Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
Wrist spin is a type of bowling in the sport of cricket. It refers to the cricket technique and specific hand movements associated with imparting a particular direction of spin to the cricket ball; the other spinning technique used to spin the ball in the opposite direction, is finger spin. Wrist spin is bowled by releasing the ball from the back of the hand, so that it passes over the little finger. Done by a right-handed bowler, this imparts an anticlockwise rotation to the ball, as seen from the bowler's perspective; the name wrist spin is something of a misnomer, as the wrist is not a vital part of the mechanism for producing the characteristic spin on the ball. A wrist spin delivery is released with the arm held in a pronated position, with the fingers on the inside of the ball. If this pronated position is maintained through the release, the fingers will cut down the side of the ball and produce an anti-clockwise spin; the great Australian leg-spinner Bill O'Reilly is famous for bowling legspin in this manner.
Additional spin many be put on the ball through two other means: the active pronation of the arm from an supinated position just before the ball is released, the extension of the wrist at the moment of release. Both techniques increase the effect of the cutting mechanism; the slower a spin bowler delivers the ball, the more he must attempt to impart spin onto it in order to maintain the same rate of revolution. Although the biomechanical details of wrist spin are the same for right and left handed bowlers, such bowlers are discussed separately, as the direction in which the ball deviates as it bounces on the cricket pitch is different: Right-handed wrist spin is more known as leg spin. Left-handed wrist spin is more known as left-arm unorthodox spin or left-arm chinaman. To grip the ball for a leg-spinning delivery, the ball is placed into the palm with the seam parallel to the palm; the first two fingers spread and grip the ball, the third and fourth fingers close together and rest against the side of the ball.
The first bend of the third finger should grasp the seam. The thumb resting against the side should impart no pressure; when the ball is bowled, the third finger will apply most of the spin. The wrist is cocked as it comes down by the hip, the wrist moves from right to left as the ball is released, adding more spin; the ball is tossed up to provide flight. The batsman will see the hand with the palm facing towards them. A googly is a type of delivery bowled by a wrist spin bowler, it is referred to as a Bosie, an eponym in honour of its inventor Bernard Bosanquet. While a normal leg break spins from the leg to the off side, away from a right-handed batsman, a googly spins the other way, from off to leg, into a right-handed batsman; the bowler achieves this change of spin by bending the wrist from the normal leg break delivery position. To achieve this bend requires maximal pronation of the forearm prior to delivery, as well as inward rotation of the shoulder: the tip of the elbow, which would face the right of a right-hand bowler at the point of delivery, faces upward, the back of the hand, which would face the rear of the bowler, faces the front.
When the Cricket ball rolls out of the hand, it emerges with clockwise spin. A googly may be achieved by bowling the ball as a conventional leg break, but spinning the ball further with the fingers just before it is released; the change of wrist action can be seen by a skilled batsman and the change of spin allowed for when playing a shot at the ball. Less skilled batsmen, or ones who have lost their concentration, can be deceived expecting the ball to move one direction off the pitch, only for it to move the other direction. If the batsman is expecting a leg break, he will play outside the line of the ball; this means the ball can either strike the pads for a potential LBW appeal, or may fly between the bat and the pads and hit the wicket. The googly is a major weapon in the arsenal of a leg spin bowler, can be one of the bowler's most effective wicket-taking balls, it is used infrequently, because its effectiveness comes from its surprise value. The grip is identical to that of a conventional leg-break: the only difference is the additional wrist and shoulder rotation, so that the batsman will see the back of the hand when the ball is released.
A top-spinner is a type of delivery bowled by a cricketer bowling either wrist finger spin. In either case, the bowler imparts the ball with top spin by twisting it with his or her fingers prior to delivery. In both cases, the topspinner is the halfway house between the stock delivery and the wrong'un – in the wrist spinner's case his googly, in the finger spinner's case his doosra. A topspinning cricket ball behaves to top spin shots in tennis or table tennis; the forward spinning motion impedes air travelling over the ball, but assists air travelling underneath. The difference in air pressure above and underneath the ball acts as a downward force, meaning that the ball falls earlier and faster than normal. In cricketing terms, this means that the ball drops shorter, falls faster and bounces higher than might otherwise be anticipated by the batsman; these properties are summed up in cricketing terms as a "looping" or "loopy" delivery. The ball travels straight on, as compared to a wrist spin or finger spin stock delivery that breaks to the left or righ
Bowling, in cricket, is the action of propelling the ball toward the wicket defended by a batsman. A player skilled at bowling is called a bowler. Bowling the ball is distinguished from throwing the ball by a specified biomechanical definition, which restricts the angle of extension of the elbow. A single act of bowling the ball towards the batsman is called a delivery. Bowlers bowl deliveries in sets of six, called an over. Once a bowler has bowled an over, a teammate will bowl an over from the other end of the pitch; the Laws of Cricket govern. If a ball is bowled illegally, an umpire will rule it a no-ball. If a ball is bowled too wide of the striker for the batsman to be able to play at it with a proper cricket shot, the bowler's end umpire will rule it a wide. There are different types of bowlers, from fast bowlers, whose primary weapon is pace, through swing and seam bowlers who try to make the ball deviate in its course through the air or when it bounces, to slow bowlers, who will attempt to deceive the batsmen with a variety of flight and spin.
A spin bowler delivers the ball quite and puts spin on the ball, causing it to turn at an angle while bouncing off the pitch. In the early days of cricket, underarm bowling was the only method employed. Many theories exist about the origins of cricket. One suggests that the game began among shepherds hitting a stone or a ball of wool with their crooks and, at the same time, defending the wicket gate into the sheep-fold. A second theory suggests the name came from a low stool known as a'cricket' in England, which from the side looked like the long, low wicket used in the early days of the game. There is a reference to'criquet' in North-East France in 1478 and evidence that the game evolved in South-East England in the Middle Ages. In 1706 William Goldwyn published the first description of the game, he wrote that two teams were first seen carrying their curving bats to the venue, choosing a pitch and arguing over the rules to be played. They pitched two sets of wickets, each with a "milk-white" bail perched on two stumps.
They had four-ball overs, the umpires leant on their staves, the scorers sat on a mound making notches. The first written "Laws of Cricket" were drawn up in 1744, they stated, "the principals shall choose from amongst the gentlemen present two umpires who shall decide all disputes. The stumps must be 22 inches high and the bail across them six inches; the ball must be between 5 & 6 ounces, the two sets of stumps 22 yards apart". There were no limits on the size of the bat, it appears that 40 notches was viewed as a big score due to the bowlers bowling at shins unprotected by pads. The world's first cricket club was formed in Hambledon in the 1760s and the Marylebone Cricket Club was founded in 1787. During the 1760s and 1770s it became common to pitch the ball through the air, rather than roll it along the ground; this innovation gave bowlers the weapons of length, deception through the air, plus increased pace. It opened new possibilities for spin and swerve. In response, batters had to master shot selection.
One immediate consequence was the replacement of the curving bat with the straight one. All of this lessened the influence of rough ground and brute force, it was in the 1770s. The weight of the ball was limited to between five and a half and five and three-quarter ounces, the width of the bat to four inches; the latter ruling followed an innings by a batter called Thomas "Daddy" White, who appeared with a bat the width of the wicket. In 1774, the first leg before law was published. Around this time, a third stump became commonplace. By 1780, the duration of a first-class cricket match was three days, this year saw the creation of the first six-seam cricket ball. In 1788, the MCC published its first revision of the laws, which prohibited charging down an opponent and provided for mowing and covering the wicket in order to standardise conditions; the desire for standardisation reflected the massive increase in the popularity of cricket during the 18th century. Between 1730 and 1740, 150 cricket matches were recorded in the papers of the time.
Between 1750 and 1760, this figure rose to 230, between 1770 and 1790 over 500. The 19th century saw a series of significant changes. Wide deliveries were outlawed in 1811; the circumference of the ball was specified for the first time in 1838. Pads, made of cork, became available for the first time in 1841, these were further developed following the invention of vulcanised rubber, used to introduce protective gloves in 1848. In the 1870s, boundaries were introduced – all hits had to be run; the biggest change, was in how the ball was delivered by the bowler. At the start of the century, all bowlers were still delivering the ball under-arm. However, so the story goes, John Willes became the first bowler to use a "round-arm" technique after practising with his sister Christina, who had used the technique, as she was unable to bowl underarm due to her wide dress impeding her delivery of the ball; the round-arm action came to be employed in matches but was determined to be illegal and banned by the MCC
The carrom ball is a style of spin bowling delivery used in cricket. The ball is released by flicking it between the thumb and a bent middle finger in order to impart spin. Though the delivery was first brought in use in early 1940s, it was re-introduced by Ajantha Mendis in 2008 as well as by Indian spinner Ravichandran Ashwin later; the first bowler known to have used this style of delivery was the Australian Jack Iverson from Victoria, who used it throughout his Test cricket career in the period after the Second World War, although he did not use the name "carrom ball". Fellow countryman John Gleeson used a similar grip a decade but by the end of the 1970s the method was forgotten, it has since re-entered cricketing consciousness because of its use by Ajantha Mendis of Sri Lanka, with the new name of carrom ball. Mendis unveiled this delivery during the 2008 Asia Cup. Ravichandran Ashwin calls his variation the'sodukku ball'. In the Tamil language, sodukku means "snapping of fingers"; this is reflected in the way the ball is delivered, by a "snap" of the thumb.
Ashwin says that he first learned to bowl this type of delivery playing street cricket in Chennai, while using a tennis ball, in his childhood he perfected the delivery with a real cricket ball. He took nine wickets in his debut Test against the West Indies in November 2011 and used the carrom ball to dismiss Marlon Samuels in the second innings. New Zealander Mitchell Santner is believed to be the first left handed spin bowler to have used the method in international cricket, dismissing Pakistan opener Fakhar Zaman with a delivery in the carrom ball style during a one-day international match on January 16, 2018; the ball is held between the thumb and the middle finger and, instead of a conventional release, the ball is squeezed out and flicked by the fingers like a carrom player flicking the disc on a carrom board. It is different from wrist-bowled deliveries. Traditional leg-spin is bowled with anti-clockwise wrist movement for a right-armed bowler, while Muttiah Muralitharan's special type of off-spin is bowled with clockwise wrist movement.
A finger-bowled delivery such as traditional off-spin is bowled with a clockwise finger movement. Carrom spin can be considered a third category of spin bowling after leg spin and off spin, as the middle finger and thumb flick or squeeze the ball out of the hand, like a carrom player flicking a striker in the indoor game of carrom; when the centre finger is gripped towards the leg side, the ball spins from leg to off. Depending on the degree the ball is gripped towards the leg side, the carrom ball could travel straight; the carrom ball can therefore travel straight. Doosra Googly Leg spin Off spin Wrist spin
Fast bowling is one of two main approaches to bowling in the sport of cricket, the other being spin bowling. Practitioners of pace bowling are known as fast bowlers, quicks, or pacemen, they can be referred to as a seam bowler or a'fast bowler who can swing it' to reflect the predominant characteristic of their deliveries. Speaking, a pure swing bowler does not need to have a high degree of pace, though dedicated medium-pace swing bowlers are seen at Test level these days; the aim of fast bowling is to deliver the ball in such a fashion as to cause the batsman to make a mistake. The bowler achieves this by making the hard cricket ball deviate from a predictable, linear trajectory at a speed that limits the time the batsman has to compensate for it. For deviation caused by the ball's stitching, the ball bounces off the pitch and deflects either away from the batsman's body, or inwards towards them. Swing bowlers on the other hand use the seam of the ball but in a different way. To'bowl swing' is to induce a curved trajectory of the cricket ball through the air.
Swing bowlers use a combination of seam orientation, body position at the point of release, asymmetric ball polishing, variations in delivery speed to affect an aerodynamic influence on the ball. The ability of a bowler to induce lateral deviation or'sideways movement' make it difficult for the batsman to address the flight of the ball accurately. Beyond this ability to create an unpredictable path of ball trajectory, the fastest bowlers can be potent by delivering a ball at such a rate that a batsman fails to react either or at all. A typical fast delivery has a speed in the range of 137–153 km/h, it is possible for a bowler to concentrate on speed when young, but as fast bowlers mature they pick up new skills and tend to rely more on swing bowling or seam bowling techniques. Most fast bowlers specialise in one of these two areas and are sometimes categorised as swing or seam bowler. However, this classification is not satisfactory because the categories are not mutually exclusive and a skilled bowler bowls a mixture of fast, swinging and cutting balls—even if he prefers one style to the others.
For simplicity, it is common to subdivide fast bowlers according to the average speed of their deliveries, as follows. There is a degree of subjectivity in the usage of these terms. For comparison, most spin bowlers in professional cricket bowl at average speeds of 70 to 90 km/h. Shoaib Akhtar, Brett Lee, Shaun Tait, Jeff Thomson and Mitchell Starc have clocked over 160 km/h and are categorised as "Ultra Fast" bowlers although bowling at speeds lower than this mark. While Steven Finn is classified as a fast-medium bowler by Cricinfo, he can bowl at around 145 km/h, with his fastest clocked at 151.9 km/h, making him the 10th fastest amongst active bowlers as of 3 January 2015 The first thing a fast bowler needs to do is to grip the ball correctly. The basic fast bowling grip to achieve maximum speed is to hold the ball with the seam upright and to place the index and middle fingers close together at the top of the seam with the thumb gripping the ball at the bottom of the seam; the image to the right shows the correct grip.
The first two fingers and the thumb should hold the ball forward of the rest of the hand, the other two fingers should be tucked into the palm. The ball is held quite loosely so. Other grips are possible, result in different balls – see swing and seam bowling below; the bowler holds their other hand over the hand gripping the ball until the latest possible moment so that the batsman cannot see what type of ball is being bowled. A fast bowler needs to take a longer run-up toward the wicket than a spinner, due to the need to generate the momentum and rhythm required to bowl a fast delivery. Fast bowlers measure their preferred run up in strides, mark the distance from the wicket, it is important for the bowler to know how long the run-up is because it must terminate behind the popping crease. A bowler who steps on or beyond this has bowled a no-ball, which affords the batsman immunity from dismissal, adds one run to the batting team's score, forces the bowler to bowl another ball in the over. At the end of the run-up the bowler brings his lead foot down on the pitch with the knee as straight as possible.
This can be dangerous due to the pressure it places on the joint. Knee injuries are not uncommon amongst fast bowlers: for example, the English pace bowler David Lawrence was sidelined for many months after splitting his kneecap in two; the pressure on the leading foot is such that some fast bowlers cut the front off their shoes to stop their toes from being injured as they are pressed against the inside of the shoe. The bowler brings the bowling arm up over their head and releases the ball at the height appropriate to where they want the ball to pitch. Again, the arm must be straight though this is a stipulation of the laws of cricket rather than an aid to speed. Bending the elbow and "chucking" the ball would make it too easy for the bowler to aim at the batsman's wicket and get them out. Fast bowlers tend to have an action that leaves them either side-on or chest-on at the end of the run up. A chest-on bowler has chest and hips aligned towards the batsman at the instant of back foot contact, while a side-on bowler has chest and hips aligned at ninety degrees to the batsman at the instant of back foot contact.
West Indian bowler Malcolm Marshall was a c
Lancashire County Cricket Club
Lancashire County Cricket Club represents the historic county of Lancashire. The club has held first-class status since it was founded in 1864. Lancashire's home is Old Trafford Cricket Ground, although the team play matches at other grounds around the county. Lancashire was a founder member of the County Championship in 1890 and have won the competition nine times, most in 2011; the club's limited overs team is called Lancashire Lightning. Lancashire were recognised as the Champion County four times between 1879 and 1889, they won their first two County Championship titles in the 1904 seasons. Between 1926 and 1934, they won the championship five times. Throughout most of the inter-war period and their neighbours Yorkshire had the best two teams in England and the Roses Matches between them were the highlight of the domestic season. In 1950, Lancashire shared the title with Surrey; the County Championship was restructured in 2000 with Lancashire in the first division. They won the 2011 County Championship, a gap of 77 years since the club's last outright title in 1934.
In 1895, Archie MacLaren scored 424 in an innings for Lancashire, which remains the highest score by an Englishman in first-class cricket. Johnny Briggs, whose career lasted from 1879 to 1900, was the first player to score 10,000 runs and take 1,000 wickets for Lancashire. Ernest Tyldesley, younger brother of Johnny Tyldesley, is the club's leading run-scorer with 34,222 runs in 573 matches for Lancashire between 1909 and 1936. Fast bowler Brian Statham took a club record 1,816 wickets in 430 first-class matches between 1950 and 1968. England batsman Cyril Washbrook became Lancashire's first professional captain in 1954; the Lancashire side of the late 1960s and early 1970s, captained by Jack Bond and featuring the West Indian batsman Clive Lloyd, was successful in limited overs cricket, winning the Sunday League in 1969 and 1970 and the Gillette Cup four times between 1970 and 1975. Lancashire won the Benson and Hedges Cup in 1984, three times between 1990 and 1996, the Sunday League in 1989, 1998 and 1999.
They won the Twenty20 Cup for the first time in 2015. First XI honoursChampion County – 1881; as advised by the Association of Cricket Statisticians, the earliest known reference to the sport being played in the county has been found in the Manchester Journal dated Saturday, 1 September 1781. It concerned an eleven-a-side match played the previous Monday, 27 August, at Brinnington Moor between a team of printers and one representing the villages of Haughton and Bredbury, who were the winners; as Bredbury was in Cheshire, the match is the earliest reference for that county too. In 1816, the Manchester Cricket Club was founded and soon became the main north country rivals of Nottingham Cricket Club and Sheffield Cricket Club. On 23–25 July 1849, the Sheffield and Manchester clubs played each other at Hyde Park in Sheffield but the fixture was styled Yorkshire v Lancashire, it was the first match to involve a team using Lancashire as its name and is sometimes reckoned to have been the first Roses Match.
Yorkshire won by five wickets. Teams called Yorkshire, though based on the Sheffield club, had been active since 1833; the Roses Match is one of cricket's most famous rivalries. In 1857, the Manchester club moved to Old Trafford, the home of Lancashire cricket since. On Tuesday, 12 January 1864, Manchester Cricket Club organised a meeting at the Queen's Hotel in Manchester for the purpose of forming a club to represent the county. Thirteen local clubs were represented: Broughton, Longsight and Western from the Manchester area. Lancashire County Cricket Club was founded with the object of, it was said, "spreading a thorough knowledge and appreciation of the game throughout Lancashire", it was intended to stage home matches alternately at Old Trafford, Preston, Blackburn and at "other places to help introduce good cricket throughout the county". The new county club played its first-ever official game at Warrington against Birkenhead Park on Wednesday, 15 June 1864 but, not a first-class match; the first inter-county match, first-class, was played in 1865 at Old Trafford against Middlesex.
The early Lancashire side was reliant upon amateurs. During the early 1870s, the team was dominated by A. N. Hornby’s batting; the team's standard of cricket improved with the arrival of two professional players, Dick Barlow and Alex Watson. The impact of Barlow and Hornby was such that their batting partnership was immortalised in the poem At Lord’s by Francis Thompson; the team was further enhanced by A. G. Stee
In the sport of cricket, a bouncer is a type of delivery bowled by a fast bowler. Bouncers are used to drive the batsman back on to his back foot if he has been playing front foot scoring shots, such as drives. To this end, bouncers are directed more or less at the line of the batsman's body. Aiming at the batsman is legal provided the ball bounces on the pitch. Aiming at the batsman's head without bouncing on the pitch, known as a beamer, is illegal. A batsman may play a bouncer in an attacking way. If the batsman plays it defensively he aims to avoid getting out, secondarily to avoid being hit by the ball. For a head-high bouncer, these goals are achieved most by ducking under the ball. If the ball is at chest height, the batsman's best defence is to move on to his back foot, raise his bat vertically to chest height, attempt to block the ball and direct it downwards to the pitch so as to avoid presenting a catch to a fielder. Sometimes the batsman will need to jump into the air to gain the necessary height to defend with the bat.
He may sway out of the way. Given these approaches, the bowler can hope to both intimidate the batsman somewhat, have the ball deflect off the bat at an awkward angle and produce a catch for a nearby fielder. A bouncer ball is not valid if the ball is above the marks height before touching ground that's mean when the bowler is bowling the ball the bowl should not exceed the 8 feet of height before touching ground, if it is above the mark level the ball will be declared No ball and the rule may change if the bowler height is above 6ft 5inch it will be increase 1/2 feet as height increase and the ball release as high intentionally it would be categorized as unfair delivery; that may be concern as objectionable delivery. The bowler that throw convective delivery as bouncer may lead to match fine or can be temporary ban for not obeying the cricket rule and tried to unfollow the rules. Conversely, the bouncer can be a productive ball for the batsman, if he plays it in an attacking manner; the shot, used to attack the bouncer is the hook shot.
To play the hook shot the batsman moves his back foot backwards and towards the off side as the ball is being delivered. As the ball approaches, the batsman swivels from facing the off side to facing the leg side, while holding the bat horizontally; the batsman's aim is to hit the ball at high speed into or over the leg side boundary. However, despite their run-scoring potential, shots lead to wickets falling through balls hitting the top edge of the bat and being caught by leg side fielders. However, if the bouncer is misdirected by the bowler, reaches the batsman on the off side of his wicket, the cut, uppercut or late cut can be played, either with the intention of guiding the ball along the ground, through a gap in the field setting, or over the infield for four or six. There is an unspoken agreement in the time before the widespread use of batting helmets, that fast bowlers will not bowl bouncers at each other, because less skilled batsmen are less to defend and therefore more to be struck.
Breaking of this rule can lead to'bouncer wars' – that is, the targeted bowler engaging in retaliatory hostile short-pitched bowling at his opponent during the following innings. Because of the potential danger to batsmen of being hit and to stop bowlers bowling bouncers all the time, there are Laws in the Laws of Cricket governing how a bowler may bowl bouncers, as well as how many fielders may field backward of square leg; these laws take into account the relative skill of the batsmen. During the 1970s to 1980s, bouncers were used as part of a team's intimidatory tactics by the West Indies team. In 1991, the International Cricket Council introduced a "one bouncer per batsman per over" rule in an attempt to discourage use of intimidation. However, the ruling was not well received by players and umpires alike, with English umpire Dickie Bird describing it as "farcical" as he felt that calling intimidatory tactics should be left to the umpire; the ICC changed it to two bouncers per over in 1994, with a two-run no-ball penalty if the bowler exceeded two bouncers an over.
One Day International cricket allowed one bouncer per over in 2001. On 29 October 2012 the ICC increased the number of bouncers that could be bowled during a One Day International to two; the number of bouncers per over allowed in T20s was kept to one. Fast leg theory, the deliberate and sustained bowling of bouncers aimed at the body, coupled with a cordon of legside catching fieldsmen to catch deflections, was a tactic used by England against Australia in 1932/33, dubbed the Bodyline series by the Australians; this controversial tactic caused the Laws of Cricket to be reformed to prevent any recurrence. In 1954–55 in Sydney, England fast bowler Frank Tyson bowled bouncers at Australian Ray Lindwall, who returned the favour by hospitalising Tyson with one of his own. An angry Tyson returned with a large lump on his head and took 6/85 in the second innings to give England a 38-run victory. In 1994 at the Oval Devon Malcolm was hit on the helmet by a bouncer from Fanie de Villiers; the incensed Malcolm told the South Africans "You guys are history" and took apart their second innings with 9/57.
The bouncer is an aggressive delivery and the nature of the delivery by a fast bowler and aimed at the head can lead to batsmen being hit in the chest, neck or head. In 1962, Indian captain Nari Contractor was hit above his right ear by a Charlie Griffith bouncer whi