Legality of cannabis
The legality of cannabis for medical and recreational use varies by country, in terms of its possession, distribution, and cultivation, and (in regards to medical) how it can be consumed and what medical conditions it can be used for. These policies in most countries are regulated by the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs that was ratified in 1961, along with the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1988 Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.
The use of cannabis for recreational purposes is prohibited in most countries; however, many have adopted a policy of decriminalization to make simple possession a non-criminal offense (often similar to a minor traffic violation). Others have much more severe penalties such as some Asian and Middle Eastern countries where possession of even small amounts is punished by imprisonment for several years.
Uruguay and Canada are the only countries that have fully legalized the consumption and sale of recreational cannabis nationwide. In the United States, ten states and the District of Columbia have legalized sales and consumption although it remains federally illegal. Court rulings in Georgia and South Africa have led to the legalization of consumption of cannabis, but not legal sales. A policy of limited enforcement has also been adopted in many countries, in particular Spain and the Netherlands where the sale of cannabis is tolerated at licensed establishments.
Countries that have legalized the medical use of cannabis include Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Norway, the Netherlands, Peru, Poland, and Thailand. Others have more restrictive laws that only allow the use of certain cannabis-derived pharmaceutical drugs, such as Sativex, Marinol, or Epidiolex. In the United States, 33 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the medical use of cannabis, but at the federal level its use remains prohibited for any purpose.
|Afghanistan||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Zahir Shah in 1973.Production banned by King|
|Albania||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Prohibited but plants highly availabile throughout the country and law often unenforced.|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Decriminalized||Illegal||Decriminalized|
|Argentina||Decriminalized||Legal||Illegal|| Medicinal cannabis legal nationally since 21 September 2017.Decriminalized for small amounts and private consumption, the Supreme Court ruled in 2009.|
|Australia||Decriminalized for personal use in the Northern Territory, South Australia, and the Australian Capital Territory||Legal at federal level and in all states. Qualifying conditions and other details vary by state.||Legal for medical purposes.|
|Austria||Possession for personal use decriminalized as of January 2016.||Cannabis-derived drugs||Allowed for medical purposes.|
|Bangladesh||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal||Illegal|| but laws are rarely enforced and cannabis is openly sold in many parts of the country.Sale banned in 1989,|
|Belgium||Decriminalized up to 3 g||Cannabis-derived drugs||Decriminalized for cultivation of one plant||Up to 3 g legal for adults since 2003.|
|Belize||Decriminalized up to 10 g||Illegal||Illegal|| Possession of up to 10 g decriminalized "in the works".Possession prohibited, but use is common and largely tolerated.|
|Bermuda||Decriminalized up to 7 g||Legal||Illegal|| As of July 2018, two doctors have been licensed to prescribe the drug.In November 2016, the Supreme Court of Bermuda ruled in favor of allowing the medical use of cannabis.|
|Bhutan||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal, but plants grow prolifically and have multiple traditional uses, such as feeding pigs and producing textiles.|
|Bolivia||Decriminalized up to 50 g||Illegal||Illegal|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||cannabinoids for medicinal purposes.In 2016 it was announced that the Ministry of Civil Affairs had formed a task force to explore the legalizing of cannabis and|
|Botswana||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Cannabis (or dagga) is illegal.|
|Brazil||Illegal (educational measures for small amounts and private use)||Sativex||Illegal (educational measures for small amounts and private use)||community service, and education on the effects of drug use. Sale, transportation, cultivation, and possession of large amounts are considered drug trafficking.Possession of any illegal drug entails a warning,|
|Bulgaria||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Cocaine, Amphetamines, and MDMA (ecstasy). Until 2004, a loosely defined "personal dose" existed.Cannabis is classified as a class A (High-risk) drug, together with Heroin,|
|Cambodia||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal||Illegal but often unenforced|| but this prohibition is lax and enforced opportunistically. "Happy" restaurants in cities publicly offer food cooked with marijuana, or as a side garnish.Illegal,|
|Canada||Legal||Legal||Legal||Legal for medicinal purposes since 2001 and for recreational purposes since 2018. Age and regulations of consumption vary by province.|
|Central African Republic||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|
|Chile||Decriminalized||Legal||Legal|| and recreational cultivation decriminalized. Medicinal cultivation legal with the authorization of The Chilean Agriculture Service (SAG) and sale of medication allowed on prescription in pharmacies.Private personal use|
|People's Republic of China (PRC)||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|
|Colombia||Decriminalized up to 22 g for personal use||Legal for medical use.||Legal up to twenty plants for personal consumption. No limit for medicinal use and if licensed by the "National Anti-narcotics Council"||Decriminalized up to 22 g for personal consumption. Individuals carrying greater amounts, or cultivating up to 20 plants, cannot be prosecuted if the drug is for personal use.|
|Comoros||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Ali Soilih legalized cannabis consumption among other measures.Cannabis was legal during the Comorian historical period between January 1975 and May 1978, when president|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|
|Republic of the Congo||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|
|Costa Rica||Decriminalized||Illegal||Decriminalized||Decriminalization de facto implemented since police officers do not detain people carrying enough for only personal consumption, yet no amount has been defined as a minimum for possession. Use of cannabis is widespread throughout the country.|
|Croatia||Decriminalized||Legal||Illegal||Possession of small amounts considered a misdemeanor which leads to fine. Medicinal cannabis legal for patients with illnesses such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, or AIDS.|
|Cyprus||Illegal||Legal for cancer patients||Illegal (decriminalized for some farms to grow hemp)||Class B substance – life imprisonment is possible for use and maximum 8 years for possession (at the maximum 2 years for the first offence for under 25-year-olds).|
|Czech Republic||Decriminalized up to 10 g since 2014. Initially decriminalized in 2010 for up to 15 g.||Legal||Decriminalized for cultivation of up to five plants. Cultivation for medicinal purposes subject to license legal.|| Medicinal use legal and regulated since 2013.Possession of up to 15 g or cultivation of up to 5 plants is a misdemeanor subject to minor fine - mostly not enforced. Popular destination for smokers.|
|Denmark||Illegal for recreational use, however, the law is often unenforced by police. (Declared legal in Freetown but this is unrecognized by Danish authorities)||Legal||Legal with government license. Licenses issued for medical production only.|| Freetown Christiania, a self-declared autonomous community in Copenhagen, is known for its cannabis trade.As with all drugs, cannabis-related offences are punishable by a fine or imprisonment for up to 2 years.|
|Dominica||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Class B drug to cultivate, sell, or possess.|
|Ecuador||Decriminalized up to 10 g||Illegal||Illegal|| Possession of under 10 g is considered personal use and not punished.Possession of small amounts decriminalized.|
|Egypt||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal||Illegal|| but use is widespread. Convictions for personal use are rare. Formerly a plant of high status with several documented medicinal uses in ancient times.Illegal since 1925|
|Estonia||Decriminalized||With a special permit||Illegal||Up to 7.5 g is considered an amount for personal use, and is punished with a fine. Large amounts and distribution are criminal offences punishable with a custodial sentence of up to 5 years.|
|Ethiopia||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Rastafari movement, possession of cannabis can result in up to six months imprisonment.Despite being the spiritual homeland of the|
|Finland||Illegal but sometimes not enforced||Legal under license.||Legal for medicinal use only||Personal use is generally not prosecuted in court but subject to summary fine. Medicinal cannabis possible under a special license since 2006; in 2014, 223 licenses were issued.|
|France||Illegal||Some cannabis-derived drugs.||Illegal|| Use of some cannabinoid drugs legal since 2013.Cultivation, sale, ownership and consumption prohibited.|
|Georgia||Legal for possession and consumption but not for sale, per a July 2018 ruling by the Constitutional Court of Georgia||Use is legal, but no system for the dispensing of cannabis exists.||Decriminalized for personal use|
|Germany||Illegal but often tolerated. Under federal law, prosecution is optional for possession of "small amounts".||Legal to those with a prescription||Legal if permission is given by "Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices"||self-harm, which is not a crime. Since early 2017, medicinal use is legal for seriously ill patients who have consulted with a doctor and "have no therapeutic alternative".Recreational possession illegal, but charges almost always dropped. Consumption itself considered|
|Greece||Illegal||Legal||Legal for medicinal use only|
|Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat)||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|
|Guatemala||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||In 2016 a constitutional commission rejected proposals to legalize medicinal or recreational use of cannabis.|
|Guyana||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Possession of 15 g or over can result in charges of drug trafficking.|
|Honduras||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||The possession, sale, transportation, and cultivation of cannabis is illegal in Honduras.|
|Hong Kong||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|| (Chapter 134 of the Law of Hong Kong)The possession, sale, transportation, cultivation of cannabis is illegal under the Dangerous Drug Ordinance.|
|Hungary||Illegal||Illegal||illegal||There is no distinction in Hungarian law between illicit drugs according to dangers. Heroin use has the same legal consequences as cannabis use.|
|Iceland||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|| Possession of small amounts is subject to arrest and fine but no threat of jail time.Banned in 1969.|
|India||Illegal at the federal level.
Legal or tolerated in several states such as Bihar, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, and the North-Eastern states.
Decriminalized in Gujarat.
|Illegal||Illegal at the federal level.
Industrial hemp legal at the state level in Uttarakhand.
Legal or tolerated in several states such as Bihar, Gujarat, Odisha, West Bengal, and the North-Eastern states.
|bhang. Prohibition is rarely enforced and treated as low priority across India. Legalized in Uttarakhand in November 2015. Decriminalized in Gujarat since 2017. Other states have their own laws allowing cannabis, locally known as Ganja.Albeit illegal, usage is prevalent and some government-owned shops sell cannabis in the form of|
|Indonesia||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|| Minimum sentence of 4 years in prison (additional fines may apply) if caught in possession. However, if the user is underage, they may instead be sentenced to rehabilitation.Banned in 1927.|
|Iran||Illegal, but not strictly enforced||Illegal||Illegal|
|Ireland||Illegal||May be licensed.||Illegal|| A new strategy is planned from 2017. Cannabis-derived medicines may be licensed since 2014. A review of policy on medicinal cannabis was announced in November 2016, and a private member's bill to legalise it passed second stage in the Dáil in December 2016.The National Drugs Strategy of 2009–2016 did not favour decriminalising cannabis.|
|Israel||Currently illegal; decriminalization to take effect in April 2019||Legal||Licensed medicinal providers only||Personal possession decriminalized, with offenders going through a 4-stage process should they admit to their crime.|
|Italy||Decriminalized; allowed for religious usage||Legal||Illegal||Possession of small amounts for personal use is a misdemeanor subject to fines and the suspension of documents (passports or driver's licenses). Sale and cultivation punishable by imprisonment, even if in small amounts and for exclusive personal use. Licensed cultivation for medicinal and industrial use strictly regulated.|
|Jamaica||Decriminalized; legal for Rastafari||Legal||Legal|| In 2018, the first medical cannabis dispensary was opened in Jamaica.Decriminalized in amounts up to 2 oz or cultivation of up to 5 plants since 2015.|
|Japan||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|| Use and possession are punishable by up to 5 years imprisonment and a fine. Cultivation, sale, and transport are punishable by 7–10 years imprisonment and a fine.Restricted in 1948.|
|Laos||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal||Illegal|
|Latvia||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|| Possession of up to one gram can result in a fine of €280, for second offences within a year period criminal charges are applied. Larger quantities can be punished with up to 15 years in prison.Cannabis is illegal.|
|Lebanon||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|| cannabis cultivation banned in 1992. Possession is illegal. However, large amounts are grown within the country and personal use, as long as not in public, is not a major issue.Hashish banned in 1926;|
|Lesotho||Illegal but tolerated||Illegal||Medicinal cultivation with Ministry of Health authorisation|
|Luxembourg||Decriminalized||Legal||Illegal||Transportation and consumption are illegal. Since 2001, decriminalized and prison penalty has been substituted by a monetary fine ranging from €250 to €2,500.|
|Macau, SAR of China||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|
|Macedonia||Illegal||Legal||Illegal|| Medicinal cannabis legalized since 2016.If one possesses a larger amount, a jail sentence of anywhere from 3 months to 5 years may be given.|
|Malaysia||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Mandatory death penalty for convicted drug traffickers, legally defined as individuals possessing more than 200 g (7 oz) of cannabis.|
|Malawi||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|| Chamba is grown mainly in central and northern regions like Mzuzu.Illegal but widely used and cultivated; Malawian cannabis is famed internationally for its quality.|
|Malta||Decriminalized up to 3.5 g||Legal||Illegal||As of 2015, simple possession is decriminalized, but remains an arrestable offense for the police purpose of collecting intelligence about drug trafficking. Cultivation for personal use will no longer be punishable by a mandatory prison sentence or suspended sentence.|
|Mexico||De facto legal for personal use.||Legal for medical use,
THC content below 1%.
|Legal for medical purposes.
De facto legal for personal use.
| In 2015 the Supreme Court voted 4-1 that prohibiting people from growing the drug for consumption was unconstitutional as it violated the human right to the free development of one's personality. In 2018 the Supreme Court reaffirmed the ruling, effectively making the law prohibiting cannabis unenforceable and requiring the legislature to act to formally legalize.Possession of 5 g decriminalized since 2009.|
|Morocco||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal||Illegal||All drugs banned since 1974, but cannabis is partially tolerated. Morocco is still among the world's top producers of hashish.|
|Myanmar||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal||Illegal but often unenforced|
|Namibia||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Cannabis is illegal; in 2007 the government proposed but declined a 20-year jail sentence for any drug possession.|
|Nepal||Illegal (legal during Maha Shivaratri)||Illegal||Illegal|| Despite being illegal, cannabis is cheap and widely available in Nepal, and the police have little-to-no interest in cannabis-related issues.All cannabis licenses canceled in 1973.|
|Netherlands||Illegal – but use and sale is tolerated in licensed coffeeshops. Possession of up to 5 g is decriminalized.||Legal||Unenforced up to 5 plants for non-commercial use unless they are grown in a professional setup.||coffeeshops in the continental Netherlands. Cultivation often tolerated but growers can still have their plants and equipment confiscated and face eviction or cancellation of their mortgage for one single plant. Zero tolerance policy in the Caribbean Netherlands.Personal possession decriminalized and sale allowed only in certain licensed|
|New Zealand||Illegal (Legalization referendum to be held in 2020)||Legal||Illegal|| Medical use was legalized in December 2018, and a binding referendum on recreational use is to be held during the 2020 general election.Banned in 1927.|
|North Korea (DPRK)||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||There are conflicting reports on the legal status of cannabis in North Korea. Multiple reports from defectors and tourists claim there is no law regarding the possession of cannabis (as a result, it is not classified as a drug) in North Korea or if there is, it is mostly unenforced. However, other reports claim that cannabis is illegal.|
|Norway||Illegal (in process of decriminalization)||Legal||Illegal||Personal use of up to 15 g punished with a fine and a criminal record in the case of first-time offenders; possessing more and second offences is punished more harshly. Minors are routinely compelled to consent to regular supervised drug testing under threat of prosecution. In March 2018, the government created a working group tasked with decriminalizing drug use and mandating police to impose forced medical treatment of addicts instead of fines and imprisonment.|
|Pakistan||Illegal, but often unenforced (particularly in some tribal regions)||Illegal||Illegal||Peshawar and the northern parts of Pakistan tends to be tolerated. One may be sent to jail for up to six months if found with charas in other parts of the country.Prohibited, but the smoking of hashish in|
|Papua New Guinea||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|
|Paraguay||Decriminalized up to 10 g||Illegal||Illegal||Possession of up to 10 g not punished.|
|Peru||Decriminalized||Legal||Illegal|| Cultivation, production, and sale are punished with 8–15 years in prison.Possession of up to 8 g is not punished.|
|Poland||Illegal, but sometimes not enforced for small amounts||Legal||Illegal|| Possession of large quantities of drugs can result in up to 10 years in prison.Since 2011, prosecutors can choose not to prosecute possession of small quantities of cannabis for personal use, if it is a first offence, or if the person is drug dependent.|
|Portugal||Decriminalized up to 25 g of herb or 5 g of hashish||Legal||Decriminalized||In 2001, Portugal became the first country in the world to decriminalize the use of all drugs.|
|Romania||Illegal||Cannabis-derived drugs, less than 0.2% THC||Illegal, however, cannabis seeds can be purchased legally online|| Decriminalization proposed. Limited medical use approved in 2013.Small quantities punishable by a large fine for first offenders or 6 months to 2 years in prison if the person has been convicted before. Possession of large amounts or trafficking is punishable by 2–7 years of jail time.|
|Russia||Possession up to 6 g decriminalized (for Russian citizens only)||Illegal||Cultivation up to 20 plants (with flowers weighing less than 6 g) decriminalized||Possession up to 6 g of cannabis (or 2 g of hashish) leads to an administrative fine up to RUB 5,000 or detention up to 15 days. Foreign nationals and stateless individuals who violate the law are subject to deportation regardless of the amount.|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|
|Saudi Arabia||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Use and possession for personal use of any kind of recreational drugs is punishable by imprisonment if caught. Imprisonment for personal use could go up to six months jail time or more. Dealing and smuggling of high amounts of drugs usually result in harsher prison time or even execution, although recently executions are rare. Foreigners who use drugs might be deported.|
|Serbia||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||organized crime.Possession punishable by fine or imprisonment of up to 3 years. Sale and transportation punishable by 3–12 years imprisonment. Cultivation punishable by imprisonment from 6 months to 5 years. Higher penalties for|
|Sierra Leone||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Cannabis banned in 1920.|
|Singapore||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|| Cannabis is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act, making it illegal to cultivate, sell, or possess. Those who are caught with 500g of cannabis or more, are presumed as drug traffickers, and are punished with a possible death penalty.Banned in 1870.|
|Slovakia||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|| In April 2012, The Wall Street Journal reported that Robert Fico, the incoming Slovak prime minister, might push for partial legalisation of cannabis possession, and has argued for the legalisation of possession of up to three doses of cannabis for personal use.Possession of small amounts punishable by up to 8 years in prison.|
|Slovenia||Decriminalized||Cannabis-based drugs||Legal for quantities with ≤ 0.2 % THC on a ≤ 0.1 ha surface, or ≥ 0.1 ha surface with a governmental permit for cannabis cultivation.|| Possession of any drug for personal use is decriminalized.Cannabis-based drugs are legal for medicinal use, but not cannabis itself.|
|South Africa||Legal for possession and consumption but not for sale.||Use is legal, but no system for the dispensing of medicinal cannabis exists.||Legal for personal consumption.||Private use and cultivation decriminalized since 2018.|
|South Korea||Illegal||Epidiolex, Marinol, Sativex||Illegal||Medical use of cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals legalized in November 2018.|
|Spain||Use and possession in private areas allowed. Public consumption can result in a fine from 601 to 30000 €. Possession of larger amounts is considered trafficking.||Limited cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals||Allowed in private areas in amounts for personal use (e.g. Cannabis Social Clubs).|| but misdemeanors punishable by a fine. Legalized in Catalonia in 2017, but that law was challenged by the state and declared unconstitutional. Cultivation allowed in private areas if the plants cannot be seen from the street or other public spaces.Sale and importation punishable by jail time. All actions related to cannabis apart from sale or trade aren't considered criminal offenses,|
|Sri Lanka||Illegal||Legalized by amendment made in colonial law by 1980s and through the Ayurveda Act.||Cultivation allowed on the island under purveyor of the Government||Ayurvedic traditional medicines.The sale of cannabis is decriminalized for traditional medicine vendors and it is commonly used in|
|Suriname||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Cannabis was banned in Suriname in the early 20th century, having been popularized there by Asian immigrants.|
|Sweden||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||All cannabis-related activity illegal. The national police runs a "disturb and annoy" program aimed at users supported by the national "zero tolerance" policy.|
|Switzerland||Decriminalized||Legal||Illegal||Since 2012, possession of 10 g or less is decriminalized to a fine.|
|Syria||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Bashar al-Assad's government policies. As a result of civil war, people living in areas controlled by Kurdish separatists have begun growing cannabis as a way of making money to fight poverty.Reportedly punished by life imprisonment under|
|Taiwan (Republic of China, ROC)||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Cannabis is a schedule 2 narcotic in the ROC, and possession can result in up to 3 years imprisonment.|
|Thailand||Illegal but often unenforced||Legal||Illegal|| Possession, cultivation, and transport (import/export) of up to 10 kg of cannabis may result in a maximum sentence of 5 years in prison or a fine. Medical use was made legal in 2018.Criminalized in 1935.|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Banned in 1925.|
|Tunisia||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|| Using or possessing entails 1–5 years of imprisonment + 1000-3000 dinars (around 500$-1500$).Banned in 1953.|
|Turkey||Illegal||Cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals||Legal for medical purposes.|| Consuming any drug is illegal and requires juridical process. Possessing, purchasing, or receiving any illegal drug is punishable by 1–2 years of prison, treatment, or probation. Sale and supply is punishable by a prison term of 5–10 years, and production or trafficking by a minimum term of 10 years.Medical cultivation legal in nineteen provinces. With permission, this can also be conducted in other provinces as well.|
|Ukraine||Decriminalized for possession of up to 5 g||Illegal||Decriminalized up to ten plants|
|United Arab Emirates||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Even the smallest amounts of the drug can lead to a mandatory 4-year prison sentence.|
|United Kingdom||Illegal||Legal for the few cases of severe epilepsy, vomiting, or nausea caused by chemotherapy or multiple sclerosis||Legal with Home Office cannabis cultivation license|| made a Class B drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971Banned in 1928,|
|United States||Legal in 10 states and some other internal jurisdictions, but illegal at federal level. Decriminalized in other 13 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
||Legal in 33 states and other internal jurisdictions, but illegal at federal level.
||Illegal at federal level, permitted locally in some states allowing recreational or medical use.||District of Columbia. Prohibited by federal law, but individuals acting in accordance with state medical cannabis laws are protected from federal prosecution by the Rohrabacher–Farr amendment. Recognized Indian Reservations are allowed to regulate cannabis for both recreational and medical use under a policy announced by the Justice Department in 2014.Laws vary by state, territory, Indian Reservation, and the|
|Uruguay||Legal; buying prohibited for foreigners||Legal for all uses.||Legal for up to six plants|| Buyers must be eighteen or older, residents of Uruguay, and must register with the authorities. Authorities grow the cannabis that can be sold legally.Legal since late 2013.|
|Uzbekistan||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Opiates, cannabis and other plants containing psychotropic substances are illegal.|
|Venezuela||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Possession of up to 20 g of marijuana or 5 g of genetically modified marijuana for commercial purposes is punishable by 1–2 years in prison at judge's discretion. If deemed to be for personal consumption, the user is subject to security measures involving rehabilitation and detoxification procedures.|
|Vietnam||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal||Illegal|
|Zambia||Illegal||Illegal||Legal if licensed by the Minister of Health; however, no licenses are currently issued|
- Habibi, Roojin; Hoffman, Steven J. (March 2018). "Legalizing Cannabis Violates the UN Drug Control Treaties, But Progressive Countries Like Canada Have Options". Ottawa Law Review. 49 (2). Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- Bewley-Taylor, David; Jelsma, Martin; Rolles, Steve; Walsh, John (June 2016). "Cannabis regulation and the UN drug treaties" (PDF). Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- Powell, Burgess (24 February 2018). "The 7 Countries With The Strictest Weed Laws". High Times. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Smith, Tasha (5 June 2018). ""New Amsterdam" No More? Spain's Cannabis Clubs Fight to Stay Open". Merry Jane. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Haines, Gavin (21 February 2017). "Everything you need to know about marijuana smoking in the Netherlands". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- Ruddick, Graham. "GW signs Sativex cannabis-based drug deal with Novartis". The Telegraph. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "State Medical Marijuana Laws". National Conference of State Legislatures. 27 June 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Martin Booth (30 September 2011). Cannabis: A History. Transworld. pp. 325–. ISBN 978-1-4090-8489-1.
- Growing marijuana is an increasing regional problem, SETimes.com, 7 August 2012, retrieved 2013-04-18
- Report Says Albania Cannabis Growth Mounting, balkaninsight.com, 7 March 2013, retrieved 2013-04-18
- Albanian Police Seize Cannabis Shipment, balkaninsight.com
- TNI. "Argentina - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "El Gobierno reglamentó la ley de cannabis medicinal". Infobae. 22 September 2017.
- Ryan, Jackson (20 April 2018). "Everything You Need To Know About The Plan To Legalise Cannabis In Australia". Lifehacker. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
- "Cannabis and the law". cannabissupport.com.au. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
- "Medical Marijuana in Australia". marijuanadoctors.com. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- Jolly, William (28 February 2018). "Medicinal Marijuana Legal In Australia". Canstar. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "AFP: Austria allows cannabis for medical purposes". afp.google.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
- "Drug Abuse: Where is The Way of Remedy? (Part II- Some Dangerous Silent Killers)". DhakaInsider. 20 June 2014. Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
- Government of Bangladesh. "Narcotics Control Act, 1990" (PDF). Retrieved 11 November 2016.[dead link]
- "Dhaka, Bangladesh – We Be High". webehigh.org. webehigh. Retrieved 2015-12-05.
- "Medical cannabis plantation offers patients new perspectives - Flanders Today". www.flanderstoday.eu.
- Police fédérale - CGPR Webteam. "Federale politie - Police fédérale". Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Cannabis legal status vault – Belgium". www.erowid.org. Erowid.org. Retrieved 2011-02-17.
- Hubbard, Kirsten. "Drug Laws and Penalties in Central America". About.com. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- Adele (2016-02-20). "Laws in the works for marijuana decriminalization | Amandala Newspaper". Amandala.com.bz. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
- Bell, Jonathan (November 25, 2016). "People can apply for medical cannabis". The Royal Gazette. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- Bell, Jonathan (July 25, 2018). "Weeks: we need to talk about cannabis". The Royal Gazette. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- "Bhutan" (PDF). UNODC: South Asia Regional Profile: 21–26. September 2005. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- Bosnia Today. "Bosnia to legalize medical marijuana this year - Bosnia Today". Bosniatoday.ba. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "Drugs and related substances act no. 18 of 1992" (PDF). Government of Botswana. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Is dagga the healing of a nation?". Sunday Standard. 7 October 2013. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Congresso Nacional (23 August 2006). "Lei nº 11.343". www.planalto.gov.br (in Portuguese). Brasília: Presidência da República - Casa Civil. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
- "Bulgaria: Country Drug Report 2017". European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "Law on Drug Management (Drug Control)". Council for the Development of Cambodia. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
Article 2 : Except for the cases of the article 14, the cultivation of opium poppy, cocoa plants, cannabis indica and cannabis saliva in the Kingdom of Cambodia, shall be prohibited.
- Soenthrith, Saing (15 March 2013). "Foreigners Arrested in Siem Reap Marijuana Bust". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
Police in Siem Reap City on Tuesday arrested 18 people, including 14 foreign nationals, during raids on two establishments, where they confiscated a stash of marijuana and an as-yet-unidentified powder, police said.
- Goldberg, Lina. "Recreational drugs in Cambodia". Move To Cambodia. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
Foreigners are rarely prosecuted for small amounts of marijuana, but expect to pay a few bribes if you do get caught.
- Harfenist, Ethan (30 May 2015). "The high life". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- Happy Restaurants (sic) in Sihanoukville, GoSihanoukville.com, retrieved 2011-02-17
- "What you need to know about cannabis". Government of Canada.
- "Instructivo para acreditar el uso medicinal del cannabis frente a procedimientos policiales" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- TNI. "Chile - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "El cultivo colectivo de Cannabis, legal en Chile". Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "Autocultivo de marihuana es legal en Chile - Delaferia". Delaferia. Archived from the original on 25 February 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "Ana María Gazmuri: "En Chile hoy en día el autocultivo es legal"" (in Spanish). 24 August 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- "Chile plants cannabis for medicinal use". BBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- Grupo Copesa (20 October 2015). "En diciembre estaría autorizada la venta de medicamentos con cannabis en farmacias". Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- Chen, J.; Li, Y.; Otto, J.M. (2002). Implementation of Law in the People's Republic of China. The London Leiden Series on Law. Springer Netherlands. p. 202. ISBN 978-90-411-1834-9.
- "Drogas: la dosis mínima ya no será tan mínima". Semana.com. 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
- Ley 30 de 1986, alcaldiabogota.gov.co, 31 January 1986
- "Colombia Just Legalized Medical Marijuana". BuzzFeed. 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- "Decreto Número 2467 de 2015" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Social Protection (Colombia). 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Dossiers sur les 30 Chefs d'Etat ou de Gouvernements tués Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.(in French)
- French, Howard (1997). "The Mercenary Position". Transition (73): 110–121. doi:10.2307/2935448. ISSN 0041-1191. JSTOR 2935448. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
- Chinchilla ve complicado legalizar la marihuana – EL PAÍS – La Nación, Nacion.com, 24 August 2010, archived from the original on 17 February 2011, retrieved 17 February 2011
- Marijuana in Costa Rica: Laws, History and Potential, The Costa Rica News, 18 December 2015, retrieved 2015-12-30
- "Zakon o suzbijanju zlouporabe droga" (in Croatian). Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- "Croatia Legalises Marijuana for Medical Use". Balkan Insight. 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
- Tharoor, Avinash (1 February 2017). "Cyprus Set to Provide Cannabis Oil to Cancer Patients". Talking Drugs. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Overviews of legal topics: possession of cannabis for personal use". EMCDDA. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Nejvýš 10 gramů konopí. Soud nově stanovil větší než malé množství drog - Legalizace.cz". 9 April 2014.
- "Aktuální zákon o konopí v ČR - Legalizace.cz". 19 October 2017.
- The Next Amsterdam – Culture Magazine, Ireadculture.com, archived from the original on 2011-07-19, retrieved 2011-12-14
- Carney, Sean (8 December 2009), Wall Street Journal. Czech Govt Allows 5 Cannabis Plants For Personal Use From 2010. 8th December 2009, Blogs.wsj.com, retrieved 2011-02-17
- "Czech Republic Pharmacies Began Selling Medical Cannabis". The420times.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Czech Republic Legalizes Medical Marijuana Use". Huffingtonpost.com. 15 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-23.
- Denmark marijuana laws – cannabis growing and marijuana seeds, 1stmarijuanagrowerspage.com, retrieved 2011-02-17
- Radicella, Lucas (22 May 2018). "Copenhagen's largest cannabis market shut down". Euronews. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Drugs (Prevention of Misuse) Act, Chapter 40:07 (PDF), retrieved 2011-02-17
- Ecuador, Drug Law Reform in Latin America, retrieved 2011-01-31
- Law 108 – Ecuador (PDF), retrieved 2011-01-31
- US Embassy, Ecuador – Information for American Citizens (PDF), retrieved 2011-01-31
-  Archived 2 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- Seshata, Cannabis in Egypt, The Sensi Seed Bank, retrieved 2014-01-20
- Lama Hasan (5 May 2010), Egypt's Pot Problem? A Marijuana Shortage, ABC News, archived from the original on 1 March 2011, retrieved 31 January 2011
- "Kanepi ja kannabinoidide meditsiiniline kasutamine - Ravimiamet". www.ravimiamet.ee.
- Europe Guide : Maps of Europe by language, religion, population density, hair and eye color, etc, Eupedia.com, 19 April 1994, retrieved 2011-02-17
- US warns American Rastas about Ethiopian laws, iol.co.za, 29 January 2005, retrieved 2011-10-08
- Silvàn, Sini. "Lääkekannabis edelleen marginaalinen lääke" (in Finnish). YLE. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- Code de la santé publique (in French), Legifrance.gouv.fr, 29 July 2004, retrieved 2011-02-17
- Marie Jamet (6 November 2013). "Legalising or decriminalizing cannabis in France: not that easy". Euronews. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- Ann Törnkvist (10 June 2013). "French law on pot-based medicine takes effect". The Local. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- "Georgian Court Abolishes Fines For Marijuana Consumption". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 30 July 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- "Marijuana consumption regulations unveiled by Georgia's Interior Ministry". Agenda.ge. 5 September 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
- "Norms envisaging imprisonment for marijuana use now null and void in Georgia". Agenda.ge. 24 December 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "Constitutional Court's Judgment on Sowing, Growing and Cultivation of Weed". Drug Policy Georgia. 19 July 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- Schuster, Kathleen (10 March 2018). "5 facts about cannabis laws in Germany". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- "Cannabis in Germany". Sensi Seeds. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- Berlinger, Joshua. "Germany to legalize medicinal marijuana by 2017". CNN. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Germany to legalise cannabis for medicinal purposes". The Telegraph. 3 May 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Kade, Claudia. "Ab 2017 gibt es Cannabis auf Kassenrezept". Die Welt. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Cannabis als Medizin". Bundesministerium für Gesundheit. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Cannabis auf Kassenkosten". Tagesschau. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Medical Cannabis is Now Officially Legal in Germany". Seedsman. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- Milena Lopez. "Comisión Rechaza Uso Medicinal De La Marihuana En Guatemala". Tn8.tv. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
- Juan Toro. "Guatemala: Rechazan uso de marihuana medicinal - Cluster Salud, La Industria de la vida". Clustersalud.americaeconomia.com. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
- "Rastafarian community protests against 'unjust' marijuana laws". Stabroek News. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
- "Ley Sobre Uso Indebido y Trafico Ilicito de Drogas y Sustancias Psicotropicas" (PDF).
- Information on the official web site of the Hong Kong Police Force, Police.gov.hk, retrieved 2011-12-14
- Minstrel, Társaság a Szabadságjogokért: Drogjog 1999 Voted Vote D2ID : 62, Daath.hu, retrieved 2011-02-17
- "Marihuana og LSD loks bannað hér!" (in Icelandic) (235). Tíminn. 25 October 1969. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- Sveinn Helgason, Magnús (26 August 2015). "Do Icelanders really smoke more cannabis than anyone else?". Iceland Magazine. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "Uttarakhand To Become First Indian State To Legalise Cannabis Cultivation". Indiatimes. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
- "Gujarat further tightens prohibition - Times of India". indiatimes.com. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Thomas H. Slone (2003). Prokem. Masalai Press. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-0-9714127-5-0.
- "Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia No. 35 Tahun 2009 tentang Narkotika" (PDF). BNN RI. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
- Aquino, Michael. "Drug Laws in Bali and the Rest of Indonesia". TripSavvy. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "Drug offences". Dublin: Citizens Information Board. 20 July 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "Medicinal Products Availability: : Written answers". Dáil Éireann debates. KildareStreet.com. 26 Oct 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "National Drugs Strategy (interim) 2009-2016" (PDF). Official publications. Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs. June 2009. p. 26, sec.2.49. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "Minister Catherine Byrne TD announces a Public Consultation on the New National Drugs Strategy" (Press release). Ireland: Department of Health. 6 September 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "S.I. No. 323/2014 - Misuse of Drugs (Amendment) Regulations 2014". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- Harris, Simon (10 November 2016). "Joint Oireachtas Committee on Health: Quarterly Update On Health Issues: Discussion". Oireachtas Joint and Select Committees proceedings. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "Cannabis for Medicinal Use (Regulations) Bill 2016: Second Stage [Private Members]". Dáil debates. kildarestreet.com. 1 December 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "Medicinal cannabis bill passes Dáil without vote". RTE.ie. 2016-12-01. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
- "Cannabis for Medicinal Use Regulation Bill 2016 Bill 2016 [PMB]". Bills. Oireachtas. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "Israel's parliament unanimously votes to progress cannabis decriminalisation". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
- "linkonline.it". Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Jamaica Lawmakers Decriminalize Small Amounts of 'Ganja'". ABC News. 25 February 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Bud, Monterey (19 March 2018). "Jamaica's Kaya Farms Becomes First Medical Marijuana Dispensary To Open". marijuana.com. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- Minoru Shikita; Shinichi Tsuchiya (6 December 2012). Crime and Criminal Policy in Japan: Analysis and Evaluation of the Showa Era, 1926–1988. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-1-4612-2816-5.
- Cannabis Control Law, japanhemp.org, retrieved 2015-08-04
- "Par Krimināllikuma spēkā stāšanās un piemērošanas kārtību" (in Latvian). likumi.lv. Retrieved 2013-06-23.
- Robert Connell Clarke (1998). Hashish!. Red Eye Press. ISBN 978-0-929349-05-3.
- Réalités. Spectacle du monde. May 1996. p. 354.
Les Américains ne lâchant pas prise, le gouvernement libanais interdisait officiellement la culture du pavot et du cannabis en 1992.
- In Lebanon, a comeback for cannabis / The Christian Science Monitor, CSMonitor.com, 16 October 2007, retrieved 2011-02-17
- "Lesotho Just Granted Africa's First Legal Marijuana License". 13 September 2017.
- "Art. 7 and Art. 8 refer to the usage of narcotics" (PDF), Excerpt of the "Mémorial A" of the Luxembourgish legislation
- Joyce H. Lowinson (2005). Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-0-7817-3474-5.
- European Coalition for Just and Effective Drug Policies, Encod.org, archived from the original on 18 May 2011, retrieved 17 February 2011
- "Macedonia: Parliament Legalizes Medical Marijuana". Eurasia Review.[permanent dead link]
- Malaysia, Travel.state.gov, archived from the original on 17 February 2011, retrieved 2011-02-17
- "AFRICA | Malawi Rastas' marijuana struggle". BBC News. 2000-09-11. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- "Marijuana Cultivation Increases in Malawi - New York Times". Nytimes.com. 1998-12-17. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- "New drugs reform law into force today– what has changed?". MaltaToday.com.mt. 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
- Neil Camilleri (2015-03-17). "Simple possession to remain an 'arrestable offence' - but only to fight drug trade – Bonnici - The Malta Independent". Independent.com.mt. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
- Janikian, Michelle (14 September 2017). "Legal Pot In Mexico: Everything You Need to Know". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Mexico Legalizes Drug Possession". The New York Times. 21 August 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "Mexico court ruling could eventually lead to legal marijuana". BBC. 4 November 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-05.
- McDonnell-Parry, Amelia (2 November 2018). "Did Mexico Just Legalize Pot?". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- Adlin, Ben (1 November 2018). "FAQ: Mexico Legalized Cannabis? Not Exactly". Leafly. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- "Kathmandu, Nepal", webehigh, retrieved 1 November 2016
- Use drop-down menu on site to view Netherlands entry., Eldd.emcdda.europa.eu, retrieved 2011-02-17
- Drugs Policy in the Netherlands, Ukcia.org, retrieved 2011-02-17
- "Amsterdam Will Ban Tourists from Pot Coffee Shops". Atlantic Wire. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-23.
- "Aanwijzing Opiumwet (2015A003)".
- "Hennep? Einde huurcontract!".
- "De keerzijde van straffeloosheid - VVS Advocaten". 26 October 2016.
- Roes, Thijs (13 January 2017). "Met je gezin voor twee planten op straat gezet. En meer uitwassen van de strijd tegen wiet".
- "wetten.nl - Regeling - Opiumwet 1960 BES - BWBR0028519". wetten.overheid.nl.
- Dangerous Drugs Act, 1927
- Ainge Roy, Eleanor (11 December 2018). "New Zealand passes laws to make medical marijuana widely available". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "NZ Voters Will Decide Whether Cannabis Is Legalized". New York Times. 18 December 2018.
- Shearlaw, Maeve (13 May 2014). "Mythbusters: uncovering the truth about North Korea". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "The Drug Policy Working Group". The Office of the Prime Minister.
- "Riksadvokatens rundskriv nr. 2 2014" (PDF).
- Cannabis legal status vault – Pakistan/Peshawar, Erowid.org
- TNI. "Paraguay - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "En Paraguay, la posesión y consumo personal de la marihuana es legal". E'a. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- Collyns, Dan (20 October 2017). "Peru legalises medical marijuana in move spurred by mother's home lab". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "Modificando el Código Penal en materia de Tráfico Ilícito de Drogas". Instituto de Defensa Legal – Seguridad Ciudadana. Archived from the original on 2012-10-15.
- "Ley Nº 28002" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2013.
- "Código Penal. Decreto Legislativo Nº 635".
- Manuel Vigo. "Peru rules out proposals to legalize marijuana". Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "Legalización de la marihuana en Perú a debate". Peru21. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- TNI. "Peru - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "Poland Approves Drug Decriminalization -- Sort Of". stopthedrugwar.org. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
- Drugs in small quantity and for personal use with no punishment – Poland, Interia.pl, 26 May 2011, archived from the original on 29 May 2011, retrieved 29 May 2011
- EMCDDA: Drug policy profiles, Portugal, Emcdda.europa.eu, 17 August 2011, retrieved 2011-12-14
- Pedepsele pentru traficul și consumul de droguri s-au redus. Totuși..., Reporter NTV, 10 February 2015, retrieved 4 September 2017
- Raport pentru EBA: Comisia prezidenţială susţine dezincriminarea consumului de droguri şi sexul comercial, Antena3.ro, 22 September 2009, retrieved 2011-02-17
- "Romania Legalizes Medical Marijuana, Becomes 10th EU Country To Permit Theraputic Use". Novinite. 6 October 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- "ANM: Nu avem nicio cerere de punere pe piaţă a canabisului medicinal; dacă ar fi, am aproba-o". Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- (in Russian) http://www.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc&ts=164469974506312461340936923&cacheid=994B2ACA3517C672CBCF7A2398087641&mode=splus&base=LAW&n=310901&dst=2083&rnd=62E8B8E346501CD4CE50DFE5E998C343#09158851242449872. Retrieved 2018-12-05. Missing or empty
- US Department of State – International Travel – Saudi Arabia, Travel.state.gov, archived from the original on 11 December 2013, retrieved 2011-02-17
- Serbian Cannabis: Between Pain and the Law, VICE, 2016, retrieved 2016-07-27
- Krivični zakonik (The Criminal Code), paragraf.rs, 2013, retrieved 2011-02-17
- Emmanuel Akyeampong; Allan G. Hill; Arthur Kleinman (1 May 2015). The Culture of Mental Illness and Psychiatric Practice in Africa. Indiana University Press. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-0-253-01304-0.
- Nanthawan Bunyapraphatsō̜n (1999). Medicinal and poisonous plants. Backhuys Publishers. p. 169. ISBN 978-90-5782-042-7.
- Cannabis legal status vault – Singapore, Erowid.org, retrieved 2011-02-17
- "MISUSE OF DRUGS ACT". Attorney-General's Chamber. Singapore Government. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "High contrast". The Economist. London: Economist Newspaper. 26 August 2010. ISSN 0013-0613. OCLC 60625410. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Rousek, Leos (3 April 2012). "Slovakia's Incoming Leftist Premier Wants to Relax Tough Cannabis Laws". The Wall Street Journal. New York, NY: Dow Jones. ISSN 0099-9660. OCLC 43638285. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Uradni list Republike Slovenije". Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Slovenija dovolila uporabo konoplje v medicinske namene". Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Uporaba konoplje v medicini". "NIJZ". Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "Zakon o proizvodnji in prometu s prepovedanimi drogami (ZPPPD)". "Uradni List". Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Lindeque, Mia. "ConCourt upholds ruling that private use of dagga is legal".
- "The highest court has spoken: You are allowed to smoke - and grow - dagga at home".
- "Seoul Allows Use of Cannabis-based Drugs for Incurable Diseases". Korea Biomedical Review. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
- "Ministry Seeks to Selectively Permit Marijuana-based Drugs". The Korea Herald.
- "South Korea legalises medical marijuana". Financial Times. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- Hudson, Ross (21 April 2017). "The Future of Spain's Cannabis Social Clubs". Marijuana Games. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- Rueda, José. "Multas y penas por consumo y tenencia de drogas en España". I Wanna Grow. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- "Somos Policías: Tenencia de drogas: ¿Consumo propio o tráfico ilícito?". Somos-policias.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
- Mac. "Marihuana y su legalidad en España". La Marihuana. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "España endurece las leyes sobre el cannabis en plena corriente mundial por la despenalización". El Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Catalonia legalises marijuana consumption, cultivation and distribution". The Independent. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "of the Constitutional Court: The End of Cannabis Tolerance in Spain". 15 January 2018.
- Mac. "¿El auto cultivo de marihuana se despenaliza en España?". La Marihuana. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "Getting High And Low In The 'Mal' Capital". Colombo Telegraph. 2014-06-18. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
- Marijuana Should be Allowed; Sri Lanka Indigenous Medicine Minister Says :: NIDAHASA News, News.nidahasa.com, 2 July 2009, retrieved 2011-02-17
- Rosemarijn Hoefte (1998). In Place of Slavery: A Social History of British Indian and Javanese Laborers in Suriname. University Press of Florida. pp. 160–. ISBN 978-0-8130-1625-2.
- Swedish drug control FINAL_14feb_merged (PDF), retrieved 2011-02-17
- RättsPM 2009:1 (PDF) (in Swedish), Åklagarmyndighetens Utvecklngscentrum, 2009[permanent dead link]
- "FF 2012 7539" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Ahmad, Rozh (24 August 2012). "www.rudaw.net/english/news/syria/5123.html". Rudaw. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- Cannabis legal status vault – Taiwan, Erowid.org, retrieved 2015-11-01
- "พระราชบัญญัติกันชา พุทธศักราช ๒๔๗๗" (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 52: 339–343. 5 May 1935. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- Eric Blair (2001), History of Marijuana Use and Anti-Marijuana Laws in Thailand, retrieved 2015-08-27
- Axel Klein; Marcus Day; Anthony Harriott (13 November 2004). Caribbean Drugs: From Criminalization to Harm Reduction. Zed Books. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-1-84277-499-1.
- United Nations. Commission on Narcotic Drugs (1949). Summary of Annual Reports of Governments Relating to Opium and Other Narcotic Drugs.
TUNISIA 18. A Decree of 23 April 1953“ (published in the Journal Officiel Tunisien of 28 April 1953) prohibits the cultivation of cannabis and the use of takrouri (cannabis) and specifies the conditions under which ...
- The Rough Guide to Tunisia – Daniel Jacobs, Peter Morris – Google grâmatas. Books.google.com. 2001. ISBN 9781858287485. Retrieved 2013-06-23.
- "Tunisia accuses 'missing' Maltese of smuggling cannabis". timesofmalta.com. Retrieved 2013-06-23.
- "قانون عدد 52 لسنة 1992 مؤرخ في 18 ماي 1992 يتعلق بالمخدرات" [Law No. 52 of 1992, dated 18 May 1992 concerning drugs] (in Arabic). Tunisia: DCAF / legislation-securite.tn. Archived from the original on 19 December 2015.
- "Turkey legalises controlled cannabis production in nineteen provinces". Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- "Türkiye'de 19 ilde kenevir yasallaştı" (in Turkish). Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (31 January 2012), Country overview: Turkey, Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, OCLC 527925326
- Ответственность за выращивание конопли и хранение марихуаны, zakon-online.com.ua, 12 September 2012, retrieved 2014-07-22
- "UAE Drug Laws". BBC News. 8 February 2008. Retrieved 2011-02-17.
- "Midicinal Cannabis Rescheduling" (PDF). UK Home Office. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- "News Daily Organised crime threat greater than terror and cannabis on prescription". BBC news. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
- "Guidance Controlled drugs: licences, fees and returns". United Kingdom Home Office. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- Paul Manning (11 January 2013). Drugs and Popular Culture. Routledge. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-1-134-01211-4.
- "Drug Laws". United Kingdom Home Office. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- "State Medical Marijuana Laws". National Conference of State Legislatures. 27 June 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- the D.O.J. allows indian reservations to grow and sell marijuana, nwherald.com, 12 December 2014, retrieved 2014-12-24
- Cannabis South American laws, Erowid.org, March 1995
- "The experiment: Another blow against prohibition". The Economist. 1 August 2013.
- "Uruguay becomes first country to legalize marijuana trade". Reuters. 10 December 2013.
- "Uruguay marijuana sales delayed until 2015: President - Americas". Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Criminal Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan" (in Uzbek). The national database of legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Ley Orgánica de Drogas – Sept.10 (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2012, retrieved 17 February 2011