The Leeward Antilles are a chain of islands in the Caribbean – the southerly islands of the Lesser Antilles along the southeastern fringe of the Caribbean Sea, just north of the Venezuelan coast of the South American mainland. The Leeward Antilles, while among the Lesser Antilles, are not to be confused with the Leeward Islands to the northeast. Lacking in volcanic activity, the Leeward Antilles island arc occurs along the deformed southern edge of the Caribbean Plate and was formed by the plate's subduction under the South American Plate. Recent studies indicate; the Leeward Antilles comprise: ABC islands: Aruba, a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Curaçao, a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Bonaire, part of the Caribbean Netherlands Federal Dependencies of Venezuela Los Monjes Archipelago La Tortuga Island La Sola Island Los Testigos Islands Los Frailes Islands Patos Island Los Roques Archipelago Blanquilla Island Los Hermanos Archipelago Orchila Island Las Aves Archipelago Aves Island Nueva Esparta State Margarita Island Coche Cubagua Levander, Alan, et al.
2006. Evolution of the Southern Caribbean Plate Boundary. Eos, American Geophysical Union, 87: 97,100. Levander, Alan, et al. 2006. Collaborative Research: Crust-Mantle Interactions During Continental Growth and High-Pressure Rock Exhumation at an Oblique Arc-Continent Collision Zone: Geology of Northeastern Venezuela. SE Caribbean Plate Boundary Continental Dynamics Project. Houston, TX: Rice University
Racial brownface is a variation of blackface in which a person imitates a person of Latin American, Middle Eastern, North African, Native American, and/or South Asian ethnic origin. This can be done using makeup, hair-dye, and/or by wearing traditional ethnic clothing to make a person appear as though they belong one of these "brown" ethnic groups, it is defined as a racist phenomenon, whether or not the offender intended to be racist. Brown Voice is the use of stereotypical exaggerated, accents when portraying a character with a Latin American, Middle Eastern, Native American, or Indian background, it is most found in cartoons, but it can be used in live-action television and film. The Simpsons came under fire in 2018 after Hari Kondabolu released a documentary that criticized the show's character Apu, voiced by Hank Azaria, he addressed how several aspects of the character were racial stereotypes that are demeaning to the character as well as Indian immigrants in general. The character's thick Indian accent, voiced by a white male, the fact that he works at a convenience store were the two main issues addressed by Kondabolu.
Speedy Gonzalez is a Mexican mouse found in Looney Tunes and other cartoons related to the Looney Tunes brand. His first appearance was in 1953. Since there has been debate over the racial depiction of Speedy as he is dressed in a poncho, wears a sombrero, speaks with a thick accent, he was voiced by a white actor. In recent years, he has been voiced by Hispanic actors and has been embraced by the Hispanic Community as he is quite the opposite of most depictions of Mexicans: lazy and slow, he is embraced for breaking the racial stereotype, despite what the initial goal of the character's creation may have been. There are historical and economic factors that have contributed to the success and arrival of brownface and minstrel shows in the United States. Although it is impossible to say for sure why the phenomenon of brownface occurred, United States' immigration and foreign affairs have had an impact. Since the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 efforts to limit immigration and keep a sort of native purity within the United States has been common.
These sentiments to preserve native purity occur out of economic competition, seen most in global wars. For example, after the First World War in 1919, the United States passed a series of immigration laws that helped to restrict immigration in order to keep the nation more isolated. Actions such as these result in an increase of social racism when immigration clashes with nativist sentiments. Today, federal efforts to decrease immigration from Mexico have helped inadvertently to reinforce stereotypes about Mexicans as being lazy and unwelcome; this is only one possible explanation as to why brownface and other racist phenomena have occurred throughout history and continue today. This and similar theories are discussed to explain social events like brownface; the Bracero Program of 1942 serves as another possible explanation for the emergence of brownface. This program was an agreement between Mexico and the United States and allowed for Mexican agricultural workers to come to the United States for seasonal work.
This enabled. It gave Mexican workers struggling to find work job opportunities. However, the political sentiments of the war popularized nativism, as global wars do. Popular opinion in the United States was that of preserving the sacred purity and success of democracy. Increased interaction between other nations was seen as jeopardizing to these ideals; the Bracero program let more Mexican laborers into the country, propelled the war effort, fueled both the United States' and Mexico's economies. This social sentiment of nativism increased racism against these laborers; these laborers overstayed their work visas as economic opportunities were better in the United States. As brownface saw its reemergence in the next decade with Bill Dana's minstrel character, Jose Jimenez, the Bracero program, unintentionally worsened racism against Latin American people and other people of brown color. There are social, economic and cultural factors that allow for all social phenomenon like brownface to occur. Minstrel shows have been seen within the United States since the formal institution of slavery in the early 1800s.
They relied on mocking the minority or the foreign, including race and social standing. Their target audience was the white middle class, anyone, seen as'normal' or'accepted,' and served to reassure them about their own social standings and importance. Brownface, although always an element in these shows, became a much bigger part during the late 1800s and early 1900s, with a reappearance during the Civil Rights Movement during the 1960s; as economic and social factors during this time encouraged nativism and a shunning of the foreign, the increased immigration from Latin America and India led to the success of these types of shows. Immigrants and foreigners became unpopular and unwelcome, entertainment and social norms based on degrading them became stronger. Brownface was used in these shows to reinforce stereotypes, portraying brown people as lazy and unable to assimilate into American life. José Jiménez was the character used by Bill Dana, an American comedian during the 1960s, to mock and humiliate Latino culture.
His appearance, the increased prominence of brownface, can be credited to the Civil Rights Movement in the United States during this time. As blackface and racism against African-Americans became unpopular, it can be explained that brownface and racism against other foreigners was the next go-to. Jose Jimenez
Dont Party is a South African internet blog founded by Alex Wright & Thomas Kennedy in 2009. The website's primary focus is music, creative culture, design and nightlife news. In 2010 Dont Party won'Best Music Blog' at the South African Blog Awards and was runner up for'Best Design Blog'. Dont Party has featured a number of interviews ranging from fashion designers, street artists and musicians; the interviews include many international recording artists such as The Bloody Beetroots and Beyond, Steve Aoki, James Zabiela, The Glitch Mob, Bassnectar. A weekly segment launched every Wednesday showcases mixtapes from international DJ's and South Africa artists such as Haezer, DJ SFR, The Boomzers. In late 2009, Dont Party began hosting events at The Assembly in Cape Town. Only hosting local acts, the event grew to expand and feature many international headline acts such as Steve Aoki, Fukkk Offf, Gigi Barocco, Boom Monk Ben, DJ Antention and draw in a regular attendance of over 1,000 people per event.
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