Piacenza Calcio 1919
Piacenza Calcio 1919 referred to as Piacenza, is an Italian football club based in Piacenza, Emilia-Romagna. The club plays in Serie C. Re-founded in 2012, Piacenza Calcio 1919 acquired the rights to use the brand of the original club Piacenza Calcio from Salva Piace. Piacenza Football Club was founded in 1919 with the first club president as Giovanni Dosi. Dosi was an ambitious manager, taking control of every social and administrative aspect of the club, with the sole focus at bringing the club into the national championship under the FIGC. After spending much of the club's early life in the regional leagues, they entered into Serie C for the 1935–36 season, coming close to gaining promotion into Serie B during 1938 but lost out to Fanfulla. After World War II, Piacenza competed in Serie B for the first time, competing there for two seasons before falling back down to Serie C in 1948; the club were punished for illicit sportsmanship in 1956 and were relegated to Serie D. This proved to be quite a heavy blow for the club as they would continue to yo-yo between Serie C and D until 1964.
Piacenza returned to Serie B in 1969, under coach Tino Molina and president Vincenzo Romagnoli. Piacenza's history until recent times was undistinguished, with brief spells in Serie B in the 1940s and further spells in 1969–70, 1975–76 and 1987–88 to 1988–89. Promotion in 1991 saw a rise in the side's fortunes under coach Gigi Cagni with the club promoted to Serie A for the first time in 1993, but was relegated in the next season, despite the presence of players such as midfielder Daniele Moretti, winger Francesco Turrini and forward Giampietro Piovani. For much of the season, Piacenza had battled into mid-table and were a few points short of a European place, but were relegated on the last day of the season in a tight scrap; the club wisely chose to retain Cagni and most of his squad, they would achieve promotion as Serie B champions in 1995. The following five years saw the club win many supporters with its all-Italian lineup and successful battles against relegation. In 1997 the club acquired legendary hard man defender Pietro Vierchowod.
Despite his advancing years, Vierchowod proved an outstanding purchase, more than holding his own in defence and scoring decisive goals in the relegation battle. Relegation in 2000 was followed by an instant return to Serie A for two years with outstanding form shown by players like midfielder Enzo Maresca; the club has since remained in Serie B without threatening to mount a promotion challenge. However following a poor 2010–11 Serie B season, Piacenza found themselves in a relegation playoff against Albinoleffe which they lost due to Albinoleffe's higher league position. On 22 March 2012 Piacenza Calcio in strong financial difficulty was declared bankrupt by the court of Piacenza. In this season it was ranked 15th and relegated from Lega Pro Prima Divisione to Lega Pro Seconda Divisione after play-out. On 19 June 2012 the club was declared bankrupt and the team was disbanded. Following the bankruptcy of Piacenza Football Club, regional amateur club A. C. D. LibertaSpes promoted in the season 2011–12 to Eccellenza Emilia–Romagna after winning Promozione Emilia–Romagna Group A, was renamed to Lupa Piacenza after the obtaining the brand for four years from an association "Salva Piace", in order to continue the football history of Piacenza Football Club.
LibertaSpes known as A. C. D. Pontolliese Libertas 1907 until 2010, was a merger of U. S. Pontolliese, based in Ponte dell'Olio and A. C. Libertas, based in Piacenza. However, in 2010, G. S. D. BettolaSpes was renamed to A. S. D. BettolaPonte, while "Pontolliese Libertas" was renamed to LibertaSpes as part of the demerger of Pontolliese, which Pontolliese "merged" with Bettola instead. BettolaPonte is one of the predecessors of major city rival A. S. Pro Piacenza 1919. In mid-2013 Lupa Piacenza was renamed Piacenza Calcio 1919. At the same time, LibertaSpes was re-founded, but under the name Associazione Calcistica Dilettantistica LibertaSpes, which did not use the usual Associazione Calcio Dilettantistica in the denomination. In 2013–14 Serie D season Piacenza Calcio was placed in the group B along with city rival Pro Piacenza 1919. In the 2015-16 Serie D season, the club secured promotion to Lega Pro by winning the Group B title with 96 points and 30 wins over the course of the season, beating second placed Lecco by 16 points.
Piacenza Calcio 1919 and Piacenza Calcio play their home matches at the 21,668 capacity, Stadio Leonardo Garilli, located in the city of Piacenza. The youth sector of the club was based in Steel Acciai Sport Center – Centro Sportivo "F. Gaudino" on "via Enrico Millo", Piacenza; the facility was named after the former chairman of LibertaSpes, Fabio Gaudino, as LibertaSpes, one of the predecessors of the current club Piacenza Calcio 1919 used the facility. The 2013 re-founded LibertaSpes was based in nearby Campo "G. Calamari", used by Pontolliese Libertas in the past; as of 31 January 2019Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. See Category:Piacenza Calcio 1919 managers. Anglo-Italian Cup Winners: 1986Serie B Champions: 1994/95 Runners-up: 2000/01 Promoted: 1992/93Serie C Champions: 1986/87, 1990/91 Runners-up: 1936/37, 1937/38 Serie D Champions: 1963–64, 2015/16Seconda Divisione Promoted: 1927/28 Group runners-up: 1922/23, 1924/25Emilian Championship: Champions: 1919/20 Finished equal first position but lost play-off game to A.
C. Fanfulla 18
Venezia Football Club referred to as Venezia, is an Italian football club based in Venice, that plays in Serie B. Founded by a merger in 1907, Venezia have spent a large part of their history in Serie A and Serie B, the top two divisions in Italy. Venezia won the Coppa Italia in 1941. Venezia's current home stadium, the Pierluigi Penzo, is the second-oldest stadium in Italy, it is a multi-use stadium in Italy. It is the largest sports facility in Venice; the stadium takes its name from World War I pilot Pierluigi Penzo. Constructed from wood, the stadium was upgraded with a concrete main stand in the 1920s and further improvements were made in the decades that followed; the record attendance of 26,000 was for a 1966 Serie A match against A. C. Milan. On September 11, 1970 a tornado caused extensive damage to the stadium. Due to the club's decline the stadium was only reinstated, the capacity was reduced to just over 5,000; the club rose back up to Serie A in 1998 and additional makeshift stands were added, bringing capacity back up to 13,400, but it has since been reduced again to the current capacity of 7,450.
The stadium is notable as it is accessible by boat. The club was founded as Venezia Foot Ball Club on 14 December 1907, by members of two local sports clubs coming together, it was based at Campo San Bartolomeo in the city of Venice. Fifteen men including the first president Davide Fano were involved in the club's founding. In 1919, the name was translated into Italian as Associazione Calcio Venezia; the most notable trophy success in Venezia's history is winning the Coppa Italia during the 1940–41 season. The Cup-winning Venezia team included some of the players who went on to form the Torino F. C. side of the 1940s who died in the Superga air disaster in 1949, such as Ezio Loik and Valentino Mazzola. In 1941–42, Venezia earned its highest Serie A position, finishing in third place in the league. In the summer 1990, the club was renamed Associazione Calcio Venezia 1907. Venezia has spent the majority of its history in Serie B, Italy's two top divisions; the club was last relegated from Serie A in 2002.
This last season in Serie A began a period of decline for the club. Frustrated with the team and the inability to agree on plans for a larger stadium with the local council president Maurizio Zamparini decided to purchase U. S. Città di Palermo, he took with him a large portion of the squad. Notable recent former players include Filippo Maniero and Christian Vieri. In 2002 the club was declared insolvent because of bankruptcy. In the summer 2005 the club was refounded as Società Sportiva Calcio Venezia and was admitted in Serie C2 due to Lodo Petrucci. At the end of the 2008–09 Lega Pro Prima Divisione season, the club was declared bankrupt. After the club's second bankruptcy, the club was re-founded as Foot Ball Club Unione Venezia, was admitted to Serie D – the top level non-professional league in Italian football. In 2011–12, Venezia won the Scudetto Dilettanti; the club was promoted to Lega Pro Prima Divisione in the 2013-14 season. They finished the 2013-14 season at 10th position, just short of one position to reach the promotion playoffs to Serie B.
After the club's third bankruptcy, the club was re-founded as Venezia F. C. was admitted to Serie D for the 2015 -- 16 season. In October 2015, New York lawyer Joe Tacopina and a group of American investors announced the purchase of Venezia. Tacopina was the President of Bologna and is the former Vice President and minority investor in A. S. Roma. In Tacopina's first season, Venezia earned promotion to Lega Pro. On 7 June 2016, Filippo Inzaghi was hired as the new coach of club. On 19 April 2017, Venezia managed to beat Parma to top spot in Lega Pro and gaining a promotion to Serie B; the team finished 5th in points, lost the promotion semifinals to Palermo. As of 31 January 2019Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Venezia's colours were blue and red and the shirt features halves in those colours, the kit was similar to that of Genoa.
However just a year after the club founded, it changed colours to black and green in 1908. Much in 1987 when the club merged with a local side Associazione Calcio Mestre from Mestre who wore orange and black, orange would become one of Venezia's official colours, giving them the nickname arancioneroverdi. Venezia's colours and kit are distinctive; the symbol of the Venetian club is a winged-lion mistaken for a griffin. The golden winged-lion is the official symbol; as the club has been renamed numerous times during its history, the badge has changed several times. As the city of Venice is situated on the Venetian Lagoon, the club is nicknamed lagunari. Udinese Calcio FBC Treviso Calcio Padova Vicenza Calcio Coppa Italia: Winners: 1940–41Serie B: Champions: 1960–61.
San Marino the Republic of San Marino known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino, is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains. Its size is just over 61 km2, with a population of 33,562, its capital is the City of San Marino and its largest settlement is Dogana in the municipality of Serravalle. San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe. With Italian being the official language, along with strong financial and ethno-cultural connections, San Marino maintains close ties to its much larger neighbour; the country derives its name from Saint Marinus, a stonemason originating from the Roman colony on the island of Rab, in modern-day Croatia. In AD 257, according to legend, participated in the reconstruction of Rimini's city walls after their destruction by Liburnian pirates. Marinus went on to found an independent monastic community on Monte Titano in AD 301. San Marino is governed by the Constitution of San Marino, a series of six books written in Latin in the late 16th century, that dictate the country's political system, among other matters.
The country is considered to have the earliest written governing documents, or constitution, still in effect. The country's economy relies on finance, industry and tourism, it is among one of the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP, with a figure comparable to the most developed European regions. San Marino is considered to have a stable economy, with one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe, no national debt and a budget surplus, has the world's highest rate of car ownership, being the only country with more vehicles than people. San Marino is one of the only three countries in the world to be surrounded by a single other country, it is the third smallest country in Europe, with only Vatican Monaco being smaller. It is the fifth smallest country in the world. Saint Marinus left the island of Rab in present-day Croatia with his lifelong friend Leo, went to the city of Rimini as a stonemason. After the Diocletianic Persecution following his Christian sermons, he escaped to the nearby Monte Titano, where he built a small church and thus founded what is now the city and state of San Marino, sometimes still called the "Titanic Republic".
The official date of the founding of what is now known as the Republic is 3 September 301. In 1320 the community of Chiesanuova chose to join the country. In 1463 San Marino was extended with the communities of Faetano, Fiorentino and Serravalle, after which the country's border have remained unchanged. In 1631, its independence was recognized by the Papacy; the advance of Napoleon's army in 1797 presented a brief threat to the independence of San Marino, but the country was saved from losing its liberty thanks to one of its Regents, Antonio Onofri, who managed to gain the respect and friendship of Napoleon. Thanks to his intervention, Napoleon, in a letter delivered to Gaspard Monge and commissary of the French Government for Science and Art, promised to guarantee and protect the independence of the Republic offering to extend its territory according to its needs; the offer was declined by the Regents. During the phase of the Italian unification process in the 19th century, San Marino served as a refuge for many people persecuted because of their support for unification.
In recognition of this support, Giuseppe Garibaldi accepted the wish of San Marino not to be incorporated into the new Italian state. The government of San Marino made United States President Abraham Lincoln an honorary citizen, he wrote in reply, saying that the republic proved that "government founded on republican principles is capable of being so administered as to be secure and enduring."During World War I, when Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on 23 May 1915, San Marino remained neutral and Italy adopted a hostile view of Sammarinese neutrality, suspecting that San Marino could harbour Austrian spies who could be given access to its new radiotelegraph station. Italy tried to forcibly establish a detachment of Carabinieri in the republic and cut the republic's telephone lines when it did not comply. Two groups of ten volunteers joined Italian forces in the fighting on the Italian front, the first as combatants and the second as a medical corps operating a Red Cross field hospital.
The existence of this hospital caused Austria-Hungary to suspend diplomatic relations with San Marino. Following the conclusion of World War I, San Marino suffered from high rates of unemployment and inflation, leading to increased tensions between the lower and middle classes; the latter, fearing that the moderate government of San Marino would make concessions to the lower class majority, began to show support for the Sammarinese Fascist Party, founded in 1922 and styled off their Italian counterpart. PFS rule lasted from 1923 to 1943, during this time, they sought support from Benito Mussolini's fascist government in Italy. During World War II, San Marino remained neutral, although it was wrongly reported in an article from The New York Times that it had declared war on the United Kingdom on 17 September 19
S. P. A. L. An acronym for Società Polisportiva Ars et Labor, is a professional Italian football club, based in Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna; the team plays in the highest level of the Italian football league system. Founded in 1907, since 1928 they have played their home matches at Stadio Paolo Mazza, named after Paolo Mazza. In total, SPAL have participated in 23 top-tier, 26 second-tier, 41 third-tier, 7 fourth-tier and 1 fifth-tier league seasons; the club's best finish was when they came fifth in the 1959–60 Serie A. The club is owned by Vetroresina S.p. A. and chaired by Walter Mattioli. The current manager is Leonardo Semplici; the club was founded in March 1907 as Circolo Labor by the Salesian priest Pietro Acerbis. In the early stages, it was a cultural and religious association in 1913 it became a multi-sports company, taking the name of Società Polisportiva Ars et Labor; the team began its professional activity under the aegis of the Italian Football Federation in 1919, competing in the second-tier tournament.
SPAL played in the top flight league from 1920 to 1925, reaching the qualification playoff for the National Finals in 1921–22. From 1925 until the Second World War, they played in Serie B and Serie C: in this period, the club's all-time top striker Mario Romani scored 130 goals in 189 games during two different periods with the white-blues. Between 1939 and 1943 the club temporarily changed its name to A. C. Ferrara, wearing the black and white colours of the city. After the suspension of the championships due to war, in 1945 the club returned to the name SPAL and to the light blue and white kits. In 1946 Paolo Mazza became chairman of the club. After five consecutive seasons in Serie B, SPAL won promotion to Serie A after finishing the championship first in 1950–51; the white-blues subsequently stayed in the top division for most of the 1950s and 1960s, competing in 16 out of 17 Serie A seasons from 1951 to 1968. SPAL finished fifth in 1959–60, thus obtaining the best finish in its history. In 1961–62 they played in the Coppa Italia final, losing against Napoli.
In the early stages of 1962–63 season, in which the club finished in eighth place, the white and blues managed to reach the top of the league table. During those years, the club was a launchpad for many young players who became stars, among them Fabio Capello. In 1963–64 they were relegated to Serie B, but they came back to Serie A after only one year, remained in the top division until 1968. At the end of the last season in the top flight, SPAL won the Cup of Italian-Swiss Friendship. During 1970s, 1980s and 1990s SPAL played in Serie B and Serie C/C1. Paolo Mazza was replaced by Primo Mazzanti; the former chairman died in December 1981 and three months Ferrara's Stadio Comunale was named after him. In 1990, Giovanni Donigaglia became chairman of the club: between 1990 and 1992 SPAL obtained back-to-back promotions from Serie C2 to Serie B, under the management of Giovan Battista Fabbri. Donigaglia left the presidency in 2002 with the squad in Serie C1, he was replaced by Lino di Nardo. The club went bankrupt in 2005, were reformed as SPAL 1907 S.r.l. under the terms of Article 52 of N.
O. I. F.. In the summer of 2012, after suffering a second bankruptcy, the club was refounded for the second time as Società Sportiva Dilettantistica Real SPAL and would begin life in Serie D again under Article 52 of N. O. I. F.. At the end of the 2012–13 season the club took back its original denomination. Giacomense, a club founded in 1967 at Masi San Giacomo, a frazione of Masi Torello, had moved to the city of Ferrara; the club changed its name to S. P. A. L. 2013, in order to continue the football history of SPAL. They finished the 2013–14 Lega Pro Seconda Divisione season in sixth place, thus qualifying for the inaugural unified 2014–15 Lega Pro season. In 2015–16, the squad won promotion to Serie B for the first time since the 1992–93 season, after finishing first in group B of the Lega Pro; the following year they came first in Serie B, thus obtaining promotion to Serie A after a 49-year absence. The team's colours are light white, which derive from the Salesians' emblem; the home kit, since 1962, has been composed of a vertical striped light blue-white shirt, white trainers and white socks.
The only exception to light blue and white was when the club adopted a black and white kit between 1939 and 1943, in honour of Ferrara's civic colours. The badge features an oval-shaped light blue escutcheon, with a white band in the upper section, on, written the acronym S. P. A. L. in golden characters. In the lower section, the black and white emblem of the city is featured. From 1980 until mid-1990s the official badge featured another symbol of the club. SPAL's most common nicknames are Estensi. Campo di Piazza d'Armi Stadio Paolo Mazza The current home ground of SPAL is the 16,134 seater Stadio Paolo Mazza; the stadium was opened in September 1928 as Stadio Comunale took on its current name in February 1982, in honour of the former president of the club Paolo Mazza, who died two months earlier. It had a capacity of 4,000. In concomitance with the promotion of SPAL to Serie A
U.S. Triestina Calcio 1918
Unione Sportiva Triestina Calcio 1918 referred to as Triestina, is an Italian football club based in Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Founded in 1918, the club folded and was re-established several times in its history; as of the 2017 -- 18 season, it plays in Italian third level. The club was founded in 1918 as merger of local teams Foot-Ball Club Trieste; the club reached Seconda Divisione in 1924. The club successively featured in the first-ever Serie A season in 1929, played consecutively to the Italian top flight until 1956. During those successful times, the team featured the likes of local Trieste native Nereo Rocco, who played as winger for Triestina from 1930 to 1937, becoming the first player from the team to become part of the Azzurri squad. Successively, Rocco returned to Triestina as a head coach in 1947, completed the 1947–48 as Serie A runners-up, only behind Torino. Rocco left in 1950 to be replaced by Hungarian Béla Guttman, who managed to save the club from relegation only in the final matchday.
Another struggling season followed in 1951–52, with Triestina escaping relegation only after winning playoffs against Lucchese and Brescia. During the 1952–53 season, Cesare Maldini made his Serie A debut as a Triestina jersey. In 1953 Rocco was sacked after 21 matchdays due to poor results. Three more mid-table seasons followed before Triestina suffered its first relegation in 1957. Successively, Triestina returned to Serie A in 1958, but were relegated in their first comeback season, their last top flight campaign to date; the club were successively relegated to Serie C in 1961 once, in 1965 twice, Serie D in 1971, forcing the alabardati to a local derby with Ponziana in 1975, quite unknown to local people in modern times. The club returned to Serie C in 1976, was admitted to Serie C1 in 1978, returned to Serie B in 1983, missing promotion to the top flight for a few seasons before being relegated in 1988. Triestina played in second level between 1962–1965 and 1989–1991. In 1994, the team was forced to fold, because of financial insolvency, was re-founded by Giorgio Del Sabato.
The team restarted as U. S. Triestina Calcio from Serie was readmitted to Serie C2 by the federation one year later. In 2001, after six seasons in Serie C2, the club won promotion to Serie C1 after playoffs. In the 2005–06 season, Triestina changed its manager five times; the list include the tandem Alessandro Calori-Adriano Buffoni, Pietro Vierchowod, caretaker Francesco De Falco, youth team coach Vittorio Russo and Andrea Agostinelli. In addition, Triestina's owner Flaviano Tonellotto was forced to resign on 1 February 2006 by the magistrates because of a pending court procedure for bankruptcy, his wife Jeannine Koevoets was named to replace him at the helm of the club. However, Tonellotto was successively ordered to leave the association because of financial troubles; the magistrates named Francesco De Falco as caretaker chairman with the idea of finding somebody interested to buy the club. Curiously, in the 2005–06 De Falco, a player for Triestina in the 80's, covered three different roles in the club: director of football and chairman.
In April 2006 the team was purchased by owners of a wine company in the region. In recent years, Triestina struggled to mount a promotion campaign to end half-century absence from the Italian top flight. Triestina finished 8th in 2008–2009 season; however failed to remain in Serie B in the 2009–10 season, with a crashing 3–0 defeat to Padova at the play-outs, was relegated to Lega Pro Prima Divisione after 8 years of endeavour in the second tier of Italian football, only to be readmitted to Serie B after Ancona filed for bankruptcy. On May 21, 2011, in the season 2010–11, after a disastrous campaign, Triestina was relegated from Serie B to Lega Pro Prima Divisione, having returned there in 2002 after 11 seasons in Serie C and Serie D. On January 25, 2012 the club in strong financial difficulty, has been declared bankrupt by the court of Trieste. In the season 2011–12 Triestina was relegated from Lega Pro Prima Divisione group B to Lega Pro Seconda Divisione. On 19 June 2012 the club was declared bankrupt and the team was disbanded.
Stefano Mario Fantinel, former chairman of the club, was suspended from football activities for 5 years after the prosecutor found accounting irregularities of the club. In July, three more months were added due to player transfer irregularities. Fantinel was suspended for 3 months in 2006–07 Serie B causing the club 1 point, for irregularities on preparing quarterly management report on 30 March 2006. On 31 July 2012 was founded the new company Unione Triestina 2012 S. S. D. a. r.l. that restarted from Eccellenza thanks to Article 52 of N. O. I. F.. The sports title was transferred to another "limited company in amateur sport" U. S. Triestina Calcio 1918 s.s.d. a. r.l. in 2016. After the promotion to Serie C on 4 August 2017, the company dropped the legal suffix "amateur sport" from the name; the team's colours are white. Serie A: 1929–1957, 1958–1959 Serie B 1957–1958, 1959–1961, 1962–1965, 1983–1988, 1989–1991, 2002–2011 Serie C/Serie C1/L. Pro I Div.: 1961–1962, 1965–1971, 1972–1974, 1976–1983, 1991–1994, 2001–2002, 2011–2012, 2017– Serie D/C2: 1971–1972, 1974–1976, 1995–2001, 2014–2017 Serie D: 1994–1995, 2013–2014 Eccellenza (as sixth
Bologna F.C. 1909
Bologna Football Club 1909 referred to as Bologna, is an Italian football club based in Bologna, Emilia-Romagna. The club are nicknamed the Rossoblu due to the red-and-blue striped shirts which they wear, which are the official colours of the city. Bologna were founding members of Serie A in 1929. During its history, the club has won the Italian league championship seven times, making them the sixth most successful team in the history of the league, they have participated in 72 Serie A championships out of 87 ninth in the ranking of the highest number of appearances of the formations in the highest Italian category. Bologna plays in Serie A, the highest level of the Italian football pyramid, for the fourth consecutive year. Since 1927 the team has been competing in its internal competitions in the Stadio Renato Dall'Ara, born as Stadio del Littoriale and called, from the postwar period until 1983, Stadio Comunale; the stadium can host more than 38,000 spectators. Bologna Football Club's formation was orchestrated by Emilio Arnstein, an Austrian who became interested in football at university in Vienna and Prague.
He and his brother had founded another football club, Black Star, in Austria. The club was founded on 3 October 1909, in the Northern Italian city of Bologna. Upon its formation, Carlo Sandoni was the clubs sponsor and general manager, Swiss Louis Rauch became president, nobleman Guido Della Valle was the vice-president, Enrico Penaglia secretary, Sergio Lampronti cashier, while Emilio Arnstein and Leone Vincenzi were appointed councilmen. On 20 March 1910, Bologna played their first game, against Virtus, who wore white shirts. Bologna outclassed their opponents, winning 9–1; the first football squad featured. Their formative season was spent in the regional league under Arrigo Gradi as captain, Bologna won their league gaining promotion to a league named Group Veneto-Emiliano, they spent four seasons in this league. Bologna were entered into the Northern League before all football leagues were postponed for World War I. After the first war, Bologna began to become more successful. First reaching the semi-finals of the Northern Italian competition in 1919–20, they went one better the following season by reaching the Northern League finals, going out 2–1 to Pro Vercelli.
They would equal this again in coming runner up to eventual national champions Genoa. Bologna became Northern and National League champions for the first time during 1924–25, beating Genoa CFC after five hard-fought final matches to take the championship; the finals against the Ligurian giants were marred by heavy crowd troubles. A few seasons Bologna became champions of Italy for the second time in 1928–29 giving them a foothold in Italian football, building up a legacy, this was the last time the league was competed in the old system, Serie A was instated the following year; the Scudetto was won by Bologna four more times before World War II, these were achieved in. After World War II, the club was less successful. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the club floated between fourth and sixth position in the league, until they took the league title back in 1963–64. To date this remains their last Serie A championship; this qualified Bologna to the 1964–65 European Cup, but they were eliminated in the preliminary round against Anderlecht.
It was not all gloom for the club, however. The game was tense and finished 1–1 before going to a penalty shootout, where Bologna won 4–3. Beginning in the 1981–82 season, the club began to slide. First, they were relegated from Serie A after battling it out for survival with Genoa, they were relegated twice in succession and slid into Serie C1. They won their way out of C1 the next year, returned to Serie A for the 1988–89 season after four years of fighting it out in Serie B, they did not remain long, being relegated in 1991 and returning to Serie C1 in 1993. The club returned to Serie A for 1996. Two years Bologna tasted a slice of success on the European stage, winning the UEFA Intertoto Cup and playing in the UEFA Cup; the club remained in Serie A until the 2004 -- 05 campaign. Despite losing some key players, Bologna expected to be challenging for promotion from Serie B in the 2005–06 campaign. Despite its ambition, Bologna had a poor start to the season, causing the sacking of experienced coach Renzo Ulivieri, replaced by former Internazionale defender Andrea Mandorlini.
During this time, the team was sold by Giuseppe Gazzoni Frascara to Alfredo Cazzola, a local entrepreneur. Mandorlini, was not either able to bring Bologna up the Serie B table, was fired on 5 March 2006. Bologna ended the 2005–06 Serie B campaign in eighth place. In the 2006–07 season, Bologna ended with the seventh place: there were several clashes between chairman Cazzola and head coach Ulivieri, fired on 14 April 2007 and replaced by caretaker and former assistant coach Luca Cecconi. For the 2007–08 season, Bologna was led by Daniele Arrigoni, who helped the rossoblù achieve automatic promotion back to the top flight after finishing second in Serie B. During the summer of 2008, a club takeover was agreed between Cazzola and an American-based consortium.
A single-elimination, knockout, or sudden death tournament is a type of elimination tournament where the loser of each match-up is eliminated from the tournament. Each winner will play another in the next round, until the final match-up, whose winner becomes the tournament champion; each match-up may be a single match or several, for example two-legged ties in European football or best-of series in American pro sports. Defeated competitors may play no further part after losing, or may participate in "consolation" or "classification" matches against other losers to determine the lower final rankings. In a shootout poker tournament, there are more than two players competing at each table, sometimes more than one progressing to the next round; some competitions are held with a pure single-elimination tournament system. Others have many phases, with the last being a single-elimination final stage called playoffs. In English, the round in which only eight competitors remain is called the quarter-final round.
The round before the quarterfinals has multiple designations. It's called the round of sixteen, last sixteen, or pre quarter-finals. In many other languages the term used to describe these eight matches translates to eighth-final, though this term is rare in English itself. Earlier rounds are numbered counting forwards from the first round, or by the number of remaining competitors. If some competitors get a bye, the round at which they enter may be named the first round, with the earlier matches called a preliminary round, qualifying round, or the play-in games". Examples of the diverse names given to concurrent rounds in various select disciplines: Notes: The final three rounds of the 2014 Australian Open – Women's Singles knock-out tournament: When matches are held to determine places or prizes lower than first and second, these include a match between the losers of the semifinal matches called third place playoffs, the winner therein placing third and the loser fourth. Many Olympic single-elimination tournaments feature the bronze medal match if they do not award bronze medals to both losing semifinalists.
The FIFA World Cup has long featured the third place match, though the UEFA Euro has not held one since the 1980 edition. Sometimes, contests are held among the losers of the quarterfinal matches to determine fifth to eighth places – this is most encountered in the Olympic Games, with the exception of boxing, where both fighters are deemed to be third place. In one scenario, two "consolation semifinal" matches may be conducted, with the winners of these facing off to determine fifth and sixth places and the losers playing for seventh and eighth; the number of distinct ways of arranging a single-elimination tournament is given by the Wedderburn–Etherington numbers. Thus, for instance, there are three different arrangements for five players: The players may be divided into brackets of two and three players, the winners of which meet in the final game The bottom four players may play a two-round tournament, the winner of which plays the top player The bottom two players may meet, after which each subsequent game pairs the winner of the previous game with the next playerHowever, the number of arrangements grows for larger numbers of players and not all of them are used.
Opponents may be allocated randomly. Brackets are set up so that the top two seeds could not meet until the final round, none of the top four can meet prior to the semifinals, so on. If no seeding is used, the tournament is called a random knockout tournament. One version of seeding is where brackets are set up so that the quarterfinal pairings would be the 1 seed vs. the 8 seed, 2 vs. 7, 3 vs. 6 and 4 vs. 5. This may result in some brackets consisting of stronger players than other brackets, since only the top 32 players are seeded at all in Tennis Grand Slam tournaments, it is conceivable that the 33rd-best player in a 128-player field could end up playing the top seed in the first round. A good example of this occurring was when World No. 33 Florian Mayer was drawn against then-World No. 1 Novak Djokovic in the first round of the 2013 Wimbledon Championships, in what was a rematch of a quarterfinal from the previous year. While this may seem unfair to a casual observer, it should be pointed out that rankings of tennis players are generated by computers, players tend to change ranking positions gradually, so that a more equitable method of determining the pairings might result in many of the same head-to-head matchups