Manhwa is the general Korean term for comics and print cartoons. Outside Korea, the term refers to South Korean comics, although the comics industry is emerging in North Korea as well. Linguistically, 漫画, 漫画, 만화 all mean comics in Japanese and Korean respectively; the Korean term 만화, along with the Japanese term 漫画, is a cognate of the Chinese phrase manhua. Their current use is explained by the international success of the Japanese manga. Although in a traditional sense, in these languages the terms manga/manhua/manhwa had a similar meaning of comical drawing in a broad way, nowadays the term designate the manga-inspired comic strips; the author or artist of a manhwa is called a manhwaga. The relative obscurity of Korean culture in the Western world has caused the word "manhwa" to remain somewhat unknown in the English-speaking world. Instead, English translations of manhwa have achieved success by targeting the manga and anime community, to the extent that manhwa are marketed as "manga." Webtoons first came into popularity in the early 2000's due to their free access and availability on the internet.
Since their creation, webtoons have gained popularity around the globe and have been adopted outside of Korea as another form of comic publication. This is credited to their unique pay model. Daewon C. I. Haksan Culture Company Seoul Culture Corporation Shinwon Agency Corporation Sanho Kim was the first manhwa artist working in the States. During the 60s and 70s, he worked for publishers Charlton Comics, Warren Publishing, Iron Horse Publishing, Skywald Publications and Marvel Comics. According to journalist Paul Gravett, in 1987 Eastern Comics published the first original manhwas in the United States. Due to the explosion of manga's popularity in the Americas, many of the licensed titles acquired for the American market seek to emulate the popular elements of other successful series. Long-running webtoons serialized via Internet portal sites and personal homepages have become both the creative and popular basecamp among the younger generation in Korea. Manhwa is read in the same direction as English books and from left to right, because hangul is written and read horizontally, although it can be written and read vertically from right to left, top to bottom.
ADV Manga Dark Horse Manhwa DramaQueen DrMaster Publications Media Blasters Netcomics NBM ComicsLit Seven Seas Entertainment UDON's Korean Manhwa Yen Press Animation based on Korean comics is still rare. However, live-action drama series and movie adaptations of manhwa have occurred more in recent years. Full House in 2004 and Goong in 2006 are prominent examples, as both have been counted as the best dramas of their respective years. In 2004, Blade of the Phantom Master was adapted into an animated film by a joint Korean-Japanese animation team. SamBakZa produced There she is!! in 2006, about the developing relationship of a rabbit and a cat. The Great Catsby, ran as an onstage musical in 2006. In 2007, the award-winning Korean webtoon was adapted into a live-action drama; the title was planned to be adapted into a feature film in late 2007. War of Money, a dramatized manhwa that aired in 2007, garnered much attention for its soundtrack and actors. Priest, a manhwa by Hyung Min-woo, translated to English, was adapted into the 2011 American sci-fi action horror film of the same name by Screen Gems.
Released in 2011, it was produced by Michael DeLuca, directed by Scott Stewart, stars Paul Bettany as the title character. Secretly, Greatly, a film based on a manhwa webtoon, became a top-grossing film in 2013. List of manhwa Sunjung manhwa Myeongnang manhwa Manhwabang Culture of South Korea Korean Wave Korean animation Webtoon Video gaming in South Korea Son Sang-ik. 한국만화통사 1. Sigongsa. ISBN 89-7259-890-9. Hart, Christopher. Manhwa mania:. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8230-2976-X. Kim Jinsu. "개화기 일제의 시사만화 탄압". Chammalo. 만화. Empas/ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Manhwa". Empas/ EncyKorea. Sim Ji-hoon. "Korea Manhwa Museum". INISteel Webzine. Sugiyama, Rika. Comic artists — Asia: manga, manhua. New York: Harper Design International. ISBN 0-06-058924-8. "Korean Comics in the U. S. Part 1, Comic-Con International 2004," Jade Magazine.com, Sep. 2004 "Korean Comics in the U. S. Part 2, Manhwa Sampler," Jade Magazine.com, Sep. 2004 "Sang-Sun Park, Les Bijoux Comic Artist," Sequential Tart.com, Aug. 2004 Manhwa site for "Demon Diary" "Infinity Studios and Manhwa," Anime Tourist.com, 16 June 2004 Our Toys, Our Selves: Robot Taekwon V and South Korean Identity Cain, Geoffrey.
"Will the Internet Kill the Manhwa Star?" The Far Eastern Economic Review, November 6, 2009 Hyung-tae Kim Bucheon Manhwa Information Center Bucheon International Manhwa festival Seoul International Comics and Animation Festival Dong-a/LG International festival of comics and animation Moonk Mobile Cartoon Cartoon & Animation Society in Korea Seoul Cartoon The Korean Cartoonist Association Korean Women Cartoonist Association Amateur Comics Association Korea Amateur Comic Land Korean Society of Cartoon & Animation Studies Seoul Animation Center Puchon Cartoon Information Center The Korea Society Manhwa Exhibit
Lights Out (manhwa)
Lights Out is the 9-volume manhwa written by Lee Myung-jin, the author of Ragnarok. This manhwa is about the high school student Nam Gung Geon, a violent transfer student from the Chi Jon High School to Puk Ye High School, his life is changed by meeting Min Seung-Ah, the land-lady of the inn named Fate, granddaughter of the inn owner, a beautiful girl. In the last of the story, Geon meets many friends such as Sin Na-Rae, Kim Mi-Na, Ji-Ae, Kim Tae-Min, Son Seo-Ho, etc. and many girls have a crush of him because he wins the 2nd award of the Motor Grandprix. Nam Gung GunThe hero of the story, he was too violent but now he learns the power is not all for a man, the love is needed. He learns, he now is one of the popular people of Seoul for the 2nd reward of the Motor Grandprix and his unbelievable strength. Min Seung-AhThe heroine of the story, she is the granddaughter of the owner of the inn Fate. She is so pretty, clever and good-cooking, she and Gun after all is a couple. Kim Tae-MinHe is the closest friend of Gun in Puk Ye High School.
He is the son of the President of the Galaxy Community. He sometimes acts like a fool with the bamboo-hat and changes when removing the hat; the Inn Owner MinGrandpa of Seung-Ah. So Deong-ReA pervert guest of the Inn, he sometimes fools Gun with "some tricks". Sin Na-RaeClose friend of Seung-Ah, she is called the Puk-Ye Radar web. Kim Mi-NaFirst she was an experienced thief, she stops the thief-work and has a crush to Geon. But she and Tae-Min are a couple. Kim Tae-Min Son Seo-HoThe boyfriend of Na-Rae. He's best friend of Tae-Min and Geon. Kang Eun-HeeThe chief of Puk Ye, he hates his girlish name. His partners call him by Big Brother Kang, he has some junior partners such as the Puk-Do brothers. In 1997, Korean Software Developer T. G. Entertainment produced a game adaption to the manhwa for PC, only published in South Korea. It's a side-scrolling beat'em up
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Ragnarok is a manhwa created by Lee Myung-jin and published by Daiwon C. I. in South Korea. There are 10 volumes in circulation, published in English in North America by Tokyopop from May 21, 2002 to April 6, 2004; the series is based on Norse mythology but is influenced by various other cultures. It falls into the genres of fantasy and adventure; this manhwa became the basis of the popular Korean MMORPG, Ragnarok Online developed by Gravity Corp, which in turn was the basis for an adaptation into the anime, Ragnarok the Animation. Ragnarok is on indefinite hiatus as Lee Myung-jin is helping with the development of Ragnarok Online. Ragnarok follows the life and adventures of the warrior Chaos, an amnesiac that cannot remember anything from before the last two years in his life, he resides in the city of Fayon, inhabited by a long lineage of warriors. The newest leader in line to claim the head position of the village is a young woman by the name of Iris Irine, who trains with Chaos, her close friend, to become a suitable leader for her people.
Meanwhile, Fenris Fenrir searches for Balder's reincarnation to bring about Ragnarok. Chaos: A Rune Knight who has lost the memory of his childhood. Chaos came to live in Fayon, a village of great warriors, became best friends with Iris Irine, the heir to leadership of the village; when Fenris Fenrir arrived in Fayon, Chaos learned that he was the reincarnation of Balder, the God of Light. With his memories starting to return and his powers growing with every battle, Chaos struggles to unravel his past and find his true destiny. Chaos appears to be a newer name than his original in this lifetime. In a flashback, he wears the name tag of "Vermillion," from a dragon knight who found him in a bloody area with slain soldiers and a young girl in his arms. Despite his troubled past, he is a good-natured young man, somewhat clueless about romantic relationships with Iris Irine, he is a loyal friend, including to the reticent Loki. Fenris Fenrir: The reincarnation of the Wolf God, Fenris has become a powerful warlock upon returning to life began searching the world for Balder, reborn as a mortal.
Fenris wields many forgotten sorceries, as well as the magical demon-slaying staff Laevatein. Notably, she has the curious ability to copy any spell. During her journey, she has come to care for Chaos as well as her memory of Balder, sees Iris Irine as both a friend and a rival for Chaos's affections, she is a dignified and intelligent woman, seen as a big sister by Iris Irine and as an enigma by Chaos. Iris Irine: The heir to leadership of Fayon, village of warriors. Iris knows many healing spells, she uses Rune Cards inscribed with magical runes to help her allies. Iris has cares about him a great deal. Though she considers herself dignified and ladylike, she's prone to throwing tantrums and acting childish when she's excited, she admires Fenris and has a running rivalry with the thief Lidia. Her greatest enemy is her half-sister the valkyrie Sara Irine, she wields one of three legendary dragon blades. It should be noted that in the English version, there are multiple variations of the spelling of "Chonryongdo" though none reflect the actual Korean spelling, Hepburn Romanisation suggesting instead Cheongryongdo.
Loki: The most powerful member of the Assassins' Guild, Loki had never been wounded twice in combat before encountering Chaos. When the Assassins Guild was totally destroyed by Skurai, Loki hunted Chaos down and attacked him. Chaos managed to convince Loki that they were not enemies, Loki has joined forces with Chaos to hunt down the true culprit. Loki is totally devoid of emotions and has a hard time fathoming them in others, he wields "The Might", the most powerful form of magic in the world, has been described as "the one, human and not." Lidia: A thief who travels with a two-tailed cat named Ses. Lidia fancies herself a treasure hunter like her father, is searching the world over for magical artifacts, her greatest wish is to find Alfheim, the hidden city of the elves, the one treasure her father could never locate. Lidia started hanging out with Chaos and the gang in order to steal Iris's dagger and latches on to Loki, she is known as Lidia in the English release. Reina: An elfish archer that Chaos and his friends have run into during their time in the city of Geffen.
She appears to be the last of her kind and wishes to protect the secret of Alfhiem, the ancient city of the elves. She doesn’t like Lidia as she is trying to steal the treasures of Alfhiem but she puts aside her differences with her and Loki during their adventure in Alfhiem while battling a powerful assassin and wizard. Since the manhwa has been halted it is unsure what will become of her after her and Loki’s adventure. Sara Irine: One of the twelve Valkyries of Freya, she is first seen attempting to hunt down Fenris Fenrir. She devastates Fayon with an army of Giants. Sara is, in fact, the half-sister of Iris. For some horrible, unknown reason, Sara's father killed Sara's mother and tried to kill Sara as well. Sara fled the village of Fayon and became consumed with a
Lee (Korean surname)
Lee is the typical romanization of the common South Korean surname I, North Korean surname Ri. The name is written identically to the Chinese name Li 李 in Hanja characters, it is the second-most-common surname in Korea, behind Kim. Though the official Revised Romanization spelling of this surname is I, South Korea's National Institute of the Korean Language noted in 2001 that one-letter surnames were quite rare in English and other foreign languages and could cause difficulties when traveling abroad. However, the NIKL still hoped to promote systemic transcriptions for use in passports, thus recommended that people who bore this surname should spell it Yi in the Roman alphabet; the overwhelming majority of South Koreans with this surname ignored this recommendation and continue to spell it as Lee. In a study based on 2007 application data for South Korean passports, it was found that 98.5% of people with this surname spelled it in Latin letters as Lee in their passports, while only 1.0% spelled it Yi.
A few people with this surname spelled it Ye, as in Ye Wanyong of the Korean Empire. Rhee has been used, as in Syngman Rhee and Simon Hang-bock Rhee; as with all Korean family names, the holders of the Yi surname are divided into different patrilineal clans, or lineages, known in Korean as bon-gwan, based on their ancestral seat. Most such clans trace their lineage back to a specific founder, are not related to one another; this system was at its height under the yangban aristocracy of the Joseon Dynasty, but it remains in use today. There are 241 such clans claimed by South Koreans. Most people with surname Yi in Korea belong to either the Gyeongju clans. Surname Yi and Yi each have a different clans; this clan has direct imperial roots to the founding of the Joseon Dynasty. The founder of this clan was Yi Han, a native of Baekje who married a Silla princess and became a high official of Silla, his 22nd-generation descendant, Taejo of Joseon, went on to found the Joseon Dynasty. The House of Yi ruled Joseon for 518 years between 1392 and 1910 and established many of the cultural and linguistic foundations for modern-day Korea.
During its reign, the House of Yi consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea, encouraged the entrenchment of Korean Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society and adapted Chinese culture, saw the height of classical Korean culture, science and technology. The House of Yi has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea; as of 2005, the pretender to the Korean throne is Crown Prince Imperial. Members of the different branches of Jeonju Yi family dominated Korean history until the formation of the current Republic of Korea. Many families claim membership in the House of Yi, but few descend from the royal lineage; the House of Yi, in conjunction to its royal status, has produced innumerable figures of extraordinary influences in politics, the sciences, the arts and academia. Many of these descendants play key roles in world politics, the sciences, the arts and academia today. Notable descendants include South Korea's first president Syngman Rhee, current Prime Minister Lee Nak-yeon.
The founder of the Gyeongju clan was Yi Alpyeong, one of the village headmen who chose Bak Hyeokgeose as the first king of Silla. According to the Samguk Sagi, the Yi name was bestowed on the family by King Yuri around 9 CE. Notable present-day members of this clan include the founder of Samsung Group; the Gyeongju Yi clan, according to the 2000 South Korean census, numbered over 1.4 million individuals, making it the most numerous of the clans that bear the surname Yi. The founder of the Pyeongchang clan was Yi Gwang, an official and military commander of the Goryeo period. Yi Seung-hun, the first person that brought Catholicism to Korea, was a member of this clan. Yi's namesake and descendant Namgang Lee Seung-hun was an important figure in the Korean independence movement during Japanese rule. Namgang Lee Seung-Hun was one of the most financially successful people during his time. In his forties, Seunghun Lee devoted himself to social work and tried to support talented young people by founding the Kangmyung uisook and the Osan Junior High School.
He participated in the New People’s Association, became a Christian in 1910. Seunghun Lee was sentenced to 10 years in 1911 due to his involvement in the "105-Man Incident". In 1931, he was again sentenced to 3 years because he was one of the thirty three national representatives for the March 1st Independence Movement. Due to Seunghun Lee’s connection with the Independence Movement, the Osan School and other churches Seunghun Lee founded were burned by the authorities, all of the teachers at Osan were arrested; when Seunghun Lee was released under probation from prison in 1922, he founded “Jamyeon Association” in Yongdong and donated 0.8 acre of land for co-op farming. Lee established the Chosun Education Association with Sang-Jae Lee and Jin-Tae Yoo, continued his education business with Osan School as its center. In 1930, his last request before he died was to donate his corpus for educational purposes, but his last wish was not fulfilled due to interference from the Japanese imperial
Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948, it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states: South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, neighbours Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan. During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between the three competing states of Baekje and Silla, together known as the "Three Kingdoms of Korea". In the second half of the 1st millennium and Goguryeo were conquered by Silla, leading to the "Unified Silla" period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north following the collapse of Goguryeo. Unified Silla collapsed into three separate states due to civil war, ushering in the Later Three Kingdoms. Toward the end of the 1st millennium Goryeo, a revival of Goguryeo, defeated the two other states and unified the Korean Peninsula as one single state. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo.
Goryeo, whose name developed into the modern exonym "Korea", was a cultured state that created the world's first metal movable type in 1234. However, multiple invasions by the Mongol Empire during the 13th century weakened the nation, which agreed to become a vassal state after decades of fighting. Following military resistance under King Gongmin which ended Mongol political influence in Goryeo, severe political strife followed, Goryeo fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 1392; the first 200 years of Joseon were marked by relative peace. During this period, the Korean alphabet was created by Sejong the Great in the 15th century and there was increasing influence of Confucianism. During the part of the dynasty, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the "Hermit Kingdom". By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. After the First Sino-Japanese War, despite the Korean Empire's effort to modernize, it was annexed by Japan in 1910 and ruled by Imperial Japan until the end of World War II in August 1945.
In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel. The North was under Soviet occupation and the South under U. S. occupation. These circumstances soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence; the Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea's division into two political entities: North Korea, South Korea. Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. With involvement by foreign troops, the war ended in a stalemate in 1953, but without a formalized peace treaty; this status contributes to the high tensions. Both governments of the two Koreas claim to be the sole legitimate government of the region. "Korea" is the modern spelling of "Corea", a name attested in English as early as 1614.
Korea was transliterated as Cauli in The Travels of Marco Polo, of the Chinese 高麗. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo, which ruled most of the Korean peninsula during Marco Polo's time. Korea's introduction to the West resulted from trade and contact with merchants from Arabic lands, with some records dating back as far as the 9th century. Goryeo's name was a continuation of Goguryeo the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, known as Goryeo beginning in the 5th century; the original name was a combination of the adjective go with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either *Guru or *Gauri. With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling "Korea" appeared and grew in popularity; the name Korea is now used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk; the name references Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula.
Although written in Hanja as 韓, 幹, or 刊, this Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning "big" or "great" in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Central Asia. In North Korea, China and Japan, Korea as a whole is referred to as. "Great Joseon" was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon, who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108 BC by China's Han Empire; this go is the Hanja 古 and
Super Champ is a South Korean magazine produced by Daiwon C. I.. It is available only online, specializes in serializing domestic and imported comics, its first issue was published in 2006, it is released on the last day of each month. Following publication in Super Champ, individual series are collected into volumes and published in hard copy form under the Super Champ Comics imprint; the following titles are or have been serialized in Super Champ and/or printed under the Super Champ Comics imprint. Super Champ @ Daiwon C. I