A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Mulhacén is the highest mountain in continental Spain and in the Iberian Peninsula. It is part of the Sierra Nevada range in the Cordillera Penibética, it is named after Abu l-Hasan Ali, known as Muley Hacén in Spanish, the penultimate Muslim King of Granada in the 15th century who, according to legend, was buried on the summit of the mountain. Mulhacén is the highest peak in western Europe outside the Alps, it is the third most topographically prominent peak in Western Europe, after Mont Blanc and Mount Etna, is ranked 64th in the world by prominence. The peak is not exceptionally dramatic in terms of local relief; the south flank of the mountain is gentle and presents no technical challenge, as is the case for the long west ridge. The shorter, somewhat steeper north east ridge is more technical; the north face of the mountain, however, is much steeper, offers several routes involving moderately steep climbing on snow and ice in the winter. Mulhacén can be climbed in a single day from the villages of either Capileira or Trevélez, but it is more common to spend a night at the mountain refuge at Poqueira, or in the bare shelter at Caldera to the west.
Those making the ascent from Trevelez can bivouac at the tarns to the northeast of the peak. On 5 March 2006, three British climbers from Teesside died on the mountain from suspected hypothermia. Initial reports quoting the Spanish Civil Guard stated that the three were ill-equipped for the extreme conditions; this claim was subsequently disputed both by the family and a colleague of one of the climbers, by one of the rescuers. A plaque dedicated to them has been placed at the summit. Notes Route to climb Mulhacén Mulhacen - Alpujarras.eu: your holiday quide, travel information and rural accommodation
The Samariá Gorge is a National Park of Greece since 1962 on the island of Crete – a major tourist attraction of the island – and a World's Biosphere Reserve. The gorge is in southwest Crete in the regional unit of Chania, it was created by a small river running between the White Mountains and Mt. Volakias. There are a number of other gorges in the White Mountains. While some say that the gorge is 18 km long, this distance refers to the distance between the settlement of Omalos on the northern side of the plateau and the village of Agia Roumeli. In fact, the gorge is 16 km long, starting at an altitude of 1,250 m at the northern entrance, ending at the shores of the Libyan Sea in Agia Roumeli; the walk through Samaria National Park is 13 km long, but one has to walk another three kilometers to Agia Roumeli from the park exit, making the hike 16 km long. The most famous part of the gorge is the stretch known as the Gates, where the sides of the gorge close in to a width of only four meters and soar up to a height of 300 meters.
The gorge became a national park in 1962 as a refuge for the rare kri-kri, restricted to the park and an island just off the shore of Agia Marina. There are several other endemic species in the gorge and surrounding area, as well as many other species of flowers and birds; the village of Samariá lies just inside the gorge. It was abandoned by the last remaining inhabitants in 1962 to make way for the park; the village and the gorge take their names from Óssia María. A must for visitors to Crete is to complete the walk down the gorge from the Omalos plateau to Agia Roumeli on the Libyan Sea, at which point tourists sail to the nearby village of Sougia or Hora Sfakion, where they could spend a night there, or they could catch a coach back to Chania; the walk takes five to seven hours and can be strenuous at the peak of summer. Local tourist operators provide organized tours to the Gorge; these include bus transportation from one's hotel to the entrance, a bus connection that will be waiting for hikers after they disembark the ferry in Sougia or Sfakia.
If you are on your own, you can make a one-day round trip from Sougia or Paleochora. Note that the morning buses from Sougia and Paleochora do not operate on Sunday; the ferries leave Agia Roumeli to Chora Sfakion and to Sougia/Paleochora at 17:00. There exists a "lazy way" – from Agia Roumeli to the Gates, back. Visits to the National park are allowed from May 1 to October 15. Park visiting hours are 07:00 to 15:00 daily. From 15:00 to sunset, visitors are allowed to walk a distance of only two kilometers within the park, either from Xyloskalo or from Agia Roumeli. Within the park it is prohibited to camp, stay overnight, light fires, or swim in the streams of the gorge. There are daily buses starting from Chania to the head of the gorge, called Xyloskalo; the buses, marked "OMALOS", depart Chania Central Bus Station at 07:45 and 8:45. The morning buses take one hour; the gorge is 12.8 km long, but there is another distance of 3.2 km to walk after leaving the gorge to reach Agia Roumeli. Be aware that it's always going downhill and thus is strenuous to the knees.
The entrance fee is €5. There is plenty of drinking water all along the gorge. Hiking boots are recommended sneakers can be worn. At the end of the gorge plus 3.2 km is Agia Roumeli, a village with restaurants and accommodation, boats to Chora Sfakion or Sougia. To return the same day, take the 17:30 boat to Chora Sfakion. From Sougia or Chora Sfakion, buses return to Chania, departing at 18:30. Tickets for the two buses can be reserved at the ticket office at the Chania bus station; the ticket for the boat can be purchased in Agia Roumeli only. There are daily guided tours operated by various travel agencies, whose cost is around €20 and which includes fare for buses and the tour guide; the price does not include boat tickets and entrance fees, collected separately on the bus. The choice of public transportation total price for one adult based in Chania is 30.30 €. This includes Samaria Gorge entrance ticket, travel by bus and return bus to Chania and the ferry boat that will take you from Agia Roumeli to Sfakia in order to take the return bus.
Agia Eirini Gorge Gorge of the Dead Ha Gorge Imbros Gorge Kotsifos Gorge Kourtaliotiko Gorge Richtis Gorge Sarakina Gorge Samaria gorge portal Agia Roumeli ferry boat timetable and prices Chania bus timetables and prices Photos and Information about Samaria Gorge Guide to the gorge of Samaria Description of a walk down the Gorge Xyloskalo current weather conditions
A cave or cavern is a natural void in the ground a space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form by the weathering of rock and extend deep underground; the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, grottos, though speaking a cave is exogene, meaning it is deeper than its opening is wide, a rock shelter is endogene. Speleology is the science of study of all aspects of caves and the cave environment. Visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking; the formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis. Caves can range in size, are formed by various geological processes; these may involve a combination of chemical processes, erosion by water, tectonic forces, microorganisms and atmospheric influences. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, to determine the timescale of the geological events which formed and shaped present-day caves, it is estimated that a cave cannot exceed 3,000 metres in depth due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the lower limit of karst forming processes, coinciding with the base of the soluble carbonate rocks. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution. Caves can be classified in various other ways as well, including a contrast between active and relict: active caves have water flowing through them. Types of active caves include inflow caves, outflow caves, through caves. Solutional caves or karst caves are the most occurring caves; such caves form in rock, soluble. Rock is dissolved by natural acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, faults and comparable features. Over time cracks enlarge to become caves and cave systems; the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3 and occurring organic acids; the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage.
Limestone caves are adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation. These include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns; these secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems. The portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded. Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of another type of solutional cave, they were formed by H2S gas rising from below. This gas mixes with groundwater and forms H2SO4; the acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, by acidic water percolating from the surface. Caves formed at the same time. Lava tubes are the most common primary caves; as lava flows downhill, its surface solidifies. Hot liquid lava continues to flow under that crust, if most of it flows out, a hollow tube remains; such caves can be found in the Canary Islands, Jeju-do, the basaltic plains of Eastern Idaho, in other places.
Kazumura Cave near Hilo, Hawaii is a remarkably deep lava tube. Lava caves are not limited to lava tubes. Other caves formed through volcanic activity include rifts, lava molds, open vertical conduits, blisters, among others. Sea caves are found along coasts around the world. A special case is littoral caves, which are formed by wave action in zones of weakness in sea cliffs; these weaknesses are faults, but they may be dykes or bedding-plane contacts. Some wave-cut caves are now above sea level because of uplift. Elsewhere, in places such as Thailand's Phang Nga Bay, solutional caves have been flooded by the sea and are now subject to littoral erosion. Sea caves are around 5 to 50 metres in length, but may exceed 300 metres. Corrasional or erosional caves are those that form by erosion by flowing streams carrying rocks and other sediments; these can form in any type including hard rocks such as granite. There must be some zone of weakness to guide the water, such as a fault or joint. A subtype of the erosional cave is the aeolian cave, carved by wind-born sediments.
Many caves formed by solutional processes undergo a subsequent phase of erosional or vadose enlargement where active streams or rivers pass through them. Glacier caves are formed by flowing water within and under glaciers; the cavities are influenced by the slow flow of the ice, which tends to collapse the caves again. Glacier caves are sometimes misidentified as "ice caves", though this latter term is properly reserved for bedrock caves that contain year-round ice formations. Fracture caves are formed when layers of more soluble minerals, such as gypsum, dissolve out from between layers of less soluble rock; these rocks fracture and collapse in blocks of stone. Talus caves are formed by the openings among large boulders that have fallen down into a random heap at the bases of cliffs; these unstable deposits are called talus or scree, may be subject to frequent rockfalls and landslides. Anchialine ca
Hvannadalshnúkur or Hvannadalshnjúkur is a pyramidal peak on the northwestern rim of the summit crater of the Öræfajökull volcano in Iceland and is the highest in Iceland. An official measurement completed in August 2005 established the height of the mountain as 2,109.6 metres. The peak is part of the Vatnajökull National Park; the route to the top is a popular climb through numerous and hidden crevasses, because of this, the climb calls for experienced mountain guides. List of islands by highest point List of European ultra prominent peaks "Hvannadalshnúkur, Iceland" on Peakbagger
Hóra Sfakíon or Sfakia is a town on the south coast of Crete, Greece. It is the capital of the remote and mountainous region of Sfakiá, is a small town of just 265 inhabitants, it lies on the south coast near the end of the Imbros Gorge, 74 km south of Chania. It has two small harbours, where the ferry boats from Agia Roumeli dock, which in the summer bring the hikers from the Samaria Gorge to take buses back to the northern coast. From Hóra Sfakíon ferries go to the nearby coastal town of Loutro and the island Gavdos. Hóra Sfakíon is a small village with a main harbourfront of tavernas, two minimarkets, a butcher, a bakery. There is a quiet local beach west of the village, several pebbly beaches nearby. Hóra Sfakíon has a variety of tourist accommodations: rooms and apartments; the local economy is based on tourism, olive-oil production, sheep and goat herding. Hóra Sfakíon prospered during the Venetian and Turkish occupations and up to the 18th century carried on a flourishing trade with its own small fleet.
It was said to have had a hundred churches, but it suffered badly from wartime bombardment during the Battle of Crete and the Allied evacuation that followed. Hóra Sfakíon is famous as one of the centers of resistance against the occupying forces of both the Venetians and the Turks; the impenetrable White Mountains to the north combined with the rocky beaches on the south helped the locals fight off all invaders. Anopolis, a village near Hóra Sfakíon, is the birthplace of one of the most celebrated Cretan revolutionaries, Daskalogiannis. Battle of Crete Sfakians Portal site about the region of Sfakiá Live webcam from the village of Hóra Sfakíon, Sfakiá Live beach webcam from the village of Hóra Sfakíon, Sfakiá Local guide to Sfakiá More than 1,000 pictures of Sfakia - from the 1960s until nowadays University of Lausanne history of Sfakiá
An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of 1,500 metres or more. There are 1,524 such peaks on Earth; some peaks, such as the Matterhorn and Eiger, are not Ultras because they are connected to higher mountains by high cols and therefore do not achieve enough topographic prominence. The term "Ultra" originated with earth scientist Stephen Fry, from his studies of the prominence of peaks in Washington in the 1980s, his original term was "ultra major mountain", referring to peaks with at least 1,500 metres of prominence. 1,515 Ultras have been identified above sea level: 637 in Asia, 353 in North America, 209 in South America, 119 in Europe, 84 in Africa, 69 in Australasia and 39 in Antarctica. Many of the world's largest mountains are Ultras, including Mount Everest, K2, Mont Blanc, Mount Olympus. On the other hand, others such as the Eiger and the Matterhorn are not Ultras because they do not have sufficient prominence. Many Ultras lie in visited and inhospitable parts of the world, including 39 in Greenland, the high points of the Arctic islands of Novaya Zemlya, Jan Mayen and Spitsbergen, many of the peaks of the Greater ranges of Asia.
In British Columbia, some of the mountains listed do not have recognized names. Thirteen of the fourteen 8,000m summits are Ultras, there are a further 64 Ultras over 7,000 metres in height. There are 90 Ultras with a prominence of over 3,000 metres, but only 22 with more than 4,000 metres prominence. A number of Ultras have yet to be climbed, with Sauyr Zhotasy, Mount Siple, Gangkar Puensum being the most candidates for the most prominent unclimbed mountain in the world. All of the Seven Summits are Ultras by virtue of the fact that they are the high points of large landmasses; each has its key col at or near sea level, resulting in a prominence value equal to its elevation. List of peaks by prominence gives the 125 most prominent peaks worldwide. List of islands by highest point gives the 75 highest island highpoints, all of which are Ultras List of Alpine peaks by prominence List of non-Alpine European Ultras, including Atlantic islands and the Caucasus List of Ultras in West Asia List of Ultras in Central Asia List of Ultras of the Karakoram and Hindu Kush List of Ultras of the Himalayas, including Sino-Nepal Provinces List of Ultras of Tibet, East Asia and neighbouring areas, including India List of Ultras in Northeast Asia List of Ultras in Japan List of Ultras in Southeast Asia List of Ultras in the Philippines List of Ultras of Malay Archipelago List of African Ultras List of Ultras in Oceania, including the Southern Indian Ocean List of ultra-prominent summits of Australia List of ultra-prominent summits of Indonesian New Guinea List of ultra-prominent summits of New Zealand List of ultra-prominent summits of Papua New Guinea List of ultra-prominent summits of the Hawaiian Islands List of ultra-prominent summits of the Pacific Islands List of ultra-prominent summits of the Southern Indian Ocean List of Ultras in Antarctica, including South Atlantic islands List of Ultras in North America List of Ultras in Canada List of Ultras in the United States List of Ultras in Alaska List of Ultras in Greenland List of Ultras in Mexico List of Ultras in Central America List of Ultras in the Caribbean List of Ultras in South America List of mountain lists List of peaks by prominence Prominence