promotion in the 1952–53 season. The team has won promotion on five other occasions: in 1973–74 from the Third Division to the Second Division, again in 1989–90 as Division Three champions, in 2006–07 to the Football League One, in 2014–15 to League Two from the Conference Premier, in 2015–16 to League One; the club has been relegated six times—in 1961–62, 1980–81, 1992–93, 2000–01, 2010–11 and most at the end of the 2013–14 season. The highest position in the football ladder achieved by Rovers at the end of season is sixth place in the second tier, which they did twice; the closest they came to the top flight was in 1955–56, when they ended the season just four points below the promotion positions.
The lowest league position achieved by the club is twenty-third out of twenty-four teams in the fourth tier, which has occurred twice. In the 2001–02 season, relegation from the Football League was narrowly avoided on two counts; this position was matched at the end of the 2013–14 season, which this time saw Rovers relegated to the Conference for the first time. They returned to the league at the end of their first Conference season, with a penalty shootout victory over Grimsby Town in the play-off final. In February 2016 it was announced that a 92% stake in the club had been bought by the Jordanian al-Qadi family and that Wael al-Qadi, a member of the Jordan Football Association, would become the president; the club is now owned by Dwane Sports Ltd with 92.6% of the shares with Bristol Rovers Supporters Club owning the remaining 7.4%. The only major cup competition won by Bristol Rovers is the 1972 Watney Cup, when they beat Sheffield United in the final; the club won the Division Three Cup in 1934–35, as well as winning or sharing the Gloucestershire Cup on 32 occasions.
The team has never played in European competition. In the FA Cup, Rovers have reached the quarter-final stage on three occasions; the first time was in 1950–51 when they faced Newcastle United at St James' Park in front of a crowd of 62,787, the record for the highest attendance at any Bristol Rovers match. The second time they reached the quarter final was in 1957–58, when they lost to Fulham, the most recent appearance at this stage of the competition was during the 2007–08 season, when they faced West Bromwich Albion, they were the first Division Three team to win an FA Cup tie away to a Premier League side, when in 2002 they beat Derby County 3–1 at Pride Park Stadium. They have twice reached the final of the Football League Trophy, in 1989–90 and 2006–07, but finished runners-up on both occasions. On the second occasion they did not allow a single goal against them in the competition en route to the final, but conceded the lead less than a minute after the final kicked off. Bristol Rovers main rivals are
Aston Villa F.C.
Aston Villa Football Club is a professional football club based in Aston, England. The club competes in the Championship, the second tier of the English football league system. Founded in 1874, they have played at their current home ground, Villa Park, since 1897. Aston Villa were one of the founder members of the Football League in 1888 and of the Premier League in 1992. Villa are one of only five English clubs to have won the European Cup, in 1981–82, they have won the Football League First Division seven times, the FA Cup seven times, the League Cup five times, the UEFA Super Cup once. Villa have a fierce local rivalry with Birmingham City and the Second City derby between the teams has been played since 1879; the club's traditional kit colours are claret shirts with sky blue sleeves, white shorts and sky blue socks. Their traditional club badge is of a rampant lion; the club is owned by the NSWE group, a company owned by the Egyptian billionaire Nassef Sawiris and the American billionaire Wes Edens.
Aston Villa Football Club were formed in March 1874, by members of the Villa Cross Wesleyan Chapel in Handsworth, now part of Birmingham. The four founders of Aston Villa were Jack Hughes, Frederick Matthews, Walter Price and William Scattergood. Aston Villa's first match was against the local Aston Brook St Mary's Rugby team; as a condition of the match, the Villa side had to agree to play the first half under Rugby rules and the second half under Association rules. After moving to the Wellington Road ground in 1876, Villa soon established themselves as one of the best teams in the Midlands, winning their first honour, the Birmingham Senior Cup in 1880, under the captaincy of Scotsman George Ramsay; the club won their first FA Cup in 1887 with captain Archie Hunter becoming one of the game's first household names. Aston Villa were one of the dozen teams that competed in the inaugural Football League in 1888 with one of the club's directors, William McGregor being the league's founder. Aston Villa emerged as the most successful English club of the Victorian era, winning no fewer than five League titles and three FA Cups by the end of Queen Victoria's reign.
In 1897, the year Villa won The Double, they moved into the Aston Lower Grounds. Supporters coined the name "Villa Park". Aston Villa won their sixth FA Cup in 1920, soon after though the club began a slow decline that led to Villa, at the time one of the most famous and successful clubs in world football, being relegated in 1936 for the first time to the Second Division; this was the result of a dismal defensive record: they conceded 110 goals in 42 games, 7 of them coming from Arsenal's Ted Drake in an infamous 1–7 defeat at Villa Park. Like all English clubs, Villa lost seven seasons to the Second World War, that conflict brought several careers to a premature end; the team was rebuilt under the guidance of former player Alex Massie for the remainder of the 1940s. Aston Villa's first trophy for 37 years came in the 1956–57 season when another former Villa player, Eric Houghton led the club to a record seventh FA Cup Final win, defeating the'Busby Babes' of Manchester United in the final; the team struggled in the league though and were relegated two seasons due in large part to complacency.
However, under the stewardship of manager Joe Mercer Villa returned to the top-flight in 1960 as Second Division Champions. The following season Aston Villa became the first team to win the Football League Cup. Mercer's forced retirement from the club in 1964 signalled a period of deep turmoil; the most successful club in England was struggling to keep pace with changes in the modern game, with Villa being relegated for the third time, under manager Dick Taylor in 1967. The following season the fans called for the board to resign as Villa finished 16th in the Second Division. With mounting debts and Villa lying at the bottom of Division Two, the board sacked Tommy Cummings, within weeks the entire board resigned under overwhelming pressure from fans. After much speculation, control of the club was bought by London financier Pat Matthews, who brought in Doug Ellis as chairman. However, new ownership could not prevent Villa being relegated to the Third Division for the first time at the end of the 1969–70 season.
However, Villa began to recover under the management of former club captain Vic Crowe. In the 1971–72 season they returned to the Second Division as Champions with a record 70 points. In 1974, Ron Saunders was appointed manager, his brand of no-nonsense man-management proved effective, with the club winning the League Cup the following season and, at the end of season 1974–75, he had taken them back into the First Division and into Europe. Villa were back among the elite; this culminated in a seventh top-flight league title in 1980–81. To the surprise of commentators and fans, Saunders quit halfway through the 1981–82 season, after falling out with the chairman, with Villa in the quarter final of the European Cup, he was replaced by his softly-spoken assistant manager Tony Barton who guided the club to a 1–0 victory over Bayern Munich in the European Cup final in Rotterdam courtesy of a Peter Withe goal. The following season Villa were crowned European Super Cup winners; this marked a pinnacle though and Villa's fortunes declined for most of the 1980s, culminating in relegation in 1987.
This was followed by promotion the following year under Graham Taylor and a runners-up position in the First Division in the 1989–90 season. Villa were one of the founding members of the Premier League in 1992
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Football League; the Premier League is a corporation. Seasons run from August to May with each team playing 38 matches. Most games are played on Sunday afternoons; the Premier League has featured 47 English and two Welsh clubs since its inception, making it a cross-border league. The competition was formed as the FA Premier League on 20 February 1992 following the decision of clubs in the Football League First Division to break away from the Football League, founded in 1888, take advantage of a lucrative television rights deal; the deal was worth £1 billion a year domestically as of 2013–14, with BSkyB and BT Group securing the domestic rights to broadcast 116 and 38 games respectively. The league generates € 2.2 billion per year in international television rights. Clubs were apportioned revenues of £2.4 billion in 2016–17. The Premier League is the most-watched sports league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people.
In the 2014–15 season, the average Premier League match attendance exceeded 36,000, second highest of any professional football league behind the Bundesliga's 43,500. Most stadium occupancies are near capacity; the Premier League ranks second in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons, as of 2018. Forty-nine clubs have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 1992. Six of them have won the title since then: Manchester United, Arsenal, Manchester City, Blackburn Rovers, Leicester City; the record of most points in a Premier League season is 100, set by Manchester City in 2017–18. Despite significant European success in the 1970s and early 1980s, the late 1980s marked a low point for English football. Stadiums were crumbling, supporters endured poor facilities, hooliganism was rife, English clubs were banned from European competition for five years following the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985; the Football League First Division, the top level of English football since 1888, was behind leagues such as Italy's Serie A and Spain's La Liga in attendances and revenues, several top English players had moved abroad.
By the turn of the 1990s the downward trend was starting to reverse: at the 1990 FIFA World Cup, England reached the semi-finals. In the 1980s, major English clubs had begun to transform into business ventures, applying commercial principles to club administration to maximise revenue. Martin Edwards of Manchester United, Irving Scholar of Tottenham Hotspur, David Dein of Arsenal were among the leaders in this transformation, it gave the top clubs more power. By threatening to break away, clubs in Division One managed to increase their voting power, they took a 50% share of all television and sponsorship income in 1986. Revenue from television became more important: the Football League received £6.3 million for a two-year agreement in 1986, but by 1988, in a deal agreed with ITV, the price rose to £44 million over four years with the leading clubs taking 75% of the cash. According to Scholar, involved in the negotiations of television deals, each of the First Division clubs received only around £25,000 per year from television rights before 1986, this increased to around £50,000 in the 1986 negotiation to £600,000 in 1988.
The 1988 negotiations were conducted under the threat of ten clubs leaving to form a "super league", but they were persuaded to stay with the top clubs taking the lion share of the deal. As stadiums improved and match attendance and revenues rose, the country's top teams again considered leaving the Football League in order to capitalise on the influx of money into the sport. In 1990, the managing director of London Weekend Television, Greg Dyke, met with the representatives of the "big five" football clubs in England over a dinner; the meeting was to pave the way for a break away from The Football League. Dyke believed that it would be more lucrative for LWT if only the larger clubs in the country were featured on national television and wanted to establish whether the clubs would be interested in a larger share of television rights money; the five clubs decided to press ahead with it. The FA did not enjoy an amicable relationship with the Football League at the time and considered it as a way to weaken the Football League's position.
At the close of the 1991 season, a proposal was tabled for the establishment of a new league that would bring more money into the game overall. The Founder Members Agreement, signed on 17 July 1991 by the game's top-flight clubs, established the basic principles for setting up the FA Premier League; the newly formed top division would have commercial independence from The Football Association and the Football League, giving the FA Premier League licence to negotiate
Woking Football Club is a semi-professional association football club based in Woking, England. Founded in 1889, the club plays its home matches at Kingfield Stadium and is nicknamed the Cards or the Cardinals. Woking participates in the National League South, the sixth tier of English football, having been relegated from the National League in the 2017–18 season; the club has won the FA Trophy a joint-record three times. Woking Football Club was founded in 1889; the club joined the West Surrey League in 1895 -- 96. However, within 21 years of being formed, the club was in danger of folding for financial reasons; the turning point came when, in January 1908, Woking played Bolton Wanderers in the First Round of the FA Cup, having made it through five qualifying rounds. Despite losing the away game 5–0, the club made it into the national news. Bolton Wanderers, impressed by the minnows they had defeated, travelled to Woking for a friendly match the following season, which kept the club solvent. In 1911 the club joined the Isthmian League, maintaining their place in the top division for 72 years and finishing as runners-up to Wycombe Wanderers in 1956–57.
That achievement was eclipsed the following season when, in front of a 71,000 crowd, the Cards beat Ilford 3–0 to win the last FA Amateur Cup Final to be televised live. The club went into decline, culminating in a first-ever relegation in 1982–83. By the end of the 1984–85 season the club had plunged to Division Two South of the Isthmian League, it was during that season that Geoff Chapple, was appointed as manager. However, Chapple was not able to save the club from relegation; the following season, the club just missed out on promotion at the first attempt. However, the club clinched the Division Two South title in 1986–87 and, after two third-place finishes in Division One, they were promoted back to the Premier Division at the end of the 1989–90 season; the next season saw. Entering the competition in the Fourth Qualifying Round, they beat three Conference sides to set up a Third Round tie away to West Bromwich Albion. After trailing 1–0 at half time, Woking went on to win 4–2, with Tim Buzaglo scoring a hat-trick.
In the Fourth Round, the club was drawn against Everton. The tie was going to be played at Woking, though the venue was switched to Everton's home ground, Goodison Park. Woking narrowly lost the match 1–0 to a Kevin Sheedy goal. In the 2018-19 season, Woking beat Tooting & Micham 4-0, Kempton Rovers 3-2 and Welling united 1-0 in the qualifiers to set up league rivals Torquay United in the first round proper, they set up a tie in the second round vs former premier league team Swindon Town. They came through to win that 0-1 and end up drawing premier league opposition Watford FC, they lost that 0-2 but brought in their biggest crowd in many years, not forgetting a tone load of money! Promotion to the Conference was achieved in 1991–92; the Isthmian League title was clinched in early April, with seven games still to be played, 18 points clear of nearest rivals, Enfield. The next season saw; the following summer saw Chapple sign former Chelsea, Fulham and QPR winger, Clive Walker, from Brighton & Hove Albion and he was to prove the catalyst in the most successful period in the club's history.
Woking won the FA Trophy for the first time in 1994. A third FA Trophy triumph followed with Dagenham & Redbridge the opponents in the final; the Cards achieved five successive top-five finishes in the Conference, including being runners-up in 1994–95 and 1995–96 when they finished below Stevenage. The club continued to enjoy national prominence in the FA Cup. Barnet were defeated in successive seasons following draws at their homeground. In 1996–97 a run in the FA Cup saw the club beat Millwall top of Division Two, Cambridge United, who were challenging for promotion from Division Three; the Third Round saw Woking draw 1–1 away to Premier League side Coventry City, thanks to a last minute equaliser from the Cards' Steve Thompson, but Coventry won the replay at Kingfield 2–1. At the end of the 1996–97 campaign, having just clinched the FA Trophy for the third time, Geoff Chapple and his coach, Colin Lippiatt, left the club and joined Kingstonian; this was the beginning of a less successful period for the club.
John McGovern and Brian McDermott were given the position of manager, but neither achieved anything greater than a mid-table finish. After McDermott, Colin Lippiatt fared little better, he was replaced by his former boss. Lippiatt departed in January 2002 and Glenn Cockerill joined as Chapple's assistant; this season ended with the club just one place above the relegation places. In the meantime significant events had taken place off the field; the downturn in the club's fortunes had led to a financial crisis. With the club facing administration or worse, local businessman and long-time fan Chris Ingram bought the club, becoming chairman in February 2002 with an aim of trying to increase the club's income and to secure its long-term financial stability. Cockerill took over as manager that year, oversaw a relative period of stability for the club, before he was sacked shortly before the end of the 2006–07 season. An unimpressive campaign under the management of Frank Gray followed in 2007–08, before a disastrous 2008–09 season which saw three men take charge of the club r
Southport Football Club is a professional football club based in Blowick, Merseyside. They play their home matches at Haig Avenue called the Merseyrail Community Stadium for sponsorship reasons, which has a capacity of 6,008, they are known by their nickname "the Sandgrounders". The club's main honour is winning the 1972–73 Football League Fourth Division Championship and they have won a number of titles in non-league football. Founded in 1881, the club were members of regional leagues such as the Lancashire League, the Lancashire Combination and The Central League for many years until 1921 when they were invited to become a founding member of the newly formed Football League Third Division North. Southport held membership of The Football League from 1921 to 1978, they failed to gain re-election in 1978 and since have been members of the Northern Premier League, the Football Conference and the Northern Premier League Premier Division for its final season. Southport were transferred to the new National League North in 2004 and, since have played in either that division or the tier 5 National League.
In 2017, Southport were relegated from tier 5 to tier 6 and they are again playing in the National League North. Southport first participated in the FA Cup in the 1882–83 tournament, their best performance was in the 1930–31 tournament when they reached the quarter-finals but were beaten 9–1 by Everton at Goodison Park. Southport had another good FA Cup run in 1965–66 when they reached the fifth round and were beaten 2–0 by Hull City at Boothferry Park. Southport took part in the Football League Cup from 1960 to 1978 but never progressed beyond the first two rounds; the team reached the final of the FA Trophy in 1997–98, played at the old Wembley Stadium, but lost 1–0 to Cheltenham Town. It was on 12 November 1881 that Southport played its first association football match. Although association football was played in the town's private schools in the late 1870s the original Southport Football Club began as a rugby team. Southport Football Club arranged rugby fixtures for 1881–82. After some heavy defeats, the last recorded being on 15 October 1881, the club switched to association football.
On 12 November, six of that team lined up when Southport played Bootle Second XI in their first match under Association Rules. Ralph Rylance did more than anyone to establish association football in the town, he came to Southport from Blackburn having played for the Blackburn Law team, a noted eleven in those days. Performances soon improved with him playing, Tranmere Rovers were beaten twice whilst the Tradesman of Southport and Liverpool Excelsior were both overcome 7–0. On 7 October 1882, Southport entertained Liverpool Ramblers in their first F. A. or English Challenge Cup tie as the competition was called for years. The game was watched by 300 spectators and resulted in a 1–1 draw. In the 1884–85 season the club merged with the Southport Athletic Society and the team moved to the Sports Ground, Sussex Road; as football grew in popularity other clubs sprang up in the town. Southport Wanderers, High Park and Southport Old Boys were amongst the most prominent however Southport Football Club was considered to be the town's premier side.
At the Southport Wanderers AGM in June 1886, at which a representative of Southport Football Club was present, they invited Southport to amalgamate following the severance of their connection with the Athletic Society, whose unfortunate connection with the Football Club had resulted in the Society incurring an expenditure on their account of £88–3 shillings. After 5 years existence Southport's first football club folded. At least six former Southport players and many of their supporters transferred their affiliations to Southport Wanderers. Southport Wanderers moved to a new ground in Scarisbrick New Road for the 1886–87 season. On 28 September 1886, at a General Meeting held in the Mather's Saleroom, it was unanimously resolved that in future the club be called Southport Football Club. In the summer of 1888, the year the Football League was founded, with the game increasing in popularity, It was felt that a team of stronger calibre should be formed to represent the district; the idea met with favour and the initial meeting called to form such a club took place on 12 June at Scarlett's Rooms, Chapel Street.
At a second meeting, held at the Railway Hotel a week Mr. McGowan proposed that the name of the club should be Southport Central Association Football Club. At the start of the 1905–06 season Central moved to its present home, Haig Avenue, known as Ash Lane. In 1911, the club became founder members of the Central League. In 1918, the club was renamed as Southport Vulcan – having been bought by the Vulcan Motor Company – becoming the first club to take a sponsor's name. In 1921 the club, now named Southport, joined the Football League and became a founder member of the Third Division North. In 1931, Southport became the first club from the Third Division North to reach the sixth round of the FA Cup, where they lost 9–1 to Everton. A year the club recorded its record attendance, when 20,010 watched them play Newcastle United in the fourth round of the FA Cup. Having finished in the bottom half of the table at the end of the 1957–58 season, the club dropped into the Fourth Division following the reorganisation of the Third Division North and Third Division South into Third and Fourth Divisions.
The club's first promotion came at the end of the 1966–67 season, when they finished as runners-up in the Fourth Division behind Stockport County under the guidance of Billy Bingham, who went on to manage the Northern
Substitute (association football)
In association football, a substitute is a player, brought on to the pitch during a match in exchange for an existing player. Substitutions are made to replace a player who has become tired or injured, or, performing poorly, or for tactical reasons. Unlike some sports, a player, substituted during a match may take no further part in it. Most competitions only allow each team to make a maximum of three substitutions during a game and a fourth substitute during extra time, although more substitutions are permitted in non-competitive fixtures such as friendlies. A fourth substitution in extra time was first implemented in recent tournaments, including the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and the 2017 CONCACAF Gold Cup final. A fourth substitute in extra time has been approved for use in the elimination rounds at the 2018 FIFA World Cup, the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League; each team nominates a number of players. When the substitute enters the field of play it is said they have come on or have been brought on, while the player they are substituting is coming off or being brought off.
A player, noted for making appearances, or scoring important goals, as a substitute is informally known as a "super sub". The origin of football substitutes goes back to at least the early 1860s as part of English public school football games; the original use of the term "substitute" in football was to describe the replacement of players who failed to turn up for matches. For example, in 1863, a match reports states: "The Charterhouse eleven played a match in cloisters against some old Carthusians but in consequence of the non-appearance of some of those who were expected it was necessary to provide three substitutes." The substitution of absent players happened as early as the 1850s, for example from Eton College where the term "emergencies" is used. Numerous references to players acting as a "substitute" occur in matches in the mid-1860s where it is not indicated whether these were replacements of absent players or of players injured during the match; the first use of a substitute in international football was on 15 April 1889, in the match between Wales and Scotland at Wrexham.
Wales's original goalkeeper, Jim Trainer, failed to arrive. Substitution during games was first permitted in 1958; the use of substitutes in World Cup Finals matches was not allowed until the 1970 tournament. The number of substitutes usable in a competitive match has increased from zero—meaning teams were reduced if players' injuries could not allow them to play on—to one in 1958. With the increases in substitutions allowed, the number of potential substitute players increased to seven; the number of substitutes increased to two plus one in 1994, to three in 1995. Substitutions during matches in the English Football League were first permitted in the 1965–66 season. During the first two seasons after the law was introduced, each side was permitted only one substitution during a game. Moreover, the substitute could only replace an injured player. From the 1967–68 season, this rule was relaxed to allow substitutions for tactical reasons. On 21 August 1965, Keith Peacock of Charlton Athletic became the first substitute used in the Football League when he replaced injured goalkeeper Mike Rose eleven minutes into their away match against Bolton Wanderers.
On the same day, Bobby Knox became the first substitute to score a goal when he scored for Barrow against Wrexham. Archie Gemmill of St Mirren was the first substitute to come on in a Scottish first-class match, on 13 August 1966 in a League Cup tie against Clyde when he replaced Jim Clunie after 23 minutes; the first official substitute in a Scottish League match was Paul Conn for Queen's Park vs Albion Rovers in a Division 2 match on 24 August 1966. On 20 January 1917, a player called Morgan came on for the injured Morrison of Partick Thistle after 5 minutes against Rangers at Firhill, but this was an isolated case and the Scottish League did not authorise substitutes until 1966. In years, the number of substitutes permitted in Football League matches has increased. In England, the Premier League increased the number of players on the bench to five in 1996, it was announced that the number available on the bench would be seven for the 2008–09 season. Substitutions are governed under Law 3 of the Laws of the Game in the Substitution Procedure section.
A player may only be substituted with the permission of the referee. The player to be substituted must have left the field of play before the substitute may enter the field of play; the incoming player may only enter the field at the half-way line. Failure to comply with th