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Left-arm unorthodox spin

Left-arm unorthodox spin known as slow left-arm wrist-spin bowling and as a chinaman, is a type of spin bowling in the sport of cricket. Left-arm unorthodox spin bowlers use wrist spin to spin the ball, make it deviate, or ‘turn’ from left to right after pitching; the direction of turn is the same as that of a traditional right-handed off spin bowler. Some left-arm unorthodox bowlers bowl the equivalent of a ’googly’, which turns from right to left on the pitch; the ball turns away from the right-handed batsman, as if the bowler were an orthodox left-arm spinner. In cricketing parlance, the word ’chinaman’ was sometimes used to describe the stock delivery of a left-arm wrist-spinner, or ‘unorthodox’ spin bowler (though some reserve it for the googly delivery; the origin of the term is uncertain. One version relates to a Test match played between England and the West Indies at Old Trafford in 1933. Ellis ’Puss’ Achong, a player of Chinese origin, was a left-arm orthodox spinner, playing for the West Indies.

He had Walter Robins stumped off a surprise delivery that spun into the right-hander from outside the off stump. As he walked back to the pavilion, Robins said to the umpire, "fancy being done by a bloody Chinaman!", leading to the popularity of the term in England, subsequently, in the rest of the world. However, it has been suggested. In 2017 Australian journalist Andrew Wu, of Chinese descent, raised concerns about the use of the term as a "racially offensive term" which he argued the term itself "has been used in a contemptuous manner to describe the Chinese". Wisden formally changed their wording of the term to slow left-arm wrist-spin in the 2018 edition of the Almanack, describing it as "no longer appropriate". Among noted players who have bowled the delivery are Denis Compton, who specialised in the delivery when bowling. Although better known for fast bowling and orthodox slow left arm, Garfield Sobers could use it to good effect. In cricket's modern era, Brad Hogg is a natural spinner of the ball who popularised the delivery and has one of the most well-disguised wrong'uns.

He was a member of Australia's victorious 2003 and 2007 Cricket World Cup teams, picking up 13 wickets in 2003 and 21 wickets in 2007. Kuldeep Yadav, who debuted for India in March 2017, bowls it and Paul Adams played 45 Test matches for South Africa between 1995–2004 using the delivery. Former Australian player Michael Bevan bowled the delivery. Cricket and Race by Jack Williams ISBN 1-85973-309-3 Wisden, 1968, 1987 and 2018 editions


Tisquesusa spelled Thisquesuza, Thysquesuca or Thisquesusha was the fourth and last independent ruler of Bacatá, main settlement of the southern Muisca between 1514 and his death in 1537. The name brought about the Colombian capital Bogotá. Tisquesusa was the ruler of the southern Muisca Confederation at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Muisca, when the troops led by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada and his brother entered the central Colombian highlands, his zaque counterpart in the northern area of the Muisca was Quemuenchatocha. Tisquesusa was cacique of Chía and following the Muisca heritage rules, he as nephew of the previous ruler Nemequene succeeded his uncle in 1514. At the start of his reign, Tisquesusa fought against the Panche in the west of the Muisca Confederation; the brother of Tisquesusa and -according to Muisca heritage rule illegal- successor Sagipa was the general in the southern Muisca army. Early on in his reign Tisquesusa went to war with the northern Muisca ruled by Quemuenchatocha.

Forty thousands guecha warriors of the southern Muisca fought against fifty thousand northern Muisca. Earlier, support of the iraca Sugamuxi of the Iraca Valley helped the northern troops in their battles, but this time the third party helped settling a truce between both parties which lasted until the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in 1537; the arrival of the Spanish conquerors was revealed to Tisquesusa by the mohan Popón, from the village of Ubaque. He told the Muisca ruler that foreigners were coming and Tisquesusa would die "bathing in his own blood"; when Tisquesusa was informed of the advancing invasion of the Spanish soldiers, he sent a spy to Suesca to find out more about their army strength and with how many warriors they could be beaten. The zipa left the capital Bacatá and took shelter in Nemocón which directed the Spanish troops to there, during this march attacked by more than 600 Muisca warriors; when Tisquesusa retreated in his fortified place in Cajicá he told his men he would not be able to combat against the strong Spanish army in possession of weapons that produced "thunder and lightning".

He chose to return to Bacatá and ordered the capital to be evacuated, resulting in an abandoned site when the Spanish arrived. In search for the Muisca ruler the conquistadores went north to find Tisquesusa in the surroundings of Facatativá where they attacked him at night. Tisquesusa was thrusted by the sword of one of De Quesada's soldiers but without knowing he was the zipa he let him go, after taking the expensive mantle of the ruler. Tisquesusa died of his wounds there, his body was only discovered a year because of the black vultures circling over it. At the death of Tisquesusa, his son Hama and daughter Machinza hid the sister of the zipa, Usaca, in one of the settlements on the Bogotá savanna; when one of the conquistadors, Juan María Cortés, found out about this, he prepared a battle to gain control over the area. At that moment, Usaca resisted against the Spanish conqueror. Legend tells that he dropped his weapons and fell in love with her marrying the sister of Tisquesusa and they were baptised in Usaquén, meaning "Land of the Sun" in Muysccubun.

This formed the start of the construction of a colonial village, today part of the capital and known for its colonial architecture and parks. Contrary to Muisca tradition, where the eldest son of the oldest sister of the previous ruler would become the next zipa, the reign was taken over by Tisquesusa's brother; this would be the last ruler of the southern Muisca, defeated in 1538 and died of Spanish torture in early 1539. In investigations in the 21st century about the existence of Tisquesusa, doubt has been cast on his name; the name Tisquesusa originates from the work Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias written by poet Juan de Castellanos decades after the events of the conquest. In his work he names Tisquesusa as the zipa, while other researchers, such as Jorge Gamboa Mendoza, maintain the name was "Bogotá". Scholars, such as Pedro Simón took the names from earlier sources without verifying them. Spanish conquest of the Muisca Muisca rulers, history of Bogotá Jiménez de Quesada, Gonzalo.

1576. Memoria de los descubridores, que entraron conmigo a descubrir y conquistar el Reino de Granada. Accessed 2016-07-08. De Castellanos, Juan. 1857. Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias, 1–567. Accessed 2016-07-08. Simón, Pedro. 1892. Noticias historiales de las conquistas de Tierra Firme en las Indias occidentales vol.1-5. Accessed 2016-07-08. Rodríguez Freyle and Darío Achury Valenzuela. 1979. El Carnero - Conquista i descubrimiento del nuevo reino de Granada de las Indias Occidentales del mar oceano, i fundacion de la ciudad de Santa Fe de Bogota, 1-598. Fundacion Biblioteca Ayacuch. Accessed 2016-11-21. Fernández de Piedrahita, Lucas. 1688. Historia general de las conquistas del Nuevo Reino de Granada. Accessed 2016-07-08. Caro Molina, Fernando. 1967. Epítome de la Conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada - Reseña, 116-130. Cervantes Institute. Accessed 2016-12-21. Friede, Juan. 1960. Descubrimiento del Nuevo Reino de Granada y Fundación de Bogotá, 1-342. Banco de la República. Accessed 2016-12-26. Millán de Benavides, Carmen.

2014. Epítome de la conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada. Universitas Humanística 48. 11-17. Accessed 2016-12-21. Millán de Benavides, Carmen. 2001. Epítome de la conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada la cosmografía española del siglo XVI y el conocimiento por cuestionario, 1-139. Centro Editorial Javeriano. Accessed 2016-12-21. Ramos Pérez, Demetrio. 1972. Ximénez de Quesada en su relación con los cronistas: y el Epítome de la conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada, 1-329. CSIC. Accessed

Nirmal Purja

Nirmal "Nims" Purja is a Nepalese mountaineer and former Gurkha and soldier of the Special Boat Service, an elite special forces unit of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy. He climbed all 14 of the world's peaks that are above 8,000-meters, in the record time of 6 months and 6 days, beating the previous record of just under 8 years. Nirmal Purja was born in the Myagdi district near Dhaulagiri, at 1600 m above sea level and grew up in Chitwan District, he joined the Brigade of Gurkhas in 2003 and the Special Boat Service in 2009 serving in the elite special forces as a cold-weather warfare specialist. He quit the military in 2018 as a Lance Corporal to focus on his mountaineering career, he made his first major climb in 2012, reaching the summit of Lobuche East without any previous experience as a mountaineer. On May 18, 2014 he made his first eight-thousander by conquering the Dhaulagiri during a return trip of 15 days only. On May 13, 2016 Purja conquered his second eighthousander. On May 15, 2017 Purja led the Gurkha Expedition "G200E" conquering Everest together with 13 Gurkhas to commemorate 200 years of Gurkha service to the British Army.

On June 9, 2018 he was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II for his outstanding work in high altitude mountaineering. With a plan to complete 14 summits in seven months, Purja made his first eight-thousander summit on April 23, 2019 and completed the first six-summit phase of his "Project Possible 14/7" on May 24, 2019: Annapurna, Kanchenjunga, Mount Everest and Makalu, he climbed with Sherpas Mingma “David” Sherpa, Zekson Son, Geljen Sherpa and Tensi Kasang, amongst other mountaineers. The last five summits were climbed in only 12 days, he broke his previous Guinness World Record by climbing Mount Everest and Makalu within 2 days and 30 minutes. Purja completed the second phase in July, 2019, climbing Nanga Parbat, Gasherbrum I, Gasherbrum II, K2 and Broad Peak, all in Pakistan; the third and last phase started in September 2019. He summitted Cho Oyu on September 23 and Manaslu on September 27. On October 1, 2019, Chinese authorities agreed to grant Purja and his team a special permit to scale Shishapangma in the fall season, at the request of the Nepali government.

Purja left Nepal for Tibet on October 18, 2019, leading a five-member expedition to climb the mountain and completed Project Possible 14/7 with a successful summit on October 29 using supplemental oxygen. Other than the fastest ascent with supplemental oxygen of the 14 tallest mountains in the world, Purja broke the following records: most 8000 m mountains in the Spring season, climbing six. "Project Possible 14/7" official webpage

Randall cattle

Randall Cattle are a critically endangered American Cattle breed. This cattle breed originated in Vermont. Randall cattle are a breed of purebred cattle developed in Sunderland, Vermont, USA, on the farm of Samuel Randall, his son, Everett Randall, they are among the rarest breed of cattle on earth. The Randall family kept a closed herd for over 80 years. Randalls are considered to be a landrace breed, descended from the local cattle common in New England in the nineteenth Century; the Randall cattle were bought after the death of Everett Randall by a couple in Massachusetts, who were not interested in keeping them, but wanting to make money off of them. Cynthia Creech living in Tennessee, to preserve the genetics from extinction stepped in to purchase most of the remaining animals including 5 cows, 4 heifers, 2 yearling bulls, a weanling bull, 2 other calves and a herd bull. Most of the cattle were in critical condition, two of the cows died while in Massachusetts, one broke her horn during the trip, many were covered in lice and blood.

But due to Cynthia's hard work they were turned into a wonderful herd of working cattle. Randall Cattle are an all-purpose breed, meaning they served as dairy and draft animals. From fewer than 20 animals the breed population has increased to over 350 breeding females. Randall cattle are quite variable in size and conformation and have a constitution, suited to the New England climate. Randalls on average are medium in size with the cows weighing about 600-1100 lbs. and bulls weighing from 1000 to 1800 lbs. or more. Randall cattle have a "Colour-sided" lineback pattern, black markings on a white base, varying from white to dark. Other subtle shades such as blue and gray have been observed, there are now a number of recessive reds. Randall meat characteristics can vary between different family lines, for example some produce a lean carcass with yellow fat and others produce a beefier well marbled carcass. Calving difficulties are rare, metabolic disorders have not been seen, they have strong maternal and survival instincts, high intelligence, are docile when handled regularly.

This breed is uniquely adapted to low input farming systems. The most suitable and natural environment for these cattle has been on small scale forage-based farms, subsistence farms, homesteads, it is on such farms and homesteads that the unique genetic attributes of the Randalls can be expressed.. Most Randall cattle are found in the Eastern United States and Canada. While breed numbers are improved, the breed remains critically endangered; the Randall Cattle Registry, Inc

Siege of Bastogne

The Siege of Bastogne was an engagement in December 1944 between American and German forces at the Belgian town of Bastogne, as part of the larger Battle of the Bulge. The goal of the German offensive was the harbor at Antwerp. In order to reach it before the Allies could regroup and bring their superior air power to bear, German mechanized forces had to seize the roadways through eastern Belgium; because all seven main roads in the densely wooded Ardennes highlands converged on Bastogne, just a few miles away from the border with neighboring Luxembourg, control of its crossroads was vital to the German attack. The siege was from 20 to 27 December, until the besieged American forces were relieved by elements of General George Patton's Third Army. After the successful invasion of Normandy and the subsequent eastward push through France, the Allied front lines extended from Nijmegen in the north down to neutral Switzerland in the south; the valuable port city of Antwerp had been captured during the push, by the time winter arrived, the Allies had control of German territory near the city of Aachen.

Adolf Hitler soon laid out a plan to attack the Allied lines in Luxembourg. Despite major misgivings from his senior commanders, including Gerd von Rundstedt and Walther Model, the plan was not modified and the jump-off date was set as 16 December 1944. Meanwhile, the Allied commanders considered the Ardennes area to be unsuitable for a large-scale German attack because of terrain issues. In addition, intelligence reports suggested that the only German divisions stationed in the area were weary, in the weeks leading up to the assault, no Allied commander saw reason to believe that an attack was imminent. Bastogne, a hub city that commanded several important roads in the area, was defended by the 28th Infantry Division, which had seen continuous fighting from 22 July to 19 November, before being assigned to this quiet area; the Allies believed only an infantry division was present opposite the 28th Infantry, they believed any attack along this sector would be limited in scale. The seven roads in and out of Bastogne were critical to the movement of German armor, making Allied retention of the roads imperative.

Hasso von Manteuffel—commanding the 5th Panzer Army—gave Heinrich Freiherr von Lüttwitz′s XLVII Panzer Corps the responsibility of capturing Bastogne, before crossing the Meuse near Namur. Lüttwitz planned to attack a 7 mi front with three divisions: the 26th Volksgrenadier and the 2nd Panzer would lead the assault, with the Panzer-Lehr-Division behind them. Opposing this significant force were two battalions of the 110th Infantry Regiment, responsible for a 9 mi front along the Our River which forms the border between Germany and neighboring Luxembourg; the Allied forces were gathered into small groups at major Luxembourgish villages, with outposts along the river manned only during the daytime. The forces were too thin to maintain an battle line, they focused their attention on the four roads that crossed the Our. Due to heavy rain preceding the German attack, only one of the roads was in good enough condition to be used as a crossing point—the northernmost road, which crossed the Our at Dasburg on its way to the Luxembourgish town of Clervaux and Bastogne.

The 2nd Panzer Division was assigned to cross the river along this road, while the 26th Volksgrenadier Division would construct a bridge near Gemünd for its crossing. Lüttwitz realized the importance of the road network of Bastogne—he knew that the town had to be captured before his corps could venture too far westward. Therefore, he ordered the Panzer-Lehr Division' to push forward to Bastogne as soon as his other troops had crossed the Clerf River in Northern Luxembourg. On the evening of 15 December, the 26th Volksgrenadier established an outpost line on the west bank of the Our, something they did during the nighttime. At 03:00, engineers began ferrying men and equipment over the river where they began assembling at the departure point, quite close to the American garrisons. At 05:30, the German artillery began bombarding the American positions, knocking out telephone lines, as the infantry started to advance; the Germans attacked swiftly, their advances made possible by sheer weight of numbers.

In the Luxembourgish village of Weiler, one American company, supported by some mortars and a platoon of anti-tank guns, lasted until nightfall against repeated attacks from multiple German battalions. German engineers completed bridges over the Our before dark, armor began moving to the front, adding to the Germans' vast numerical superiority, but in the end, the Germans were delayed by the American defenders—their plan to cross the Clerf River by nightfall on the first day was delayed by three days. On 19 December, the 28th Division command post transferred to Bastogne from Wiltz, a large Luxembourgish town to the southeast. At Wiltz, the division put up its last stand; the 44th Engineer Battalion was set up north of the town, but they were soon overwhelmed and retreated into the town, blowing up a bridge behind them. This small force—numbering no more than 500 in total—held out until the evening, when their position became untenable and they retreated to the west. With the 110th Infantry destroyed as an effective combat unit, it would be up to the rest of the Allied army to defend Bastogne.

Despite several notable signs in th

Hussards de la Mort

The Hussards de la Mort or Death Hussars were a French light cavalry company formed during the French Revolution. On June 12, 1792 a squadron was created by the French Assembly formed from 200 volunteers. In July, Kellermann organizes the company naming Hussards de la Mort - Death Hussars; these volunteers, coming from wealthy families, were provided with horses from the King's stables. On March 5, 1793 survivors of the squadron were merged into the 14th Cavalry Regiment by decree from the National Convention. On April 25, 1793 the squadron was dissolved. Mirliton: black Collar: black Dolman: black Pelisse: black Facing: black Braids: white Breeches: blackThe symbol of a skull and crossbones was placed on the mirliton, the sabretache and the shoulder sleeve; the uniform was inspired by the insignia of the Prussian hussars. After merging with the 14th Cavalry Regiment, they kept their uniform. Vaincre ou mourir, La liberté ou la mort ou Vivre libre ou mourir - Victory or death, Freedom or death, Live free or die Battle of Valmy Battle of Fleurus French cavalry regiments French hussar regiments Les Hussards français, Tome 1, De l'Ancien régime à l'Empire édition Histoire et collection Uniform of the Death Hussars Replicas of the uniform The Death Hussars