S.S.D. Unione Sanremo
Società Sportiva Dilettantistica Unione Sanremo referred to as Unione Sanremo or Sanremese is an Italian association football club, based in Sanremo, Liguria. The historical U. S. Sanremese Calcio 1904 after the 16th place in the 2010–11 season in Lega Pro Seconda Divisione group A was liquidated. On the summer 2012 the club was refounded with the current name restarting from Terza Categoria Savona/Imperia, it plays in Serie D. The club was founded in 1904 as U. S. Sanremese 1904, but the football team was founded only in 1911; the US Sanremese Calcio 1904 was born by the merger of the first two local teams: the Ausonia and the Speranza. The team played three seasons in Serie B from 1937–38 to 1939–40 when they were relegated in Serie C. In the 1937–38 season gets the 9th place in Serie B, the best result in club history. It's the only Italian team to have played in every championship of Serie C in a sole national division from 1952–53 to 1957–58; the team from 1977–78 to 1978–79 came from Serie D to Serie C1.
The club played seven consecutive seasons in Serie C1 from 1979–80, when it achieved an historic 4th place, to 1985–86 when they retreated in Serie C2 and the next year in Serie D. In the season 1980–81 it played the Anglo-Italian Cup, called in this year Talbot Challenge Cup; the team won 3–1 with Hungerford Town and 2–1 with Bridgend Town, draw 2–2 with Oxford City and lost 1–0 with Poole Town. It ranked third in the group with 7 points, dominated by Modena won the competition. In the summer of 1987 the company fell after 83 years of existence because of the large debts; the club was refounded in 1987 allocating by the Terza Categoria as Sanremese Football Club 1904 On 1992 with the merger with Sanremo 80, it filming the historic name of U. S. Sanremese Calcio 1904. In the league 1991–92 and 1995–96 the club won the regional Eccellenza Liguria gaining promotion to Serie D and the 1995–96 Regional Coppa Italia Liguria:. In the season 1997 -- 98 lost in the final scudetto with the Giugliano; the team played two seasons in Serie C2 from 1998–99 to 1999–2000 when it retreated to Serie D.
The club played four seasons in Serie D from 2000–01 to 2001–04 when was admitted to Serie C2. The team played three seasons in Serie C2 from 2004–05 to 2006–07 when it retreated to Serie D. On the season 2005–06 lost the final Coppa Italia Serie C with the Gallipoli lose away 1–0 and at home wins 2–1. From November 2007, most of the players leave the team, become in the meantime USD Sanremese 1904, in strong crisis of liquidity, for non-payment of wages, thus leading to relegation from the Serie D. On 10 July 2008 the club was declared inactive to the FIGC after being refused entry to the League of Eccellenza, because of the large debts. In summer 2008, the last president Carlo Barillà refounded the team with the same name of U. S. D. Sanremese 1904, that played in the season 2008–09 in Seconda Categoria. On 4 August 2009 the Ospedaletti-Sanremo, just promoted from the Promozione Ligure girone A, after the agreement with Carlo Barillà for the cessation of the homonymous team that he was founded, changes name in U.
S. D. Sanremese Calcio 1904: so the company's family Del Gratta has been the only legitimate heir of the old society. In the league 2009–10, coached by Giancarlo "Carlo" Calabria Sanremese wins the regional Eccellenza Liguria gaining promotion in Serie D. and the Regional Coppa Italia Liguria:. It eliminated in the Coppa Italia Dilettanti 2009-2010 from Bolzano, in the quarter-finals losing for 1–2 at home and equalizing 0–0 away. On 4 August 2010 became U. S. Sanremese Calcio 1904 the team obtained the admission into Lega Pro Seconda Divisione group A for the 2010-11 season; the club survived relegation on the pitch after a 3-2 aggregate win over Sacilese Calcio in the playoff round. After the arrest, of 15 March 2011, of Marco and his father Riccardo Del Gratta President and Director General, the company was temporarily administered by Giancarlo Lupi, a brother-in-law of the President Marco Del Gratta, they are accused of being the beneficiaries of the alleged threats and extortions to players of Sanremese, so that the latter rescind the onerous contracts signed in the summer.
Since 16 March 2011, after the resignations of the owners Marco and Riccardo Del Gratta, the new CEO was Giuseppe Fava, responsible for the youth sector. On 30 June 2011, the club wasn't able to enter 2011–12 Lega Pro Seconda Divisione for failure to submit the required surety agreement and was so subsequently liquidated. After a year of inactivity, in the summer 2012 the club was refounded as A. S. D. Sanremese by the entrepreneur Luca Colangelo and president, restarting from Terza Categoria Savona/Imperia. In the summer 2013 the club placed, its home stadium has been the Campo Sportivo Pian di Poma in Sanremo. The club on 6 October 2013, after a disastrous start on the group AB of Seconda Categoria Liguria sacked Mattia Moraglia, the coach of last season, replaced until the resignations of 21 October by Marco Pinto and after by Fabrizio Gatti; the club was promoted to Prima Categoria after the play off round. Since the summer 2014 the new President is Alessio Graglia and the coach is Andrea Caverzan.
The team plays in group A of Prima Categoria Liguria. Its home stadium is the Stadio Comunale in Sanremo; the U. S. Sanremese Calcio 1904 has played 60 national leagues: 3 times in Serie B: the first on 1937–38, the last on 1939–40 38 times in Lega Pro: the first on 1934–35, the last on 2010–11 19 times in Serie D: the first on 1963–64, the last on 2007–08; the team's colors are light blue and white, the second shirt is red. The A. S. D. Sanremese such as the historic U. S. Sanremese Calcio 1904 played at the Stadio Comunale of Sanremo, site in Corso Mazzini 15
A.S. Livorno Calcio
Associazione Sportiva Livorno Calcio referred to as Livorno, is an Italian football club based in Livorno, Tuscany. The club was formed in 1915 and plays in Serie B; the team's colours are dark maroon. The best placement in Italian Serie A was second place in 1942–43 season, during which the amaranto gave life to a head-to-head competition with Torino. Livorno Calcio play. Founded February 15, 1915 as US Livorno, the club ended the Italian Football Championship 1919–20 in second place, losing the final to Internazionale. One year they were defeated in the semi-final by arch-rivals Pisa. In 1933, the club moved to the current stadium named after Edda Ciano Mussolini, daughter of fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Livorno was one of original Serie A teams, she played in top level during periods of 1929–31, 1933–35 and 1937–39. Successively, Livorno ended as Serie A runners-up in the 1942–43 season. Livorno left Serie A in 1949 after seven consecutive seasons, they relegated to Serie C soon after, making a return to Serie B in 1955 for a single season and again from 1964 to 1972.
They relegated to Serie C2 in 1982–83 and played again in third level between 1984 and 1989. The club was cancelled in 1991, being forced to start from Eccellenza; the club was acquired by Aldo Spinelli two years later. Under the new property, Livorno returned to Serie B in 2001. Livorno were promoted to Serie A after finishing third in the Serie B 2003–04, one of six clubs to be promoted that season, it had been 55 years since Livorno's last season in the top flight, as a result of this, most were predicting an instant return to Serie B for the club. The first match in the major league was attended by Italian President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, a Livorno's citizen and team supporter in his childhood. There were spells of struggle during the season, but there were many more good performances shown, Livorno finished a surprise and creditable ninth place in the league for the Serie A 2004–05 thanks to goals by striker Cristiano Lucarelli, who won the Serie A top scorer award that season, outscoring the likes of Andriy Shevchenko and Adriano.
The Serie A 2005–06 saw Livorno in sixth place after the first half of the season the team, being involved for qualification to the next UEFA Cup. However, shortly after Roberto Donadoni announced his resignations after having been criticised by club's chairman Aldo Spinelli. Donadoni was replaced by veteran coach Carlo Mazzone, only able to save a UEFA Cup place due to the expulsion of three teams from Europe in the 2006 Serie A match fixing scandal. Mazzone saw his team suffer a run of seven straight defeats. In May 2006, Daniele Arrigoni was appointed new coach for the next season. In the Serie A 2006–07 season, Livorno took part to the UEFA Cup for their first time ever; the Tuscan side were drawn to face Austrian team SV Pasching in the first round, beating them comfortably 3–0 on aggregate. They thus qualified for the group stages being drawn in Group A, along with Rangers, Auxerre, FK Partizan, Maccabi Haifa. After a home loss to Rangers and two 1–1 draws against Partizan in Belgrade and Maccabi, the Tuscan side gained a 1–0 victory over Auxerre in the last game played in France, thus earning a spot in the Round of 32 of the competition.
However, Spanish team Espanyol knocked out Livorno from the UEFA Cup by winning 4–1 on aggregate. After day 19 of the Italian Serie A, Arrigoni was sacked by chairman Spinelli, but his position was kept due to the strong opposition by the team, his dismissal was, only delayed, as Arrigoni was fired on 21 March 2007, replaced by Fernando Orsi, who managed to keep the team away from the relegation battle. For the 2007–08 campaign, Orsi was confirmed as head coach and a number of notable signings such as Francesco Tavano, Diego Tristan and Vikash Dhorasoo were finalised, but the transfer of Lucarelli to Ukrainian club Shakhtar Donetsk; the club, did not start well, making a mere two points in the first seven matches, Orsi was sacked on 9 October and replaced by Giancarlo Camolese. Despite showing some positive signals at the beginning, Livorno found himself again at the bottom of league table. On 28 April 2008 Camolese was fired as Orsi was re-appointed, but in the penultimate day of the season, the team could not avoid relegation, due to a 1–0 home defeat against Torino.
They finished last in the Serie A standings of the 2007–08 season. Thus, being relegated to Serie B, they finished Serie B as the third place team in 2008–09 season and returned to Serie A after winning promotion play-offs after defeating successively Grosseto with a 4–3 aggregate score and Brescia with a 5–2 aggregate score. However, this return was short-lived and one season they relegated again to Serie B after finishing last. Livorno were promoted again. In 2014 Livorno relegated back to Serie B again; the club sold flagship striker Paulinho for €8 million fee, in order to cover the net loss. In 2016 Livorno relegated again to Lega Pro, but two years the team managed to bounce back to Serie B; as of 5 February 2019. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. 25 – Piermario Morosini, Midfielder – posthumous honour.
Livorno's supporters are w
Associazione Calcio Dilettantistica Legnano referred to as Legnano, is an Italian football club based in Legnano, Lombardy. Founded in 1913, Legnano played three seasons in Serie A and a total of eleven seasons in the top tier of the Italian football league system. Legnano's most recent appearance in Serie A dates back to 1954, whereas in 1957 the club took part for the last time – to date – in a Serie B championship. Since the club have played at their highest at the third tier of the Italian league; the team's colours are white. After financial struggles and bankruptcy in 2010 the club folded and reformed in 2011 as ASD Legnano Calcio 1913; the club were founded in 1913 as Football Club Legnano. Several notable players appeared for Legnano in their early years. Goalkeeper Angelo Cameroni was called up to the Italian national side in 1920. Luigi Allemandi played four seasons with the club from 1921 onwards, until he was bought by Italian giants Juventus, he won the World Cup with Italy at the 1934 FIFA World Cup.
Legnano first gained access to Serie A for the 1930–31 season. The first match at the top level of Italian football was the shocking 2–1 defeat of Italy's oldest club, Genoa C. F. C. For Legnano, they finished at the bottom of the table that season and were relegated. S. Roma, a 2–1 defeat of S. S. C. Napoli in Naples. In the 1935–1936 season, the club changed their name to Associazione Calcio Legnano. Left-winger Emilio Caprile was called up by the azzurri, to play in two international games during 1948, he became the first Legnano player to score for Italy with a goal in each match. After their last relegation in from Serie A in 1953–54, the club have declined. First they came close to promotion back into the league with a 3rd position in B, but two years they were relegated down to Serie C. Legnano spent 18 years in a row competing in Serie C, only able to finish as high as 5th in that time. 1974–75 saw the club slump down to Serie D. Giovanni Mari took over as club president in 1979 and under him, Legnano would achieve the championship of Serie C2.
This was the first time A. C. Legnano had finished first position in any league since 1919; the club's stadium was named Stadio Giovanni Mari in honour of the man. Following bankruptcy in 2010, Legnano subsequently folded, it was refounded on July 15, 2011, as A. S. D. Legnano Calcio was admitted to Group N of Prima Categoria Lombardy in the 2011 -- 12 season; the club was promoted to Group A of Promozione Lombardy. The club had a successive second promotion after finishing as champions of Group A of Promozione Lombardy next season and was promoted to Group A of Eccellenza Lombardy. On May 7, 2015, A. S. D. Legnano Calcio 1913 re-acquired the name Associazione Calcio Legnano, they were eliminated in the play-offs. They were qualified for the play-offs again, they defeated Torviscosa with 4–1 aggregate in semifinal and Sankt Georgen with 4–3 aggregate in final and were promoted to Serie D. Over the years Legnano has had chairmen or presidential figures.
A.S. Lucchese Libertas 1905
Associazione Sportiva Lucchese Libertas 1905, or Lucchese, is an Italian football club, based in Lucca, Tuscany that plays in Serie C, the third tier of Italian football. The club was founded in 1905, having last been in Serie A in 1952; the club was founded on 25 May 1905. Named Lucca Football Club the club was founded by the Vittorio brothers and Guido Mensini; the first large achievement by the club was winning the Goblet of the King during the 1919/20 season, not long after the tournament's foundation. The same season Lucca won the Regional cup of Tuscany. In 1924 the club merged with another local team and changed its name to Unione Sportiva Lucchese-Libertas. During the 1920s, notable players at the club included Giovanni Moscardini; the 1930s saw the club been promoted to Serie B, in 1936, Lucchese won promotion to Serie A the top league in Italy, they stayed there for three seasons. The club were relegated to Serie B. Prior to the war players such as Egri Erbstein, Aldo Olivieri and Antonio Perduca were fan's favorites.
Lucchese stayed there for 5 seasons. In 1984 it changed its name to A. S. Lucchese Libertas; the club spent several seasons in Serie B and Serie C1, being coached by Luigi Simoni, UEFA Cup-winning coach with Inter Milan. In 2008 the club folded due to financial issues and was admitted in the Italian bottom division Terza Categoria before being declared bankrupt in December 2008. A new franchise called Società Sportiva Dilettantistica Sporting Lucchese was admitted to Serie D to represent the city of Lucca. In its first season of existence, Sporting Lucchese promptly won the Girone E round of Serie D, thus acquiring the right to take part to the 2009–10 Lega Pro Seconda Divisione. After the promotion, the club took the denomination of Associazione Sportiva Lucchese Libertas 1905 starting with the new season, after the Sporting Lucchese owner acquired the naming and logo rights of the old franchise in a public auction. Lucchese made a second consecutive promotion after finishing as champions of Group B of Lega Pro Seconda Divisione.
The club has spent the 2010–11 season in Lega Pro Prima Divisione. In the summer of 2011, Lucchese was excluded from professional football by COVISOC for financial reasons, didn't appeal against the decision. F. C. Lucca 2011On August 1, 2011, a new club was founded to represent the city of Lucca: the team was called Associazione Sportiva Dilettantistica Football Club Lucca 2011 and in it was promoted from Eccellenza Tuscany to Serie D at the end of the 2011–12 season. F. C. Lucchese 1905The club changed its name to F. C. Lucchese 1905 soon after being promoted. A. S. Lucchese Libertas 1905In the summer 2013 the club changed his name back to A. S. Lucchese Libertas 1905. On that same season, Lucchese returned to professionalism after winning the Group D of the 2013–14 Serie D, thus ensuring a spot in the inaugural season of the unified 2014–15 Lega Pro league; the team's colors are black. The players are named Rossoneri, their home ground is the Stadio Porta Elisa, situated on the Via dello Stadio in Lucca.
Serie B: Champions: 1935–36, 1946–47Serie C: Champions: 1960–61 Runners-up: 1945–46, 1977–78Serie C1: Runners-up: 1989–90Serie C2: Champions: 1985–86, 2009–10Serie D: Champions: 1968–69, 2008–09, 2013–14Tuscany League Division 1: Champions: 1929–30, 1932–33, 1933–34Promozione: Champions: 1919–20Coppa Italia Serie C Champions: 1989–90 As of 31 January 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Official Site
Casale Foot Ball Club A. S. D. is an Italian football club, based in Piedmont. The club plays in Serie D; the team's nickname nerostellati refers to the team’s colours of black with a white star on the heart. When the club was founded in 1909 Casale was at the geographical centre of the new footballing movement in Italy. Genoa, Pro Vercelli, Internazionale Torino and Alessandria were all leading clubs in the Italian football league system and Casale soon joined their number. In May 1913 Casale became the first Italian club to defeat an English professional team when they beat Reading F. C. 2–1. Reading won all the other games on this tour, defeating Genoa, Pro Vercelli and the Italian national team. In the following season Casale won their only national title. Italian football was organized on a regional basis and the national championship was divided into three stages. Casale topped the Ligurian-Piedmontese division and proceeded, along with second-placed Genoa, to compete in a division comprising the top northern teams.
Having won that division, Casale defeated central-southern champions Lazio 7–1, 0–2 in the two-leg final. After World War I Casale remained in the top division for a couple of decades, representing what had been the cradle of early Italian football. With the development of professionalism, Casale was progressively relegated to lower divisions, 1934 being their last year in Serie A; the club was refounded twice, in 1993 and 2013, when it was refounded with the present, original name used from 1909 to 1925 and 1929 to 1935. Heated rivalry between the fans Casale and Alessandria. See Category:Casale F. B. C. PlayersFive players who appeared in the scudetto-winning team of 1913–14 played in the Italian national team, all making their international debuts between 1912 and 1914: Luigi Barbesino Giovanni Gallina Angelo Mattea Giuseppe Parodi Amedeo Varese Casale’s biggest star, was the full back Umberto Caligaris whose career with the club ran from 1919 to 1928. During this period he made 37 appearances for the Azzurri.
He represented Italy in the 1924 Olympics and won a bronze medal at the 1928 Summer Olympics before leaving Casale for Juventus. His total of 59 caps stood as a record for many years. Eraldo Monzeglio to represent Italy on numerous occasions, including the 1934 and 1938 World Cups, made his Serie A debut with Casale in 1924–25; the following season, however he moved to Bologna F. C. 1909. Serie A Winners: 1913–14Serie B Winners: 1929–30Serie C Winners: 1937–38Coppa Italia Dilettanti Winners: 1998–99 For 1913: Il Calcio a Casale M.to
A.C. Perugia Calcio
Associazione Calcistica Perugia Calcio A. C. Perugia, Perugia Calcio and referred to as Perugia, is an Italian football club based in Perugia, Umbria. Founded in 1905 has amongst its best records a runners-up season in Serie A 1978-79, in which they finished unbeaten, the 2003 UEFA Intertoto Cup; the team plays in Serie B after promotion from Lega Pro Prima Divisione in 2013–14 season. A. C. Perugia were founded on 9 June 1905, after the merger of U. S. Fortebraccio and Libertas. Promotion to Serie B in 1966 would mark the beginning of one of the club's most successful periods. Perugia spent the next eight years in Serie B before promotion to Serie A for the first time in 1975. In the club's first Serie A season, Perugia finished eighth with 31 points- just short of a European place. Star players in the side included defender Pierluigi Frosio and midfielders Renato Curi and Franco Vannini; the side remained in the top half of the table for the rest of the decade, finishing runners-up in 1979 with 11 wins and 19 draws, resulting in the only unbeaten side not to win a title.
However and scandal marred this period. In 1977, Curi died of a heart attack during a league match with Juventus, while Vannini's career was ended by injury in 1979; the Totonero scandal in 1980 led to a 5-point penalty and relegation in 1981. Ilario Castagner was coach during this period; the club spent the first half of the 1980s trying to get back to Serie A, nearly succeeding in 1984–85. Another scandal in 1986 forced Perugia down to Serie C2, it was during this time that Fabrizio Ravanelli would be discovered, he would go on to a career with Reggiana, Juventus and several other clubs before returning to Perugia. The controversial and eccentric Luciano Gaucci took control of the club; the side returned to Serie B in 1994 and under the guidance of Giovanni Galeone reached Serie A in 1996. Perugia started well before Gaucci's decision to replace Galeone with Nevio Scala; the side's form subsequently declined before a late rally gave them a chance of survival- a 2–1 defeat at Piacenza in the final round sealed their fate.
With Castagner back in charge, Perugia won a play-off with Torino to secure a return to the top flight. The next six seasons saw Perugia hold their own in Serie A with foreign imports including the Japanese international Hidetoshi Nakata in 1998; the team came under scrutiny when Gaucci criticised and terminated the contract of his own player, Ahn Jung-Hwan of South Korea, for scoring the golden goal that knocked Italy out of the 2002 FIFA World Cup, insulting the Italian nation. Ahn's national manager Guus. Following the outcry, Ahn's sacking was reversed, but by the player himself expressed no desire to return to the club anymore. In the Summer of 2003, Perugia signed English striker Jay Bothroyd, Al-Saadi Gaddafi. Soon after, the club were one of three winners of the 2003 UEFA Intertoto Cup after beating VfL Wolfsburg of Germany 3–0 on aggregate; this qualified the team to the 2003-04 UEFA Cup, in which they were eliminated in the third round by PSV Eindhoven. The new chairman Vincenzo Silvestrini had re-established the club in 2005 as Perugia Calcio.
After a takeover, in 2009 Perugia Calcio property passed to Perugian entrepreneur and former Pisa owner and chairman Leonardo Covarelli. On 21 May 2010 the Court of Perugia declared the bankruptcy of Perugia Calcio srl. Nobody decided to take over the society at the subsequent auction and on 30 June 2010 the club was unable to join the Italian third level championship 2010–2011; the Italian Football Federation decided on 8 July 2010 to revoke the affiliation of the bankrupt Perugia Calcio Srl. During the summer break 2010, this new club with the same denomination and inheriting the old side history, was entered into the Serie D Girone E. On 10 April 2011, Perugia became the first team of the season to get promoted from Serie D to the Lega Pro Seconda Divisione 2011–12, after a 3–2 home victory against Castel Rigone, they won the Girone E. The club won the 2010–11 Coppa Italia Serie D, beating Turris 1–0 in the final. In summer 2011 the club was renamed Associazione Calcistica Perugia Calcio, thus becoming a professional company, to play in the Lega Pro Seconda Divisione/B obtaining immediate promotion to Lega Pro Prima Divisione.
On May 4, 2014, beating Frosinone 1–0, A. C. Perugia won the 2013–14 Lega Pro Prima Divisione championship and gained promotion to Serie B after a 9-year absence from Italy's second highest football division; as of 5 February 2019Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. See Category:A. C. Perugia Calcio players Serie A: Runners-up: 1978–79UEFA Intertoto Cup: Winner: 2003Supercoppa di Lega di Seconda Divisione: Winner: 2011–12Coppa Italia Serie D: Winner: 2010–11Serie B: Winner: 1974–75Lega Pro Prima Divisione: Winner: 1932–33, 1945–46, 1966–67, 1993–94, 2013–14Lega Pro Seconda Divisione: Winner: 1987–88, 2011–12Serie D: Winner: 1929–30, 2010–11 Official website
Promotion and relegation
In sports leagues and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between multiple divisions based on their performance for the completed season. The best-ranked team in the lower division are promoted to the higher division for the next season, the worst-ranked team in the higher division are relegated to the lower division for the next season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings; this process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, so on. During the season, teams that are high enough in the league table that they would qualify for promotion are sometimes said to be in the promotion zone, those at the bottom are in the relegation zone. An alternate system of league organisation, used in the US and Canada is a closed model based on licensing or franchises; this maintains the same teams from year to year, with occasional admission of expansion teams and relocation of existing teams, with no team movement between the major league and minor leagues.
The number of teams exchanged between the divisions is always identical. Exceptions occur when the higher division wishes to change the size of its membership, or has lost one or more of its clubs and wishes to restore its previous membership size, in which case fewer teams are relegated from that division, or more teams are accepted for promotion from the division below; such variations cause a "knock-on" effect through the lower divisions. For example, in 1995 the Premier League voted to reduce its numbers by two and achieved the desired change by relegating four teams instead of the usual three, whilst allowing only two promotions from Football League Division One. In the absence of such extraordinary circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European sports league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. For example, in a higher league with a large geographical footprint and multiple feeder leagues each representing smaller geographical regions, should most or all of the relegated teams in the higher division come from one particular region the number of teams to be promoted or relegated from each of the feeder leagues may have to be adjusted, or one or more teams playing near the boundary between the feeder leagues may have to transfer from one feeder league to another to maintain numerical balance.
The system is said to be the defining characteristic of the "European" form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions, according to the relative strength of their teams, they maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian team's final games serve little purpose, in fact losing may be beneficial to such teams, yielding a better position in the next year's draft. Although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated; this occurs for one of two reasons: first, the club can't move underperforming players on, or second, the club is gambling on being promoted back straight away and is prepared to take a financial loss for one or two seasons to do so.
Some leagues offer "parachute payments" to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the prize money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. In some countries and at certain levels, teams in line for promotion may have to satisfy certain non-playing conditions in order to be accepted by the higher league, such as financial solvency, stadium capacity, facilities. If these are not satisfied, a lower-ranked team may be promoted in their place, or a team in the league above may be saved from relegation. While the primary purpose of the promotion/relegation system is to maintain competitive balance, it may be used as a disciplinary tool in special cases. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have been involved in match-fixing.
This occurred most in 2006, when the season's initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B, two other teams were relegated but restored to Serie A after appeal. In some Communist nations several in Europe after World War II, clubs were promoted and relegated for political reasons rather than performance; this was made evident in the late eighties by teams such as Romanian Steaua București and Yugoslav Red Star Belgrade, both winners of the European Champions League despite the rampant level of corruption in their Communist local leagues. Promotion and relegation may be used in international sports tournaments. In tennis, the Davis Cup and Fed Cup have promotion and relegation, with a'World Group' (split into two divisions in the Fe