Triumph Motor Company
The Triumph Motor Company was a British car and motor manufacturing company in the 19th and 20th centuries. The marque had its origins in 1885 when Siegfried Bettmann of Nuremberg formed S. Bettmann & Co. and started importing bicycles from Europe and selling them under his own trade name in London. The trade name became "Triumph" the following year, in 1887 Bettmann was joined by a partner, Moritz Schulte from Germany. In 1889, the businessmen started producing their own bicycles in England; the company was acquired by Leyland Motors in 1960 becoming part of the giant conglomerate British Leyland in 1968, where the Triumph brand was absorbed into BL's Specialist Division alongside former Leyland stablemates Rover and Jaguar. Triumph-badged vehicles were produced by BL until 1984 when the Triumph marque was retired, where it remained dormant under the auspices of BL's successor company Rover Group; the rights to the Triumph marque are owned by BMW, who purchased the Rover Group in 1994. The company was renamed the Triumph Cycle Co. Ltd. in 1897.
In 1902 they began producing Triumph motorcycles at their works in Coventry on Much Park Street. At first, they used engines purchased from another company, but the business prospered and they soon started making their own engines. In 1907 they purchased the premises of a spinning mill on Priory Street to develop a new factory. Major orders for the 550 cc Model H were placed by the British Army during the First World War. In 1921 Bettmann was persuaded by his general manager Claude Holbrook, who had joined the company in 1919, to acquire the assets and Clay Lane premises of the Dawson Car Company and start producing a car and 1.4-litre engine type named the Triumph 10/20 designed for them by Lea-Francis, to whom they paid a royalty for every car sold. Production of this car and its immediate successors was moderate, but this changed with the introduction in 1927 of the Triumph Super 7, which sold in large numbers until 1934. In 1930 the company's name was changed to Triumph Motor Company. Holbrook realized he could not compete with the larger car companies for the mass market, so he decided to produce expensive cars, introduced the models Southern Cross and Gloria.
At first they used engines made by Triumph but designed by Coventry Climax, but in 1937 Triumph started to produce engines to their own designs by Donald Healey, who had become the company's experimental manager in 1934. The company encountered financial problems however, in 1936 the Triumph bicycle and motorcycle businesses were sold, the latter to Jack Sangster of Ariel to become Triumph Engineering Co Ltd. Healey purchased an Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 and developed a new car model with an Alfa inspired straight-8 engine type named the Triumph Dolomite. Three of these cars were made in 1934, one of, used in competition and destroyed in an accident; the Dolomites manufactured from 1937 to 1940 were unrelated to these prototypes. In July 1939 the Triumph Motor Company went into receivership and the factory and goodwill were offered for sale; the Thos W Ward scrapping company purchased Triumph, placed Healey in charge as general manager, but the effects of the Second World War again stopped the production of cars.
In November 1944 what was left of the Triumph Motor Company and the Triumph trade name were bought by the Standard Motor Company and a subsidiary "Triumph Motor Company Limited" was formed with production transferred to Standard's factory at Canley, on the outskirts of Coventry. Triumph's new owners had been supplying engines to Jaguar and its predecessor company since 1938. After an argument between Standard-Triumph Managing Director, Sir John Black, William Lyons, the creator and owner of Jaguar, Black's objective in acquiring the rights to the name and the remnants of the bankrupt Triumph business was to build a car to compete with the soon to be launched post-war Jaguars; the pre-war Triumph models were not revived and in 1946 a new range of Triumphs was announced, starting with the Triumph Roadster. The Roadster had an aluminium body because steel was in short supply and surplus aluminium from aircraft production was plentiful; the same engine was used for the 1800 Town and Country saloon named the Triumph Renown, notable for the styling chosen by Standard-Triumph's managing director Sir John Black.
A similar style was used for the subsequent Triumph Mayflower light saloon. All three of these models prominently sported the "globe" badge, used on pre-war models; when Sir John was forced to retire from the company this range of cars was discontinued without being replaced directly, sheet aluminium having by now become a prohibitively expensive alternative to sheet steel for most auto-industry purposes. In the early 1950s it was decided to use the Triumph name for sporting cars and the Standard name for saloons and in 1953 the Triumph TR2 was initiated, the first of the TR series of sports cars that were produced until 1981. Curiously, the TR2 had the Triumph globe on its hubcaps. Standard had been making a range of small saloons named the Standard Eight and Ten, had been working on their replacements; the success of the TR range meant that Triumph was considered a more marketable name than Standard, the new car was introduced in 1959 as the Triumph Herald. The last Standard car to be made in the UK was replaced in 1963 by the Triumph 2000.
Standard-Triumph was bought by Leyland Motors Ltd. in December 1960. In 1968 Leyland merged with British Motor Holdings (created out of the merger o
Castrol is a British global brand of industrial and automotive lubricants offering a wide range of oils and similar products for most lubrication applications. The Wakefield Oil Company was founded by Charles Cheers Wakefield in 1899; the brand "Castrol" originated. In 1966, Castrol was acquired by Scottish company Burmah Oil, renamed Burmah-Castrol. Burmah-Castrol was purchased by London-based multinational BP in 2000. Castrol has signed with Gaunt Brothers Racing to run the 96 Toyota with DJ Kennington in the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series in the 4 superspeedway races at Daytona International Speedway and Talladega SuperspeedwayThe brand has been involved in Formula One for many years, supplying to a number of teams, including McLaren, Team Lotus, Jaguar and Walter Wolf Racing. Castrol have signed up with Renault F1 to supply fuel and lubricants for the 2017 F1 world championship. McLaren are expected to announce a similar deal with Castrol in the coming weeks. Castrol has sponsored the Ford World Rally Team and M-Sport in the World Rally Championship since 2003, the Chip Ganassi Racing Ford GT factory team since 2016.
It has sponsored Volkswagen Motorsport activities in the Dakar Rally and the World Rally Championship since 2005. Audi Sport's activities in rallying and touring car racing have been sponsored by Castrol, as well as its Le Mans Prototypes program since 2011. BMW Motorsport was sponsored by Castrol from 1999 to 2014. Toyota Motorsport GmbH had Castrol sponsorship in the World Rally Championship from 1993 to 1998, Hyundai Motorsport did so from 2000 to 2002; the Honda factory team at the World Touring Car Championship has Castrol sponsorship since 2012. In the All-Japan GT Championship, the TOM'S Toyota Supra and the Mugen Honda NSX had Castrol sponsorships. In Australia, between 1993 and 2005, Castrol was the title sponsor of V8 Supercars team Perkins Engineering, it sponsored Longhurst Racing between 1995 and 1999, Ford Performance Racing between 2007 and 2009, Paul Morris Motorsport in 2010. Since 2018 Castrol has been title sponsor of Kelly Racing driver Rick Kelly. Castrol is the title sponsor with Team Bray, owned by Australian drag car legend, Victor Bray for 17 years.
In North America, Castrol has been an active sponsor of NHRA drag racing. Castrol sponsored John Force Racing under the GTX brand from 1987 until the end of the 2014 season; the All American Racers had Castrol sponsorship in the CART World Series from 1996 to 1999. In 2014, Castrol sponsored former Indy 500-winning IndyCar team Bryan Herta Autosport, with English rookie Jack Hawksworth behind the wheel. Castrol is the name sponsor of Castrol Raceway, a multi-track oval and motocross racing facility in Edmonton, Canada. Castrol is the sponsor of D. J. Kennington in the NASCAR Canadian Tire Series. In Australia, Castrol was the main sponsor of the Castrol International Rally in Canberra for more than 10 years between 1976 and 1986; the same was true for an International Rally held in South Africa, ending annually in neighbouring Swaziland. It was the most prestigious event on the South African rally calendar at the time, until Castrol ended its sponsorship of this event. Only some competitors' cars were carrying the bright green and red colours of Castrol sponsorship in national rally events, notably the S.
A. Toyota dealer team; as of 2015, Castrol has a major V8 Supercar presence in Australia. Castrol is the Official Oil of the Championship. In Additionally, certain race events are Castrol branded, such as the Castrol Edge Townsville 500 and the Castrol Gold Coast 600. Castrol advertising has been a part of telecasts of the National Football League for years. In 2011 Castrol's Edge brand became the official motor oil sponsor for the league, along with Minnesota Vikings running back Adrian Peterson endorsing the product; the endorsement deal with Peterson was terminated on 16 September 2014 due to ongoing child abuse allegations. The Castrol Cricket Index for a team is a dynamic indicator of the overall performance of the cricket team, it is calculated by taking into consideration the batting momentum, the bowling efficiency, the performance of the teams in the quick start overs and the extreme performance overs and many other factors. Castrol Cricket ranks cricketers based on their overall performance.
India centric initiatives being undertaken like Castrol World Cup ka Hero was created during the 2011 Cricket World Cup. In 2011, Castrol signed a four-year sponsorship deal for the Australian national rugby union team and as the naming rights sponsor of The Rugby Championship. It's More Than Just Oil. It's Liquid Engineering is the advertising slogan or punchline of Castrol, used for branding its engine oil products. Castrol products are still marketed under the red and green colour scheme that dates from the launch of Castrol motor oil in 1909. Advertisements for Castrol oil featured the slogan "Castrol – liquid engineering". It's liquid engineering." In 2008, this slogan was being featured as the name for a new rewards club called the "Castrol Liquid Engineering Crew" in which members get the chance to win prizes. For many years, the opening notes of the second Nachtmusik movement of Mahler's Seventh Symphony were used as the signature theme of Castrol TV commercials. Wakefield vehicles advertised Castrol on their sides.
One example from 1934 to 1
Lucas Industries plc was a Birmingham-based British manufacturer of motor industry and aerospace industry components. Once prominent, it was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. In August 1996, Lucas merged with the American Varity Corporation to form LucasVarity plc. After LucasVarity was sold to TRW the Lucas brand name was licensed for its brand equity to Elta Lighting for aftermarket auto parts in the United Kingdom; the Lucas trademark is owned by ZF Friedrichshafen, which retained the Elta arrangement. In the 1850s, Joseph Lucas, a jobless father of six, sold paraffin oil from a barrow cart around the streets of Hockley. In 1860, he founded the firm, his 17-year-old son Harry joined the firm around 1872. At first it made general pressed metal merchandise, including plant pot holders and buckets, in 1875 lamps for ships. Joseph Lucas & Son was based in Little King Street from 1882 and Great King Street Birmingham. In 1902, what had by become Joseph Lucas Ltd, incorporated in 1898, started making automotive electrical components such as magnetos, windscreen wipers, lighting and starter motors.
The company started its main growth in 1914 with a contract to supply Morris Motors Limited with electrical equipment. During the First World War Lucas made shells and fuses, as well as electrical equipment for military vehicles. Up until the early 1970s, Lucas was the principal supplier to British manufacturers of magnetos, alternators and other electrical components. After the First World War the firm expanded branching out into products such as braking systems and diesel systems for the automotive industry and hydraulic actuators and electronic engine control systems for the aerospace industry. In 1926 they gained an exclusive contract with Austin. Around 1930, Lucas and Smiths established a trading agreement to avoid competition in each other's markets. During the 1920s and 1930s Lucas grew by taking over a number of their competitors such as Rotax and C. A. Vandervell. During WW2 Lucas were engaged by Rover to work on the combustion and fuel systems for the Whittle jet engine project making the burners.
This came about because of their experience of sheet metal manufacture and CAV for the pumps and injectors. In the 1950s they started a semiconductor manufacturing plant to make transistors. In 1976, the militant workforce within Lucas Aerospace were facing significant layoffs. Under the leadership of Mike Cooley, they developed the Lucas Plan to convert the company from arms to the manufacture of useful products, save jobs; the plan was described at the time by the Financial Times as "one of the most radical alternative plans drawn up by workers for their company", by Tony Benn as "one of the most remarkable exercises that has occurred in British industrial history". The Plan took a year to put together, consisted of six volumes of around 200 pages each, included designs for 150 proposed items for manufacture, market analysis and proposals for employee training and restructuring the firm's work organisation; the plan was not put into place but it is claimed that the associated industrial action saved some jobs.
In addition the Plan had an impact outside of Lucas Aerospace: according to a 1977 article in New Statesman, "the philosophical and technical implications of the plan now being discussed on average of twenty five times a week in international media". Workers in other companies subsequently undertook similar initiatives elsewhere in the UK, continental Europe and the United States, the Plan was supported by and influenced the work of radical scientists such as the British Society for Social Responsibility in Science and community and environmental activists through spreading the idea of encouraging useful production; the Plan's proposals had an influence on the economic development strategies of a number of left-wing Labour councils, for example the West Midlands, Sheffield and the Greater London Council, where Cooley was appointed Technology Director of the Greater London Enterprise Board after being sacked by Lucas in 1981 due to his activism. In August 1996, Lucas Industries plc merged with the North American Varity Corporation to form LucasVarity plc.
Its specific history is covered on the LucasVarity page but for the sake of continuity key aspects of the old Lucas business histories to date that referring to CAV and Lucas Diesel Systems are still included here. Harry Lucas designed a hub lamp for use in a high bicycle in 1879 and named the oil lamp "King of the Road"; this name would come to be associated with the manufactured products of Lucas Companies, into the present day. However, Lucas did not use the "King of the Road" epithet for every lamp manufactured, they used this name on only their most prestigious and highest priced lamps and goods. This naming format would last until the 1920s when the "King of the Road" wording was pressed into the outer edge of the small "lion and torch" button motifs that decorated the tops of both bicycle and motor-car lamps; the public were encouraged by Lucas to refer to every Lucas lamp as a "King of the Road", but speaking, this is quite wrong, as most lamps throughout the 20th century possessed either a name, a number, or both.
Joseph and Harry Lucas formed a joint stock corporation with the New Departure Bell Co. of America in 1896, so that Lucas designed bicycle lamps could be manufactured in America to avoid import duties. The King of the Road name returned in 2013 as Lucas Electrical reintroduced a range of bicycle lighting to the UK
British Racing and Sports Car Club
The British Racing and Sports Car Club is one of the major organisers of motorsport events in the United Kingdom. The club runs around forty track racing championships for cars as diverse as Porsche, Caterham, BMW and Mazda. Formed in Bristol in August 1946 as the 500 Club, the organisation changed its name to the BRSCC in 1954 and now has its headquarters in Borough Green, Kent; the 500 Club, as it was known, was founded in 1946. The club promoted racing in 500 c.c. single-seater racing cars known as Formula Three. Motor Sport reported in 1947: "The 500 Club's Patron is Earl Howe, its President S. C. H. Davis, its Vice-Presidents Messrs. Findon and Pomeroy-which speaks for itself. A stall will be occupied by the Club at the next Shelsley Walsh hill-climb, its magazine "Iota" will be on sale there." The name was subsequently changed to The Half Litre Club on becoming a limited liability Company. In 1954 Motor Sport reported: "The Half-Litre C. C. is contemplating changing its name to the British Racing and Sports-Car Club, in view of changed activities."
In 1966 the BRSCC staged 19 -- 29 January, at Olympia West Hall, London. By this time the club magazine was called Motor Racing. ALACO Motorsport Logistics Caterham Seven 270R Championship Avon Tyres Caterham Seven 420R Championship Avon Tyres National Formula Ford Championship Avon Tyres Northern Formula Ford Championship British GT Championship BRSCC Alfa Romeo Championship BRSCC Fiesta Championship racing with MRF Tyres BRSCC Fiesta Junior Championship racing with MRF Tyres 2018 BRSCC Formula Ford Festival BRSCC Mazda MX-5 Championship BRSCC Mazda MX-5 Super Series BRSCC Mazda MX-5 SuperCup CarThrottle Caterham Academy Championship Cox Motor Parts Civic Cup Draper Tools Caterham Roadsport Championship Dunlop TVR Challenge Ford F4 British Championship Fun Cup Championship Kerax Hyperdrive ST-XR Challenge Milltek Sport Volkswagen Racing Cup Nankang Tyres BMW Compact Cup Santander Caterham Seven 310R Championship Speed Group OSS Championship TCR UK Touring Car Championship Teekay Couplings Production GTi Championship Toyo Tires Porsche Championship 2018 TCR UK Touring Car Championship British Automobile Racing Club British Racing Drivers' Club Motorsport in the United Kingdom BRSCC website
Alain de Cadenet
Alain de Cadenet is a television presenter for the Speed Channel and ESPN. Alain's main career was in Endurance racing along with Formula One, he has hosted numerous shows on Speed, including Legends of Motorsport, as well as the network's coverage of the Goodwood Festival of Speed. He hosted Victory By Design, in which he drove vintage racing cars and talked about their history. De Cadenet hosts the Velocity Channel show Renaissance Man, a history programme whose coverage includes cars, the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine and racing at Monaco. De Cadenet is the son of Maxime de Cadenet, a lieutenant in the French Air Force, his wife Valerie, he was educated at Framlingham College. He made his reputation building and driving his own sports prototypes, taking on works teams and beating them. In 1976 he finished 3rd overall at the Le Mans. In 1980, with co-driver Desiré Wilson, he won two rounds of the World Sportscar Championship —the Monza 1000 kilometers and Silverstone 6 hour events; this was a major achievement in an era of increasing professionalism, when it was difficult for privateers to defeat larger, better-funded teams that had factory support.
De Cadenet races classic and vintage cars, having owned and raced numerous examples Alfa Romeos. In addition to cars, he collects motorcycles and aircraft, owns a Supermarine Spitfire. A video on the Internet shows a clip from a documentary in which a Spitfire flies low over his head, he was a collector and authority on George V stamps, advised the Royal Mail on their collection. Divorced from Anna de Cadenet, with whom he has two children and Amanda, he is now married to Alison de Cadenet and has a younger son Aidan. Profile on Historic Racing
Graham Walker (motorcyclist)
Graham William Walker was an English motorcycle racer and journalist. He contributed to the motorcycle section of the National Motor Museum. Graham Walker was born in Wallington and was the son of William Walker, a shipping company clerk, Jessie née Goodman, he had two sisters and two brothers one of whom was Eric Anderson Walker, he was educated at Highgate School from 1910-1912 and had five siblings - three brothers and two sisters. Walker married Elsie Norah Fyfield née Spratt and together they had one son, Graeme Murray Walker who went on to have a long career as a motorsport commentator. Walker was a motorcycle despatch rider in the First World War for the Royal Engineers Signal Service, where he received a leg injury requiring him to ride a motorcycle with a modified brake pedal. Despite this he had a successful racing career with Rudge and Norton. Riding a 493cc Sunbeam he was a member of the victorious British International Trophy Team at the ISDT held in Buxton 1926 and Ambleside 1927 saw success on the Silver Vase team in 1928 at Harrogate and 1932 Merano in Italy.
Road successes included winning the Ulster Grand Prix on a Rudge Ulster in 1928, the first road race win with an average of 80 mph. Walker won the 350cc class at the 1931 North West 200, again on a Rudge, he rode many times in the Isle of Man TT, winning the lightweight class in 1931, became president of the TT Riders Association. During World War II, Walker took part in a campaign to recruit new dispatch riders. In 1935, after his motorcycle racing career had finished, Walker was employed by the BBC as a commentator for motorcycle racing events on television and radio. In 1949, Walker was partnered on the BBC's motorcycle commentaries with Murray, he was editor of Motor Cycling magazine from 1938 to 1954 and he took up a directorship at the Montagu Motor Museum, of which his enthusiasm for preserving historic motorcycles led to the museum having opened a motorcycle section in 1956. Murray Walker. Unless I'm Very Much Mistaken. ISBN 0-00-712696-4. Motor Cycling magazine site TT results and photos
BMW AG is a German multinational company which produces automobiles and motorcycles, produced aircraft engines until 1945. The company is headquartered in Munich, Bavaria. BMW produces motor vehicles in Germany, China, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States. In 2015, BMW was the world's twelfth largest producer of motor vehicles, with 2,279,503 vehicles produced; the Quandt family are long-term shareholders of the company, with the remaining shares owned by public float. Automobiles are marketed under the brands Mini and Rolls-Royce. Motorcycles are marketed under the brand BMW Motorrad; the company has significant motorsport history in touring cars, Formula 1, sports cars and the Isle of Man TT. BMW's origins can be traced back to three separate German companies: Rapp Motorenwerke, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, Automobilwerk Eisenach; the history of the name itself begins with an aircraft engine manufacturer. In April 1917, following the departure of the founder Karl Friedrich Rapp, the company was renamed Bayerische Motoren Werke.
BMW's first product was the BMW IIIa aircraft engine. The IIIa engine was known for high-altitude performance; the resulting orders for IIIa engines from the German military caused rapid expansion for BMW. After the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. To remain in business, BMW produced farm household items and railway brakes. In 1922, former major shareholder Camillo Castiglioni purchased the rights to the name BMW, which led to the company descended from Rapp Motorenwerke being renamed Süddeutsche Bremse AG. Castiglioni was an investor in another aircraft company, called "Bayerische Flugzeugwerke", which he renamed BMW; the disused factory of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke was re-opened to produce engines for buses, farm equipment and pumps, under the brand name BMW. BMW's corporate history considers the founding date of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke to be the birth of the company; as the restrictions of the Armistice Treaty began to be lifted, BMW began production of motorcycles in 1923, with the R32 model.
BMW's production of automobiles began in 1928, when the company purchased the Automobilwerk Eisenach car company. Automobilwerk Eisenach's current model was the Dixi 3/15, a licensed copy of the Austin 7 which had begun production in 1927. Following the takeover, the Dixi 3/15 became BMW's first production car. In 1932, the BMW 3/20 became the first BMW automobile designed by BMW, it was powered by a four-cylinder engine. BMW's first automotive straight-six engine was released in 1933, in the BMW 303. Throughout the 1930s, BMW expanded its model range to include sedans, coupes and sports cars. With German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe; the factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour: foreign civilians, prisoners of war and inmates of the Dachau concentration camp. Among its successful World War II engine designs were the BMW 132 and BMW 801 air-cooled radial engines, the pioneering BMW 003 axial-flow turbojet, which powered the tiny, 1944–1945–era jet-powered “emergency fighter”, the Heinkel He 162 Spatz.
The BMW 003 jet engine was first tested as a prime power plant in the first prototype of the Messerschmitt Me 262, the Me 262 V1, but in 1942 tests the BMW prototype engines failed on takeoff with only the standby Junkers Jumo 210 nose-mounted piston engine powering it to a safe landing. The few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h; the first-ever four-engine jet aircraft flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber, which used BMW 003 jets for power. Through 1944 the 003's reliability improved, making it a suitable power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramm’s light fighter production contract. Which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design; the BMW 003 aviation turbojet was under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT 101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built.
During World War II, many BMW production facilities had been bombed. BMW's facilities in East Germany were seized by the Soviet Union and the remaining facilities were banned by the Allies from producing motorcycles or automobiles. During this ban, BMW used basic secondhand and salvaged equipment to make pots and pans expanding to other kitchen supplies and bicycles. In 1947, BMW was granted permission to resume motorcycle production and its first post-war motorcycle - the R24 - was released in 1948. BMW was still barred from producing automobiles, the Bristol Aeroplane Company was producing cars in England based on BMW's pre-war models, using plans that BAC had taken from BMW's German offices. Production of automobiles resumed with the BMW 501 large sedan. Throughout the 1950s, BMW expanded their model range with sedans, coupes and sports cars. In 1954, the BMW 502 was BMW's first to use a V8 engine. To provide an affordable model, BMW began production of the Isetta