New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Get (divorce document)
A get or gett is a divorce document in Jewish religious law, which must be presented by a husband to his wife to effectuate their divorce. The essential part of the get is short: the text states "You are hereby permitted to all men", which means that the woman is no longer married and that the laws of adultery no longer apply; the get returns to the wife the legal rights that a husband holds in regard to her in a Jewish marriage. The biblical term for the divorce document, described in Deuteronomy 24, is "Sefer Keritut"; the word get may have its origins in the Sumerian word for document, GID. DA, it appears to have passed from Sumerian into Akkadian as gittu, from there into Mishnaic Hebrew. In fact in the Mishnah, get can refer to any legal document although it refers to a divorce document. A number of popular etymological speculations were offered by early modern Rabbinic authorities. According to Shiltei Giborim, it refers to the stone agate, which purportedly has some form of anti-magnetic property symbolizing the divorce.
The Gaon of Vilna posits that the Hebrew letters of Gimel and Tet of the word get are the only letters of the Hebrew alphabet that cannot make a word together, again symbolizing the divorce. Rabbi Baruch Epstein states that it comes from the Latin word gestus "action, gesture", which refers to any legal document. Marcus Jastrow posits a Semitic root. Rabbi Yechiel Yaakov Weinberg posits that after the Bar Kochba revolt the Romans decreed that all documents be processed in a Roman court; the term get. Halakha requires specific formalities. A divorce document must be written, it must have been written on the explicit instruction and free-willed approval of the husband, with the specific intention that it is to be used by the man and for the specific woman. It cannot be written with blanks to be filled in later, it must be delivered to the wife, whose physical acceptance of the get is required to complete and validate the divorce process. There are certain detailed requirements relating to the legal and religious nature of the get itself.
For example: It must be written on a fresh document, there must be no possibility of cleanly erasing the text. It may not be written on anything attached to the ground; the get. Any deviation from these requirements invalidates the divorce procedure. A get. A get may not be given out of fear of any obligation either party undertook to fulfill in a separation agreement; such an agreement may provide for matters such as custody of the children and their maintenance, property settlement. But either party may withdraw from such an agreement, on the question of the dissolution of the marriage only, if they can satisfy the court of a genuine desire to restore matrimonial harmony. In such a situation all the recognised matrimonial obligations continue to apply. On the other hand, pecuniary conditions stipulated by the parties in the separation agreement would still be valid and enforceable, though the marriage state continues to exist; the laws of gittin only provide for a divorce initiated by the husband.
However, the wife has the right to sue for divorce in a rabbinical court. The court, if finding just cause as prescribed in rare cases in Jewish law, will require the husband to divorce his wife. In such cases, a husband who refused the court's demand that he divorce his wife would be subjected to various penalties in order to pressure him into granting a divorce; such penalties included monetary punishments, corporal punishment—including forcing the husband to spend the night at an unmarked grave. In modern-day Israel, rabbinical courts have the power to sentence a husband to prison to compel him to grant his wife a get. Rabbinical courts outside of Israel do not have power to enforce such penalties; this sometimes leads to a situation in which the husband makes demands of the court and of his wife, demanding a monetary settlement or other benefits, such as child custody, in exchange for the get. Prominent Jewish feminists have fought against such demands in recent decades. Prominent Orthodox rabbis have pointed to many years of rabbinical sources that state that any coercion can invalidate a get except in the most extreme of cases, have spoken out against "get organizations", which they claim have inflamed situations that could have otherwise been resolved amicably.
Sometimes a man will refuse to grant a divorce. This leaves his wife with no possibility of remarriage within Orthodox Judaism; such a woman is called a mesorevet get. Such a man who refuses to give his wife a get is spurned by Modern Orthodox communities, excluded from communal religious activities, in an effort to force a get. While it is assumed that the problem lies in men refusing to grant a get to their wives and that it is a widespread issue, in Israel, figures released from the chief rabbinate show that women refuse to accept a get and that the numbers are a couple of hundred on each side. However, such a husband has the option of seeking a Heter m
Supreme Court of Canada
The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system. The court grants permission to between 40 and 75 litigants each year to appeal decisions rendered by provincial and federal appellate courts, its decisions are the ultimate expression and application of Canadian law and binding upon all lower courts of Canada, except to the extent that they are overridden or otherwise made ineffective by an Act of Parliament or the Act of a provincial legislative assembly pursuant to section 33 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The creation of the Supreme Court of Canada was provided for by the British North America Act, 1867, renamed in 1982 the Constitution Act, 1867; the first bills for the creation of a federal supreme court, introduced in the Parliament of Canada in 1869 and in 1870, were withdrawn. It was not until 8 April 1875 that a bill was passed providing for the creation of a Supreme Court of Canada. However, prior to 1949, the Supreme Court did not constitute the court of last resort: litigants could appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.
As well, some cases could bypass the court and go directly to the Judicial Committee from the provincial courts of appeal. The Supreme Court formally became the court of last resort for criminal appeals in 1933 and for all other appeals in 1949; the last decisions of the Judicial Committee on cases from Canada were made in the mid-1950s, as a result of their being heard in a court of first instance prior to 1949. The increase in the importance of the Court was mirrored by the numbers of its members; the Court was established first with six judges, these were augmented by an additional member in 1927. In 1949, the bench reached its current composition of nine justices. Prior to 1949, most of the appointees to the Court owed their position to political patronage; each judge had strong ties to the party in power at the time of their appointment. In 1973, the appointment of a constitutional law professor Bora Laskin as chief justice represented a major turning point for the Court. In this period, appointees either came from academic backgrounds or were well-respected practitioners with several years experience in appellate courts.
Laskin's federalist and liberal views were shared by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, who recommended Laskin's appointment to the Court. The Constitution Act, 1982 expanded the role of the Court in Canadian society by the addition of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which broadened the scope of judicial review; the evolution from the Dickson court through to the Lamer court witnessed a continuing vigour in the protection of civil liberties. Lamer's criminal law background proved an influence on the number of criminal cases heard by the Court during his time as chief justice. Nonetheless, the Lamer court was more conservative with Charter rights, with only about a 1% success rate for Charter claimants. Lamer was succeeded as chief justice by Beverly McLachlin in January 2000, she is the first woman to hold that position. McLachlin's appointment resulted in a more centrist and unified Court. Dissenting and concurring opinions were fewer than during the Lamer Courts. With the 2005 appointments of Justices Louise Charron and Rosalie Abella, the court became the world's most gender-balanced national high court, four of its nine members being female.
Justice Marie Deschamps' retirement on 7 August 2012 caused the number to fall to three, however the appointment of Suzanne Côté on 1 December 2014 restored the number to four. After serving on the Court for 28 years, 259 days, McLachlin retired in December 2017, her successor as chief justice is Richard Wagner. The structure of the Canadian court system is pyramidal, a broad base being formed by the various provincial and territorial courts whose judges are appointed by the provincial or territorial governments. At the next level are the provinces' and territories' superior courts, where judges are appointed by the federal government. Judgments from the superior courts may be appealed to a still higher level, the provincial or territorial courts of appeal. Several federal courts exist: the Tax Court of Canada, the Federal Court, the Federal Court of Appeal, the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada. Unlike the provincial superior courts, which exercise inherent or general jurisdiction, the federal courts' jurisdiction is limited by statute.
In all, there are over 1,000 federally appointed judges at various levels across Canada. The Supreme Court of Canada rests at the apex of the judicial pyramid; this institution hears appeals from the provincial courts of last resort the provincial or territorial courts of appeal, the Federal Court of Appeal, although in some matters appeals come straight from the trial courts, as in the case of publication bans and other orders that are otherwise not appealable. In most cases, permission to appeal must first be obtained from the court. Motions for leave to appeal to the Court are heard by a panel of three judges of the Court and a simple majority is determinative. By convention, this panel never explains why it grants or refuses leave in any particular case, but the Court hears cases of national importance or where the case allows the Court to settle an important issue of law. Leave is granted, meaning that for most litigants, provincial courts of appeal are courts of last resort, but leave to appeal is not required for some cases criminal cases and appeals from provincial references.
A final source of cases is the referral power of the federa
Yeshiva University is a private, non-profit research university located in New York City, United States, with four campuses in New York City. The university's undergraduate schools—Yeshiva College, Stern College for Women, Syms School of Business—offer a dual curriculum inspired by Modern-Centrist-Orthodox Judaism's hashkafa of Torah Umadda combining academic education with the study of the Torah. While the majority of students at the University are of the Jewish faith, many students at the Cardozo School of Law, the School of Business, the Graduate School of Psychology, the Medical School, are not Jewish. Yeshiva University is an independent institution chartered by New York State, it is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and by several professional agencies. The University, founded in 1886, is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States that combines Jewish scholarship with studies in the liberal arts, medicine, business, social work, Jewish studies and education, psychology.
It has its roots in the Etz Chaim Yeshiva founded in 1886 on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, a cheder-style elementary school founded by Eastern European immigrants that offered study of Talmud along with some secular education, including instruction in English. As of August 2012, Yeshiva University enrolls 6,400 undergraduate students, 3,500 graduate students, 1,000 students at its affiliated high schools - Yeshiva University High School for Boys and Yeshiva University High School for Girls - and Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, it conferred 1,822 degrees in 2007 and offers community service projects serving New York, Jewish communities, the United States and Canada. The university has run an operating deficit for seven consecutive years. In 2014, it lost $84 million, in 2013, it suffered a loss of $64 million. In March 2015, the faculty of Yeshiva College passed a "no-confidence motion" against Richard Joel, the university president. Professor Gillian Steinberg, a member of the Yeshiva College executive committee, told The New York Jewish Week that the vote was meant to “signal donors in a meaningful way” and “indicate that the board of trustees is moving in the wrong direction.”In January 2016, the University disclosed plans to cede half of its $1 billion endowment to the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, as the medical college enters a separate joint venture with Montefiore Health System.
Bernard Revel 1915—1940 Samuel Belkin, 1943—1975 Norman Lamm, 1976—2003 Richard M. Joel, 2003—2017 Ari Berman, 2017—present The University's main campus, Wilf Campus, is located in Washington Heights. A 1928 plan to build a spacious Moorish Revival campus around several gardens and courtyards was canceled by the Great Depression of 1929 after only one building had been erected. Building continued after the Depression in modern style and by the acquisition of existing neighborhood buildings. Since it was founded in 1886, Yeshiva University has expanded to comprise some twenty colleges, affiliates and institutions, with several affiliated hospitals and healthcare institutions, it has campuses and facilities in Manhattan, the Bronx and Israel. The Yeshiva University Museum is the cultural arm of Yeshiva University. Founded in 1973, Yeshiva University Museum is AAMG accredited and aims to provide a window into Jewish culture around the world and throughout history through multi-disciplinary exhibitions and publications.
Yeshiva University maintains four campuses in New York City: The Resnick Campus in the Morris Park neighborhood of the eastern Bronx houses the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and the Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology, along with dormitories, a library, a hospital and other medical facilities. The Brookdale Center in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of downtown Manhattan contains the Benjamin Cardozo School of Law, law clinics and office, a dormitory; the Center for Jewish History, which includes the Yeshiva University Museum along with other institutions, is nearby in the Chelsea neighborhood. The Beren Campus in the Murray Hill neighborhood of Midtown Manhattan is home to the undergraduate schools for women, including Stern College for Women and the Midtown branch of the Syms School of Business, along with dormitories and other facilities; the Azrieli School has classes on this campus as well. The Wilf Campus is centered around the area of Amsterdam Ave and West 185th Street in the Washington Heights neighborhood of upper Manhattan.
Yeshiva University's main office is located within the Wilf Campus, at 500 185th St. and Wilf is considered the main campus. It is home to the undergraduate schools for men, the rabbinical seminary, the Belz School of Jewish Music, the high school for boys, the Azrieli Graduate School for Jewish Education and Administration, the Wurzweiler School for Social Work, the Bernard Revel Graduate school, along with other divisions, libraries and other facilities; the high school for girls is located in the Holliswood neighborhood of eastern Queens. The university's building in Jerusalem, in the Bayit VeGan neighborhood, contains a branch of the rabbinical seminary and an office coordinating the S. Daniel Abraham Israel Program, a formal arrangement between Yeshiva University and 42 men's yeshivot and women's midrashot in Israel that enables students to incorporate study in Israel into their college years. While studying in Israel, students study Jewish subjects while learning firsthand about Israel's land, people and culture.
Yeshiva University Israel advisers visit each school to offer academic guidance, career planni
Rosalie Silberman Abella, is a Canadian jurist. She was appointed in 2004 to the Supreme Court of Canada, becoming the first Jewish woman to sit on the Canadian Supreme Court bench. Rosalie Silberman Abella was born in a displaced persons camp in Stuttgart, where her father, a lawyer, was defence counsel for displaced persons in the Allied Zone of Southwest Germany, she moved to Canada with her family in 1950. She attended Oakwood Collegiate Institute and Bathurst Heights Secondary School in Toronto, the University of Toronto, where she obtained a B. A. in 1967 and an LL. B in 1970. Abella was called to the Ontario bar in 1972, she practised civil and family law until 1976, when at the age of 29 she was appointed to the Ontario Family Court, becoming both the youngest and first pregnant judge in Canadian history. She was appointed to the Ontario Court of Appeal in 1992, she has acted as chair of the Ontario Labour Relations Board, the Ontario Study into Access to Legal Services by the Disabled and the Ontario Law Reform Commission, as a member of the Ontario Human Rights Commission and of the judicial inquiry into the Donald Marshall, Jr. case.
She is considered one of Canada's foremost experts on human rights law, has taught at McGill Law School in Montreal. In 2004, Prime Minister Paul Martin appointed Abella to the Supreme Court of Canada. Abella became the first Jewish woman to sit on the court, she is eligible to serve on the Supreme Court until July 1, 2021. In 1983, Abella was appointed to oversee the Royal Commission on Equality in Employment and in that role, coined the term employment equity, a strategy for reducing barriers in employment faced by women, visible minorities, people with disabilities, aboriginal peoples; the recommendations of the report were adopted by other countries such as New Zealand, South Africa, Northern Ireland. She moderated a televised leaders debate in 1988 between Brian Mulroney, John Turner and Ed Broadbent. Abella is the recipient of 37 honorary degrees, is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, she was awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal in 2002. She was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007.
In May 2016, she was awarded an honorary degree from Yale University, becoming the first Canadian woman to earn such an honour. She has been a judge of the Giller Prize, is a graduate of the Royal Conservatory of Music in classical piano. In January 2017, Northwestern Pritzker School of Law’s Center for International Human Rights named her the Global Jurist of the Year in 2016 for her lifelong commitment to human rights and international criminal justice. In April 2018, Abella was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society. Abella is married to historian Irving Abella, has two sons. Reasons of the Supreme Court of Canada by Justice Abella CanadaSupremeCourtbio http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/parties_leaders/clips/15773/ Entry on Rosalie Silberman Abella, Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia http://news.yale.edu/2016/05/22/honorary-degrees-awarded-nine-outstanding-individuals
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
A decree nisi or rule nisi is a court order that will come into force at a future date unless a particular condition is met. Unless the condition is met, the ruling becomes a decree absolute, is binding; the condition is that an adversely affected party provide satisfactory evidence or argument that the decree should not take effect. For that reason, a decree nisi may be called a rule, order or decree to show cause. Using the example of a divorce, the wording of such a decree is in the form of "that the marriage solemnized on between AB and CD, be dissolved by reason of UNLESS sufficient cause be shown to the court why this decree should not be made absolute within six weeks"; this allows time for any party. When no objection is raised by either party, an automatic dissolution takes effect; the term is used in many common law jurisdictions, but is more common in the United Kingdom than in the United States. In most common law jurisdictions, a decree nisi must be obtained in possession proceedings before the court will order foreclosure under a mortgage enforcement.
This form of ruling has become a rarity in recent times, with few exceptions: in some jurisdictions, it is still a standard stage of divorce proceedings. In Hong Kong, in England and Wales, section 1 of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 provides that "Every decree of divorce shall in the first instance be a decree nisi and shall not be made absolute before the expiration of six months from its grant", section 9 allows any person, before the decree is made absolute, to "show cause why the decree should not be made absolute by reason of material facts not having been brought before the court". In England and Wales, the minimum interval between the granting of decree nisi and that of decree absolute was amended by the Family Law Act 1996 and is now six weeks. In practice, courts use an interval of one day. Another exception regarding orders nisi is where a creditor seeks to place a charge on land for money owed. A court, on the production of certain evidence, will make a charging order nisi and a hearing date is set.
If the court is satisfied at the hearing that the creditor is entitled to have a charge on the debtor's property, it will grant a charging order absolute